TGF beta 3

name=transforming growth factor, beta 3


Transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β3) is a type of protein, known as a cytokine, which is involved in cell differentiation, embryogenesis and development. It belongs to a large family of cytokines called the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily, which includes the TGF-β family, Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), inhibins and activins.cite journal |author=Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P |title=Transforming growth factor-beta-related proteins: an ancestral and widespread superfamily of cytokines in metazoans |journal=Dev Comp Immunol |volume=28 |issue=5 |pages=461–85 |year=2004 |pmid=15062644 |doi=10.1016/j.dci.2003.09.007]

TGF-β3 is believed to regulate molecules involved in cellular adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation during the process of palate development. Without TGF-β3, mammals develop a deformity known as a cleft palate. [cite journal |author=Taya Y, O'Kane S, Ferguson M |title=Pathogenesis of cleft palate in TGF-beta3 knockout mice |journal=Development |volume=126 |issue=17 |pages=3869–79 |year=1999 |pmid=10433915] [cite journal |author=Dudas M, Nagy A, Laping N, Moustakas A, Kaartinen V |title=Tgf-beta3-induced palatal fusion is mediated by Alk-5/Smad pathway |journal=Dev Biol |volume=266 |issue=1 |pages=96–108 |year=2004 |pmid=14729481 |doi=10.1016/j.ydbio.2003.10.007] This is caused by failure of epithelial cells in both sides of the developing palate to fuse. TGF-β3 also plays an essential role in controlling the development of lungs in mammals, by also regulating cell adhesion and ECM formation in this tissue, [cite journal |author=Kaartinen V, Voncken J, Shuler C, Warburton D, Bu D, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J |title=Abnormal lung development and cleft palate in mice lacking TGF-beta 3 indicates defects of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction |journal=Nat Genet |volume=11 |issue=4 |pages=415–21 |year=1995 |pmid=7493022 |doi=10.1038/ng1295-415] and controls wound healing by regulating the movements of epidermal and dermal cells in injured skin. [cite journal |author=Bandyopadhyay B, Fan J, Guan S, Li Y, Chen M, Woodley DT, Li W |title=A "traffic control" role for TGFbeta3: orchestrating dermal and epidermal cell motility during wound healing|journal=J Cell Biol. |volume=172 |issue=7 |pages=1093–105 |year=2006 |pmid=16549496 |doi=10.1083/jcb.200507111]


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