Selichot (Hebrew: סליחות) are Jewish penitential poems and prayers, especially those said in the period leading up to the
High Holidays, and on Fast Days. The Thirteen Attributes of God are a central theme throughout the prayers.
elichot of the High Holidays
In the Sephardic tradition, Selichot begins during the series of Selichot services of the High Holidays on the second day of the Hebrew month of Elul. In the Ashkenazic tradition, it begins on the Saturday night before Rosh Hashanah. (However, if Rosh Hashanah falls on Monday/Tuesday or Tuesday/Wednesday, Selichot are said beginning the Saturday night prior to ensure that there are at least four nights of Selichot).
Selichot refers to both the service itself as well as to each of the poetic "
piyyutim" that compose the service. Sephardic Selichot services are identical each day. In the Ashkenazic tradition, different texts are recited on the different days. Though the length varies from day to day, the format remains constant. The service begins with the recitation of Psalms145, followed by the Half- Kaddish.
Selichot are usually recited between midnight and dawn. Some recite it at night after the Maariv service or in the morning before the Shacharit service due to the convenience of synagogue attendance at these times.
Arguably the most important and certainly most popular night of Selichot in the Ashkenazi tradition is the first night, when women and girls as well as men and boys attend the late-night service on Saturday night. The
hazzanwears a kitteland sings elaborate melodies. In Conservative congregations, it is not unusual for a choir to participate in this first night's service. This night also has more Selichot than any other night prior to Rosh Hashanah eve. The other nights are more sparsely attended and those services are often led by a layperson, rather than a trained musician.
Categories of Selichot
Categories of Selichot in the Ashkenazic tradition may include:
*Selicha (סליחה) — Hebrew for "forgiveness." This is the default selicha and comprises the vast majority of the Selichot service.
*Pizmon (פזמון) — Hebrew for "chorus." These central selichot contain a chorus which is repeated after each stanza.
*Akeidah (עקידה) — Hebrew for "binding", a word which specifically refers to the
Binding of Isaac. This selichah contains the theme of the "Akeidah" as a merit for God answering our prayers. It begins to appear on Rosh Hashanah eve and is placed immediately before the Pizmon.
*Chatanu (חטאנו) — Hebrew for "we have sinned." Starting on the evening before Rosh Hashanah and continuing through Yom Kippur, this selicha is said after the final recitation of the Thirteen Attributes and before the "
Vidui" confessional. It contains as its refrain, "חטאנו צורנו סלח לנו יוצרנו", "We have sinned, our Rock, forgive us, our Creator". Perhaps the most famous Chatanu Selicha is the Eleh Ezkera Martyrology recited during Musafon Yom Kippur, though the recitation of the aforementioned refrain is not always followed in this particular Chatanu.
*Tachinah (תחינה) — Hebrew for "petition." This selicha begins to appear on the eve of Rosh Hashanah in the Tachanun section, at the very end of the Selichot service.
elichot of Fast Days
On minor fast days (besides the
Fast of Gedaliah, whose Selichot is preempted by the Selichot of the High Holidays), some communities recite Selichot at the conclusion of the Shacharit Amidah. Each contain poetry related to the specific fast day.
Western Ashkenazic communities insert the recitation of the Selichot of minor fast days in the middle of the blessing for forgiveness (סלח לנו כי חטאנו) in the repetition of the Shacharit Amidah.
Selichot are not recited on the major fast day of
Tisha B'Av. Neither are the penitential prayers of " Tachanun" and " Avinu Malkeinu", due to the complete mourning on that day as well as the tradition that the gates of prayer are closed for the duration of the day [Simmons, Rabbi Shraga. [http://www.aish.com/jewishissues/jerusalem/Tears_on_Tisha_BAv.asp Tears on Tisha B'Av] . Aish.com. August 6, 2000. Accessed July 26, 2007.] .
* [http://www.chabad.org/article.asp?AID=316648 Selichot (Supplication) Prayers in PDF format] (Hebrew) According to the customs of Chabad
* [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Selichot.html Jewish Virtual Library article on Selichot]
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Look at other dictionaries:
selichot — se·li·chot … English syllables
selichot — noun plural see selihoth … Useful english dictionary
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