Lisch nodule

A Lisch nodule is a pigmented hamartomatous nevus (a type of benign tumor) affecting the iris,Cite book | author=Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Fausto, Nelso; Robbins, Stanley L.; Abbas, Abul K.; Cotran, Ramzi S. | title=Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease | date=2005 | edition=7th| publisher=Elsevier Saunders | location=Philadelphia, Pa. | isbn=0-7216-0187-1 | pages=169] named after Austrian ophthalmologist Karl Lisch (1907-1999), who first recognized them in 1937.citation | author = Lukacs, Andreas; Junk, Anna K.; Fritz, Stefani H.; Kampik, Anselm; Georg, Schirren Carl; Plewig, Gerd | year = 1997 | title = Lisch nodules. Markers of neurofibromatosis 1 and immunohistochemical references for neuroectodermal differentiation | journal = Hautarzt | volume = 48 | issue = 1 | pages = 38–41 | doi = 10.1007/s001050050544 | url = http://www.springerlink.com/content/gl49atrh5lff517r/?p=76057c4c0e29493ca59de8093e27009e | pmid = 9132386]

These nodules are found in neurofibromatosis type 1, and are present in greater than 94% of patients over the age of six. They are clear, yellow-brown,citation | author = Richetta, A.; Giustini, A.; Recupero, S. M.; Pezza, M.; Carlomagno, C.; Amoruso, G.; Calvieri, S. | year = 2004 | title = Lisch nodules of the iris in neurofibromatosis type 1 | journal = Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venerology | volume = 18 | issue = 3 | pages = 342–4 | doi = 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.00915.x | url = http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118788235/PDFSTART | pmid = 15096151] oval to round, dome-shaped papules that project from the surface of the iris. These nodules typically do not affect vision, but are very useful in diagnosis. They are detected by slit lamp examination. Immunohistochemistry stains positive against vimentin and S-100, and points to an ectodermal origin. Their precise origin and structure, however, is still under debate.

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