An extrinsic semiconductor is a
semiconductorthat has been "doped", that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor. Doping involves adding dopant atoms to an intrinsic semiconductor, which changes the electronand hole carrier concentrations of the semiconductor at thermal equilibrium. Dominant carrier concentrations in an extrinsic semiconductor classify it as either an n-type or p-typesemiconductor. The electrical properties of extrinsic semiconductors make them essential components of many electronic devices.
Semiconductor doping is the process that changes an intrinsic semiconductor to an extrinsic semiconductor. During doping, impurity atoms are introduced to an intrinsic semiconductor. Impurity atoms are atoms of a different element than the atoms of the intrinsic semiconductor. Impurity atoms act as either donors or acceptors to the intrinsic semiconductor, changing the electron and hole concentrations of the semiconductor. Impurity atoms are classified as donor or acceptor atoms based on the effect they have on the intrinsic semiconductor. Donor impurity atoms have more valence electrons than the atoms they replace in the intrinsic semiconductor lattice. Donor impurities "donate" their extra valence electrons to a semiconductor's conduction band, providing excess electrons to the intrinsic semiconductor. Excess electrons increase the electron carrier concentration (n0) of the semiconductor, making it n-type.
Acceptor impurity atoms have less valence electrons than the atoms they replace in the intrinsic semiconductor. They "accept" electrons from the semiconductor's valence band. This provides excess holes to the intrinsic semiconductor. Excess holes increase the hole carrier concentration (p0) of the semiconductor, creating a p-type semiconductor.
Semiconductors and dopant atoms are defined by the column of the
periodic table of elementsthey fall in. The column definition of the semiconductor determines how many valence electrons its atoms have and whether dopant atoms act as the semiconductor's donors or acceptors. Group IV semiconductors use group V atoms as donors and group III atoms as acceptors.
Group III-V semiconductors use group VI atoms as donors and group II atoms as acceptors. Group III-V semiconductors can also use group IV atoms as either donors or acceptors. When a group IV atom replaces the group III element in the semiconductor lattice, the group IV atom acts as a donor. Conversely, when a group IV atom replaces the group V element, the group IV atom acts as an acceptor. Group IV atoms can act as both donors and acceptors; therefore, they are known as amphoteric impurities.
The two types of extrinsic semiconductor
s have a larger hole concentration than electron concentration. The phrase 'p-type' refers to the positive charge of the hole. In p-type semiconductors, holes are the majority carriers and electrons are the minority carriers. P-type semiconductors are created by doping an intrinsic semiconductor with acceptor impurities. P-type semiconductors have Fermi energy levels below the intrinsic Fermi energy level. The Fermi energy level lies closer to the valence band than the conduction band in a p-type semiconductor.
Utilization of extrinsic semiconductors
Extrinsic semiconductors are components of many common electrical devices. A semiconductor
diode(devices that allow current flow in only one direction) consists of p-type and n-type semiconductors placed in junction with one another. Currently, most semiconductor diodes use doped silicon or germanium. Transistors(devices that enable current switching) also make use of extrinsic semiconductors. Bipolar junction transistors(BJT) are one type of transistor. The most common BJTs are NPN and PNP type. NPN transistors have two layers of n-type semiconductors sandwiching a p-type semiconductor. PNP transistors have two layers of p-type semiconductors sandwiching an n-type semiconductor.
Field-effect transistors (FET) are another type of transistor implementing extrinsic semiconductors. As opposed to BJTs, they are unipolar and considered either N-channel or P-channel. FETs are broken into two families, junction gate FET (JFET) and insulated gate FET (IGFET).
Other devices implementing the extrinsic semiconductor:
*cite book | author=Neamen, Donald A.| title=Semiconductor Physics and Devices: Basic Principles (3rd ed.) | publisher=McGraw-Hill Higher Education | year=2003 | id=ISBN 0-07-232107-5
* [http://science.howstuffworks.com/diode.htm Howstuffworks: How Semiconductors Work]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Extrinsic Semiconductor — [engl.], Extrinsic Halbleiter … Universal-Lexikon
extrinsic semiconductor — priemaišinis puslaidininkis statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. extrinsic semiconductor; impurity semiconductor vok. Extrinsic Halbleiter, m; Störstellenhalbleiter, m rus. примесный полупроводник, m pranc. semi conducteur à impuretés … Automatikos terminų žodynas
extrinsic semiconductor — priemaišinis puslaidininkis statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Priemaišų turintis puslaidininkis. atitikmenys: angl. extrinsic semiconductor; impure semiconductor; impurity semiconductor rus. примесной полупроводник … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
extrinsic semiconductor — priemaišinis puslaidininkis statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. extrinsic semiconductor; impure semiconductor; impurity semiconductor vok. Störhalbleiter, m; Störstellenhalbleiter, m; Störstellenleitungshalbleiter, m rus. примесной… … Fizikos terminų žodynas
extrinsic semiconductor — /ɛksˌtrɪnzɪk sɛmikənˈdʌktə/ (say eks.trinzik semeekuhn duktuh) noun a semiconductor in which the carrier density results mainly from the presence of impurities or other imperfections, as opposed to an intrinsic semiconductor in which the material … Australian English dictionary
extrinsic semiconductor property — priemaišinio puslaidininkio savybė statusas T sritis radioelektronika atitikmenys: angl. extrinsic semiconductor property vok. durch Störstellenleitung bedingte Eigenschaft, f rus. свойство примесного полупроводника, n pranc. propriété de semi… … Radioelektronikos terminų žodynas
Extrinsic-Halbleiter — priemaišinis puslaidininkis statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. extrinsic semiconductor; impurity semiconductor vok. Extrinsic Halbleiter, m; Störstellenhalbleiter, m rus. примесный полупроводник, m pranc. semi conducteur à impuretés … Automatikos terminų žodynas
semiconductor — /sem ee keuhn duk teuhr, sem uy /, n. 1. a substance, as silicon or germanium, with electrical conductivity intermediate between that of an insulator and a conductor: a basic component of various kinds of electronic circuit element (semiconductor … Universalium
Semiconductor — Citations missing|date=March 2008A semiconductor is a solid material that has electrical conductivity in between a conductor and an insulator; it can vary over that wide range either permanently or dynamically. [. They are used in many… … Wikipedia
N-type semiconductor — N type semiconductors are a type of extrinsic semiconductor where the dopant atoms are capable of providing extra conduction electrons to the host material (e.g. phosphorus in silicon). This creates an excess of negative (n type) electron charge… … Wikipedia