Escapology is the practice of escaping from restraints or other traps. Escapologists (also called escape artists) escape from handcuffs, straitjackets, cages, coffins, steel boxes, barrels, bags, burning buildings, fish-tanks and other perils, often in combination.

Some escapologists' tricks are accomplished by illusionists' techniques; others are genuine acts of flexibility, strength and daring.

History of escapology

The art of escaping from restraints and confined spaces has been a skill employed by magicians for a very long time. It was not originally displayed as an overt act in itself but was instead used secretly to create other illusion effects such as disappearance or transmutation.citation
last = Dawes
first = Edwin A
title = The Great Illusionists
publisher = Chartwell Books (New Jersey)
date = 1979
page = 193
ISBN = 0-89009-240-0
] In the 1860s, the Davenport Brothers, who were skilled at releasing themselves from rope ties, used the art to convey the impression they were restrained while they created spirit phenomena. [Dawes, 'The Great Illusionists', p.157.]

Other illusionists, including John Nevil Maskelyne, worked out how the Davenports did their act and re-created the tricks to debunk the brothers' claims of psychic power. However the re-creations did not involve overt escape, merely a replication of tricks with the statement that they were accomplished by secret magicians' skills rather than spirits. It took another thirty years before the pure skill of escape began to be displayed as an act in itself. The figure most responsible for making escapology a recognised entertainment was Harry Houdini, who built his career on demonstrating the ability to escape from a huge variety of restraints and difficult situations. [Dawes, 'The Great Illusionists', p.193.]

Houdini made no secret of the fact that he was an expert on restraints and the skills needed to overcome them but he often concealed the exact details of his escapes to maintain an air of mystery and suspense. Although many of his escapes relied on technical skills such as lock-picking and contortion, he also performed tricks such as Metamorphosis and the Chinese Water Torture Cell, which are essentially classic stage illusions reliant on cleverly designed props. Houdini's feats helped to define the basic repertoire of escapology, including escapes from handcuffs, padlocks, straitjackets, and prison cells.

The actual term, 'escapology,' is reputed to have been coined originally by Australian escapologist and illusionist, Murray (Norman Murray Walters), a Houdini contemporary.

A succession of performers have added new ideas and created variations on old stunts, but it is common for even the best contemporary escapologists to be dubbed modern day "houdinis".

Escapology in fiction

"The Grim Game", a 1919 film, stars Harry Houdini as a young man who is bound and imprisoned on numerous occasions by a gang who have kidnapped his fiancée.

The novel "The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay", by Michael Chabon (winner of the 2001 Pulitzer Prize), features escapology as an important plot point.

"Ragtime", by E.L. Doctorow, features Harry Houdini as a major character, and uses escapology as a metaphor for the struggles faced by the American immigrant.

In American superhero comic books, many superheroes like Batman are trained in escapology which is invaluable when dealing with deathtraps. However, superheroes who are escape artists by profession include Mister Miracle, Ms. Liberty and The Escapist. Houdini himself appeared as a time/space traveler in the comic book series, "Daring Escapes featuring Houdini".

The 1953 biographical film, Houdini, starring Tony Curtis in the title role, depicted many of Houdini's escapology performances.

In 1972, Christopher George played an escape artist named Cammeron Steele in the TV movie/unsold series pilot, "Escape". Steele was a non-performing escapologist and night-club owner who, like Bill Bixby's Anthony Blake ("The Magician") habitually helped people in trouble.

In 1982, Griffin O'Neal played a junior escapologist named "Danny Masters" in the film, "The Escape Artist".

In 1983, real-life escape artist Bill Shirk played himself in a film called "The Escapist".

Yorick, the main character of the comic book "" is an escape artist.

In the 1991 film, "The Linguini Incident", Rosanna Arquette plays an aspiring escape artist.

The novel "Specific Gravity" by J. Matthew Neal (2007) features a female scientist who is also a master escape artist.

Adam Phillips' essay "Houdini's Box" uses Houdini himself, as well as a young victim of sexual abuse and other examples to discuss escapology.

The console video game Exit focuses around the exploits of self-proclaimed escapologist Mr. ESC (Which is a joke on the computer's escape or ESC key)

List of escapologists

*Criss Angel
* Alan Alan
* Curtis Lovell II []
* Anthony Martin
* Bill Shirk
* Mark Cannon
* Arthur Coghlan
* David Copperfield
* Matt the Knife
* Steve Legg
* Clyde Mighells
* Tim Ellis
* David Merlini
* David Straitjacket
* Dorothy Dietrich
* Frank 'Pop' Reno
* Harry Houdini
* Dean Gunnarson
* James Randi
* Jari Tapanainen
* John Novak
* Jonathan Goodwin
* Kristen Johnson
* Lance Burton
* Leo Irby
* Cynthia Morrison
* Mario Manzini
* Michael Griffin
* Murray (Norman Murray Walters)
* Norman Bigelow
* Penn and Teller
* Prynce Wheeler
* Scott Interrante
* Stephen Mollett
* Theo 'Dash' Hardeen
* Thomas Solomon
* Major Zamora
* Morgan the Escapist
* Wayne Houchin

ee also

* List of magicians
* Illusionist
* Stunt performerDavid Blane


External links

* [ Escapology — the magic art of escape]
* [ Busker Central] - Rare and historic videos of Escapologists.
* [ Magic Shop] - Escapology by Dooley.

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