name = Detroit
official_name = The City of Detroit
settlement_type = City
nickname = The Motor City, Motown, Hockeytown, Rock City, The D
motto = "Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus"
Latinfor, "We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes")
mapsize = 250x200px
map_caption = Location in Wayne County,
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name = United States
subdivision_name2 = Wayne
established_title = Founded
established_date = 1701
established_title2 = Incorporation
established_date2 = 1806
government_type = Strong Mayor-Council
leader_title = Interim Mayor*
leader_name = Kenneth Cockrel Jr.
leader_title1 = City Council
leader_name1 = Collapsible list
title = Members' List
frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;
list_style = text-align:left;display:none;
1 = nowrap|•Monica Conyers - Council President
area_magnitude = 1 E8
area_total_sq_mi = 143.0
area_total_km2 = 370.2
area_land_sq_mi = 138.8
area_land_km2 = 359.4
area_water_sq_mi = 4.2
area_water_km2 = 10.8
area_urban_sq_mi = 1295
area_urban_km2 = 3354
area_metro_km2 = 10135
area_metro_sq_mi = 3913
population_as_of = 2007
population_footnotes = cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/SUB-EST2007.html|title=Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2006 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006|publisher=U.S. Census Bureau|accessdate=2007-06-28]
population_total = 916952
population_urban = 3903377
population_metro = 5405918
population_density_sq_mi = 6856
population_density_km2 = 2647
timezone = EST
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = EDT
utc_offset_DST = -4
area_code = 313
latd = 42 |latm = 19 |lats = 53.76 |latNS = N
longd = 83 |longm = 2 |longs = 51 |longEW = W
elevation_footnotes = cite web |url=Gnis3|1617959 |title=USGS detail on Detroit |accessdate=2007-02-18 ]
elevation_ft = 600
elevation_m = 183
website = [http://www.detroitmi.gov/ detroitmi.gov]
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 26-22000GR|2
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 1617959GR|3
footnotes = *
Kwame Kilpatrick's resignation of office was effective at the end of the day September 18th, 2008. At which time, City Council president Kenneth Cockrel, Jr.assumed the role of mayor.
Detroit (pronEng|dɪˈtrɔɪt) ( _fr. Détroit, meaning "
strait" [see List of U.S. place names of French origin] , Audio-IPA|Detroit.ogg| [detʁwa] ) is the largest city in the U.S. stateof Michiganand the seat of Wayne County. Detroit is a major port city on the Detroit River, in the Midwest region of the United States. Located north of Windsor, Ontario, Detroit is the only major [Of cities over 100,000 in population. A few smaller cities like Niagara Falls, New York also are north of Canada.] U.S. city that looks south to Canada. It was founded in 1701 by the Frenchman Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac.
It is known as the world's traditional automotive center — "Detroit" is a
metonymfor the American automobile industry — and an important source of popular music, legacies celebrated by the city's two familiar nicknames, "The Motor City" and " Motown".cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-204598|title=Michigan Cities|work=Encyclopedia Britannica Online|accessmonthday= April 8| accessyear=2007|quote= [Detroit] is the automobile capital of the world] [cite web|url=http://www.sae.org/congress/|title=SAE World Congress convenes in Detroit|accessmonthday=April 12|accessyear=2007] Other nicknames emerged in the twentieth century, including "Rock City", " Arsenal of Democracy" (during World War II),Cite book|author=Davis, Michael W. R. |title=Detroit's Wartime Industry: Arsenal of Democracy (Images of America)|year=2007|publisher=Arcadia Publishing|id=ISBN 0738551643] "The D", "D-Town", "Hockeytown", and "The 3-1-3" (its telephone area code). [Commemorated in the 2002 movie "8 Mile".]
In 2007, Detroit ranked as the United States' eleventh most populous city, with 916,952 residents.cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-01.csv|accessdate=2008-07-18|title=Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2007 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007|publisher=US Census Bureau] At its peak, the city was the fourth largest in the country, but since 1950 the city has seen a major shift in its population to the suburbs.
The name "Detroit" sometimes refers to the
Metro Detroitarea, a sprawling region with a population of 4,467,592cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/CBSA-est2007-annual.html|title=Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007|publisher=US Census Bureau|accessmonthday=September 9|accessyear=2008] for the Metropolitan Statistical Area, making it the nation's eleventh-largest, and a population of 5,405,918cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/CBSA-est2007-annual.html|title=Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007|publisher=US Census Bureau|accessdate=2008-04-07] for the nine-county Combined Statistical Areaas of the 2007 Census Bureau estimates. The Detroit-Windsorarea, a critical commercial link straddling the Canada-U.S. border, has a total population of about 5,700,000. [ [http://www.citypopulation.de/World.html World Agglomerations] Retrieved on September 3, 2007.]
The city name comes from the
Detroit River( _fr. l'étroit du Lac Erie), meaning "the strait of Lake Erie," linking Lake Huronand Lake Erie; in the historical context, the strait included Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair River.cite web
url = http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/french/exhibits/franco_ontarian/big/big_36_map_detroit_river.htm
title = La rivière du Détroit depuis le lac Érié, 1764
accessmonthday = October 2
accessyear = 2006
language =] Traveling up the Detroit River on the ship "
Le Griffon" (owned by La Salle), Father Louis Hennepinnoted the north bank of the river as an ideal location for a settlement. There, in 1701, the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with 51 additional French-Canadians, founded a settlement called Fort Ponchartrain du "Détroit", naming it after the comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to attract families to Detroit, which grew to 800 people in 1765, the largest city between Montreal and New Orleans. [French Ontario in the 17th and 18th Centuries - Detroit, http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/ENGLISH/exhibits/franco_ontarian/detroit.htm, Archives of Ontario, July 14, 2008, accessed July 23, 2008] Francois Marie Picoté, sieur de Belestre (Montreal 1719–1793) was the last French military commander at Fort Detroit (1758–1760), surrendering the fort on November 29, 1760 to the British. Detroit's city flag reflects this French heritage. (See Flag of Detroit, Michigan.)
During the French and Indian War (1760), British troops gained control and shortened the name to "Detroit". Several tribes led by
Chief Pontiac, an Ottawa leader, launched Pontiac's Rebellion(1763), including a siege of Fort Detroit. Partially in response to this, the British Royal Proclamation of 1763included restrictions on white settlement in unceded Indian territories. Detroit passed to the United States under the Jay Treaty(1796). In 1805, fire destroyed most of the settlement. A river warehouse and brick chimneys of the wooden homes were the sole structures to survive. [ [http://www.ste-anne.org/dempsey.html Ste. Anne of Detroit] "St. Anne Church". Retrieved on April 29, 2006.]
From 1805 to 1847, Detroit was the capital of Michigan. As the city expanded, the street layout plan developed by
Augustus B. Woodward, Chief Justice of the Michigan Territorywas followed. Detroit fell to British troops during the War of 1812in the Siege of Detroit, was recaptured by the United States in 1813 and incorporated as a city in 1815.
Prior to the
American Civil War, the city's access to the Canadian border made it a key stop along the underground railroad. [Blockson, Charles and Chase, Henry (April 2005). [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1546/is_n2_v10/ai_16883766 Detroit - Follow the North Star, The Guiding Light of the Underground Railroad] . "American Visions."] Then a Lieutenant, the future president Ulysses S. Grantwas stationed in the city. His dwelling is still at the Michigan State Fairgrounds. Because of this local sentiment, many Detroiters volunteered to fight during the American Civil War, beginning with the "Iron Brigade" which defended Washington, D.C. early in the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln is quoted as saying "Thank God for Michigan!" Following the death of President Abraham Lincoln, George Armstrong Custerdelivered a eulogy to the thousands gathered near Campus Martius Park. Custer led the Michigan Brigadeduring the American Civil War and called them the "Wolverines". [Rosentreter, Roger (July/August 1998). "Come on you Wolverines, Michigan at Gettysburg." " Michigan History magazine".]
During the late 1800s and early 1900s, many of the city's
Gilded Agemansions and buildings arose. Detroit was referred to as the "Paris of the West" for its architecture, and for Washington Boulevard, recently electrified by Thomas Edison.Woodford, Arthur M. (2001). "This is Detroit: 1701–2001". Wayne State University Press] Strategically located along the Great Lakeswaterway, Detroit emerged as a transportation hub. The city had grown steadily from the 1830s with the rise of shipping, shipbuilding, and manufacturing industries. In 1896, a thriving carriage trade prompted Henry Fordto build his first automobilein a rented workshop on Mack Avenue. In 1904 he founded the Ford Motor Company. Ford's manufacturing — and those of automotive pioneers William C. Durant, the Dodgebrothers, Packard, and Walter Chrysler—reinforced Detroit's status as the world's automotive capital; it also served to encourage truckmanufacturers such as Rapid and Grabowsky.
With the introduction of
Prohibition, smugglers used the river as a major conduit for Canadian spirits, organized in large part by the notorious Purple Gang. [Nolan, Jenny (June 15, 1999). [http://info.detnews.com/redesign/history/story/historytemplate.cfm?id=181 How Prohibition made Detroit a bootlegger's dream town] . Michigan History, "The Detroit News". Retrieved on November 23, 2007.] Strained racial relations were evident in the 1920s trial of Dr. Ossian Sweet, a black Detroit physician acquitted of murder. A man died when shots were fired from Ossian's house into a threatening mob of whites who gathered to try to force him out of an all-white neighborhood. [Zacharias, Patricia (February 12, 2001). [http://info.detnews.com/redesign/history/story/historytemplate.cfm?id=201 'I have to die a man or live a coward' -- the saga of Dr. Ossian Sweet] . Michigan History, "The Detroit News". Retrieved on November 23, 2007.]
Labor strife climaxed in the 1930s when the
United Auto Workersbecame involved in bitter disputes with Detroit's auto manufacturers. The labor activism of those years brought notoriety to union leaders such as Jimmy Hoffaand Walter Reuther. The 1940s saw the construction of the world's first urban depressed freeway, the Davison [ [http://www.michiganhighways.org/listings/MichHwys01-09.html#M-008 Michigan Highways] . "michiganhighways.org" Retrieved on April 30, 2006.] and the industrial growth during World War IIthat led to Detroit's nickname as the " Arsenal of Democracy".Nolan, Jenny (January 28, 1997). [http://info.detnews.com/redesign/history/story/historytemplate.cfm?id=73&category=locations Willow Run and the Arsenal of Democracy] . Michigan History, "The Detroit News". Retrieved on November 23, 2007.]
Industry spurred spectacular growth during the first half of the twentieth century as the city drew tens of thousands of new residents, particularly workers from the
Southern United States, to became the nation's fourth largest. At the same time, tens of thousands of European immigrants poured into the city. Social tensions rose with the rapid pace of growth. The "color blind" promotion policies of the auto plants resulted in racial tension that erupted into a full-scale riot in 1943. [Baulch, Vivian M. and Patricia Zacharias (February 11, 1999). [http://info.detnews.com/redesign/history/story/historytemplate.cfm?id=185 1943 Detroit race riots] . Michigan History, "The Detroit News" Retrieved on November 23, 2007.]
Consolidation during the 1950s, especially in the
automobilesector, increased competition for jobs. An extensive freeway system constructed in the 1950s and 1960s had facilitated commuting. The Twelfth Street riot in 1967, as well as court-ordered busing accelerated white flightfrom the city. Commensurate with the shift of population and jobs to its suburbs, the city's tax base eroded. In the years following, Detroit's population fell from a peak of roughly 1.8 million in 1950 to about half that number today.
The gasoline crises of 1973 and 1979 impacted the U.S. auto industry as small cars from foreign makers made inroads.
Heroinand crack cocaineuse afflicted the city with the influence of Butch Jones, Maserati Rick, and the Chambers Brothers. "Renaissance" has been a perennial buzzword among city leaders, reinforced by the construction of the Renaissance Centerin the late 1970s. This complex of skyscrapers, designed as a "city within a city," slowed but was unable to reverse the trend of businesses leaving the city's downtown until the 1990s.
In 1980, Detroit hosted the
Republican National Conventionwhich nominated Ronald Reaganto a successful bid for President of the United States. By then, nearly three decades of crime, drug addiction, and inadequate policies had caused areas like the Elmhurst block to decay. [ [http://www.detnews.com/specialreports/2001/elmhurst/wedlead2/wedlead2.htm Government stuggles with vacant buildings] ."Detroit News", June 20, 2001.] During the 1980s, abandoned structures were demolished to reduce havens for drug dealers with sizable tracts of land reverted to a form of urban prairie. [ [http://www.detroitblog.org/?p=287 Wild Kingdom] . "Detroit Blog". Retrieved on March 8, 2006.] [ [http://www.lostmag.com/issue2/detroit.php LOST Magazine - Disappeared Detroit] ]
In the 1990s, the city began to enjoy a revival, much of it centered downtown. Comerica Tower at Detroit Center (1993) arose on the city skyline. In the ensuing years, under new leadership, three casinos opened in Detroit:
MGM Grand Detroitand MotorCity Casino, which have now added permanent resorts and Greektown Casinowhich is scheduled to open its permanent resort at the end of 2009 . New downtown stadiums were constructed for the Detroit Tigersand Detroit Lionsin 2000 and 2002, respectively; this put the Lions' home stadium in the city proper for the first time since 1974. The city hosted the 2005 MLB All-Star Game, 2006 Super Bowl XL, 2006 World Seriesand WrestleMania 23in 2007, all which prompted many improvements to the downtown area.
The city's riverfront is the focus of much development; in 2007, the first portions of the
Detroit River Walkwere laid, including miles of parks and fountains. This new urban development in Detroitis a mainstay in the city's earnest desire to reinvent its economic identity through tourism. [Bailey, Ruby L.(August 22, 2007). The D is a draw: Most suburbanites are repeat visitors."Detroit Free Press". New Detroit Free Press-Local 4 poll conducted by Selzer and Co., finds, "nearly two-thirds of residents of suburban Wayne, Oakland, and Macomb counties say they at least occasionally dine, attend cultural events or take in professional games in Detroit."] Along the river, upscale million dollar condos are going up, such as Watermark Detroit, some of the most expensive the city has ever seen. Some city limit signs, particularly on the Dearborn border say "Welcome to Detroit, The Renaissance City Founded 1701."
After much legal wrangling, Mayor
Kwame Kilpatrickresigned effective September 19, 2008 [http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080904/UPDATE/809040464] , after being charged with eight felonies on March 24, 2008, and having reached plea agreement. ["Bill McGraw: Kilpatrick a first for Detroit", Bill McGraw, Detroit Free Press, March 24, 2008] [cite web|title=Mayor of Detroit Faces 8 Counts in Perjury Case|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/25/us/25detroit.html|author=Monica Davey and Nick Bunkley|work= The New York Times|date=2008-03-25|accessdate=2008-09-13]
According to the
United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 143.0 square miles (370.2 km²); of this, 138.8 square miles (359.4 km²) is land and 4.2 square miles (10.8 km²) is water. Detroit is the principal city of the Metro Detroitand Southeast Michiganregions. The highest elevation in Detroit is in the University District neighborhood in northwestern Detroit, just west of Palmer Park sitting at a height of 670 feet (204 m). Detroit's lowest elevation is along its riverfront, sitting at a height of 579 feet (176 m). Detroit completely encircles the cities of Hamtramck and Highland Park. On its northeast border are the wealthy communities of Grosse Pointe. The Detroit River International Wildlife Refugeis the only international wildlife preservein North America, uniquely located in the heart of a major metropolitan area. The Refuge includes islands, coastal wetlands, marshes, shoals, and waterfront lands along convert|48|mi|km|0 of the Detroit Riverand Western Lake Erieshoreline.
Three road systems cross the city: the original French template, radial avenues from a
Washington, D.C.-inspired system, and true north–south roads from the Northwest Ordinancetownship system. The city is north of Windsor, Ontario. Detroit is the only major city along the U.S.-Canadian border in which one travels south in order to cross into Canada. Detroit has four border crossings: the Ambassador Bridgeand the Detroit-Windsor Tunnelprovide motor vehicle thoroughfare; the Michigan Central Railway Tunnelprovides railroad access to and from Canada. The fourth border crossing is the Detroit-Windsor Truck Ferry, located near the Windsor Salt Mine and Zug Island. Not far from Zug Island, the southwest part of the city sits atop a convert|1500|acre|ha|sing=on salt mine that is convert|1100|ft|m|-1 below the surface. The Detroit Salt Company mine has over convert|100|mi|km| of roads within it. [Zacharias, Patricia (January 23, 2000). [http://info.detnews.com/redesign/history/story/historytemplate.cfm?id=17 The ghostly salt city beneath Detroit] . Michigan History, "The Detroit News". Retrieved on November 23, 2007.] [cite web |url=http://www.detroitsalt.com/home.htm |title=The Detroit Salt Company --Explore the City under the City. |accessdate=2008-02-08 |format=online |work= ]
Detroit and the rest of southeastern
Michiganhave a continental climatewhich is influenced by the Great Lakes. Winters are cold with moderate snowfall. [ [http://www.michiganvacations.com/regions/Detroit-Michigan.html Detroit Weather & Climate (2006)] . "Michigan Vacations" Retrieved on April 20, 2006.] and nighttime temperatures sometimes dropping below 10 °F (–12 °C), while summers are warm with temperatures sometimes exceeding 90 °F (32 °C). Average monthly precipitation ranges from about two to four inches (50 to 100 mm). Snowfall, which typically occurs from November to early April, ranges from an average of 1 to 10 inches (3 to 25 cm) a month. [ [http://www.weather.com/activities/other/other/weather/climo-monthly-graph.html?locid=USMI0229&from=36hr_bottomnav_undeclaredAirportCode=KDET&SafeCityName=Detroit&StateCode=MI&Units=none&IATA=DTW Monthly Averages for Detroit, MI (2006)] . "Weather.com" (accessed April 20, 2006).] The highest recorded temperature was 105.0 °F (40.5 °C) on July 24, 1934, while the lowest recorded temperature was –24.0 °F (–31.1 °C) on December 22, 1872. [ [http://www.crh.noaa.gov/dtx/cms.php?n=monthlyrec Daily Records - Detroit (2007)] . "National Weather Service Detroit/Pontiac, MI" (accessed July 7, 2007).]
location = Detroit, Michigan
Jan_Hi_°F = 31 |Jan_Hi_°C = -1
Feb_Hi_°F = 33 |Feb_Hi_°C = 1
Mar_Hi_°F = 44 |Mar_Hi_°C = 7
Apr_Hi_°F = 58 |Apr_Hi_°C = 14
May_Hi_°F = 70 |May_Hi_°C = 21
Jun_Hi_°F = 79 |Jun_Hi_°C = 26
Jul_Hi_°F = 83 |Jul_Hi_°C = 28
Aug_Hi_°F = 81 |Aug_Hi_°C = 27
Sep_Hi_°F = 74 |Sep_Hi_°C = 23
Oct_Hi_°F = 62 |Oct_Hi_°C = 17
Nov_Hi_°F = 48 |Nov_Hi_°C = 9
Dec_Hi_°F = 35 |Dec_Hi_°C = 2
Year_Hi_°F = 58 |Year_Hi_°C = 14
Jan_Lo_°F = 16 |Jan_Lo_°C = -9
Feb_Lo_°F = 18 |Feb_Lo_°C = -8
Mar_Lo_°F = 27 |Mar_Lo_°C = -3
Apr_Lo_°F = 37 |Apr_Lo_°C = 3
May_Lo_°F = 48 |May_Lo_°C = 9
Jun_Lo_°F = 57 |Jun_Lo_°C = 14
Jul_Lo_°F = 62 |Jul_Lo_°C = 17
Aug_Lo_°F = 60 |Aug_Lo_°C = 16
Sep_Lo_°F = 53 |Sep_Lo_°C = 12
Oct_Lo_°F = 41 |Oct_Lo_°C = 5
Nov_Lo_°F = 32 |Nov_Lo_°C = 0
Dec_Lo_°F = 22 |Dec_Lo_°C = -6
Year_Lo_°F = 39 |Year_Lo_°C = 3
Jan_Precip_inch = 1.9 |Jan_Precip_cm = 4
Feb_Precip_inch = 1.7 |Feb_Precip_cm = 4
Mar_Precip_inch = 2.4 |Mar_Precip_cm = 6
Apr_Precip_inch = 3.0 |Apr_Precip_cm = 7
May_Precip_inch = 2.9 |May_Precip_cm = 7
Jun_Precip_inch = 3.6 |Jun_Precip_cm = 9
Jul_Precip_inch = 3.1 |Jul_Precip_cm = 7
Aug_Precip_inch = 3.4 |Aug_Precip_cm = 8
Sep_Precip_inch = 2.8 |Sep_Precip_cm = 7
Oct_Precip_inch = 2.2 |Oct_Precip_cm = 5
Nov_Precip_inch = 2.7 |Nov_Precip_cm = 6
Dec_Precip_inch = 2.5 |Dec_Precip_cm = 6
Year_Precip_inch = 32.3 |Year_Precip_cm = 82
source =Weatherbasecite web
url =http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=073527&refer= | title =Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Detroit, Michigan, United States of America |accessmonthday = Nov 6 |accessyear = 2006 | language = ]
accessdate = Nov 2006
Geographic Location (8-way)The cities of Hamtramck and Highland Park both lie entirely within the boundaries of the city of Detroit.
North= Troy, Madison Heights, Royal Oak, Berkley, Ferndale, Oak Park, Hazel Park
West=Ann Arbor, Livonia, Redford Twp
Center=Detroit, Michigan cite web |url=http://www.michigan.gov/documents/MDOT_statemap2005_Detroit_7_126122_7.pdf |title=MDOT state map Detroit 7 |accessdate= 2008-03-03|last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher=State of Michigan |quote= |format=PDF] cite web |url=http://www.michigan.gov/documents/MDOT-State-Map-Detroit3_88862_7.pdf |title=MDOT state map Detroit 3 |accessdate=2008-03-03 |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher=State of Michigan |quote= |format=PDF]
Grosse Pointe, Lake St. Clair
Detroit River, Windsor, Ontario
Northwest=Farmington Hills, Southfield
Northeast= Mount Clemens, Warren, Eastpointe, Roseville, St. Clair Shores, Lake St. Clair
Southwest= Dearborn, Lincoln Park, Romulus, Taylor, Woodhaven, New Boston, Wyandotte
Belle Isle Park, Detroit River, Windsor, Ontario
panorama, Detroit's waterfront shows a variety of architectural styles. The post modern neogothic spires of the Comerica Tower at Detroit Center (1993) were designed to blend with the city’s Art Decoskyscrapers. Together with the Renaissance Center, they form a distinctive and recognizable skyline. Examples of the Art Decostyle include the Guardian Buildingand Penobscot Buildingdowntown, as well as the Fisher Buildingand Cadillac Placein the New Centerarea near Wayne State University. Among the city's prominent structures are the nation's largest Fox Theatre, the Detroit Opera House, and the Detroit Institute of Arts.
While the downtown and New Center areas contain high-rise buildings, the majority of the surrounding city consists of low-rise structures and single-family homes. Outside of the city's core, residential high-rises are found in neighborhoods such as the East Riverfront extending toward
Grosse Pointeand the Palmer Park neighborhood just west of Woodward. Neighborhoods constructed prior to World War IIfeature the architecture of the times with wood frame and brick houses in the working class neighborhoods, larger brick homes in middle class neighborhoods, and ornate mansions in neighborhoods such as Brush Park, Woodbridge, Indian Village, Palmer Woods, Sherwood Forest, and others. The oldest neighborhoods are along the Woodward and Jefferson corridors, while neighborhoods built in the 1950s are found in the far west and closer to 8 Mile Road. Some of the oldest extant neighborhoods include Corktown, a working class, formerly Irish neighborhood, and Brush Park. Both are now seeing multi-million dollar restorations and construction of new homes and condos.
Many of the city's architecturally significant buildings are on the
National Register of Historic Placesand the city has one of the nation's largest surviving collections of late nineteenth and early twentieth century buildings. [Sharoff, Robert (2005). [http://wsupress.wayne.edu/turtle/sharoffac/sharoffb.html American City: Detroit Architecture] "Wayne State University Press"] There are a number of architecturally significant churches, including St. Joseph Catholic Church and Saint Anne de Detroit Catholic Church.
There is substantial activity in urban design, historic preservation and architecture. [Cityscape Detroit. [http://www.cityscapedetroit.org/ www.cityscapedetroit.org] Retrieved on April 8, 2007.] A number of downtown redevelopment projects — of which
Campus Martius Parkis one of the most notable — have revitalized parts of the city. Grand Circus Parkstands near the city's theater district, Ford Field, home of the Detroit Lions, and Comerica Park, home of the Detroit Tigers.
Detroit International Riverfrontincludes a partially completed three and one-half mile riverfront promenade with a combination of parks, residential buildings, and commercial areas from Hart Plazato the MacArthur Bridge accessing Belle Isle (the largest island park in a U.S. city). The riverfront includes Tri-Centennial State Parkand Harbor, Michigan's first urban state park. The second phase is a two mile (3 km) extension from Hart Plaza to the Ambassador Bridgefor a total of five miles (8 km) of parkway from bridge to bridge. Civic planners envision that the riverfront properties condemned under eminent domain, with their pedestrian parks, will spur more residential development. Other major parks include Palmer (north of Highland Park), River Rouge (in the southwest side), and Chene Park(on the east river downtown).
The National Register of Historic Places lists several area neighborhoods and districts such as Lafayette Park, part of the
Mies van der Roheresidential district. On Saturdays, about 45,000 people shop the city's historic Eastern Market. [ [http://www.modeldmedia.com/neighborhoods/easternmarket.aspx Eastern Market] "Model D Media" Retrieved on April 8, 2007.] The Midtown and the New Centerarea are centered around Wayne State Universityand Henry Ford Hospital. Midtown has about 50,000 residents, yet it attracts millions of visitors each year to its museums and cultural centers; [http://www.modeldmedia.com/neighborhoods/Midtown.aspx Midtown] "Model D Media" Retrieved on April 8, 2007.] for example, the Detroit Festival of the Arts in Midtown draws about 350,000 people. The University Commons-Palmer Park district in Northwest Detroit is near the University of Detroit Mercyand Marygrove Collegeand has historic neighborhoods including Palmer Woods, Sherwood Forest, and Green Acres.
Culture and contemporary life
Lifestyles for rising professionals in Detroit reflect those of other major cities.Harrison, Sheena (June 25, 2007). [http://www.crainsdetroit.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070625/SUB/70623003/-1/newsletter02 DEGA enlists help to spur Detroit retail] . "Crain's Detroit Business." Retrieved on November 28, 2007. "New downtown residents are largely young professionals according to Social Compact."] This dynamic is luring many younger residents to the downtown area.Halaas, Jaime (December 20, 2005). [http://www.modeldmedia.com/features/loftdesign.aspx Inside Detroit Lofts] . Model D Media. Retrieved on November 28, 2007.] Luxury high rises such as the three Riverfront Towers have views of
Hart Plazaand Canada. The New Centerarea contains examples of historic housing redevelopment. The Westin Book-Cadillac Hotelwill include a number of luxury condos. The east river development plans include more luxury condominium developments. A desire to be closer to the urban scene has attracted young professionals to take up residence among the mansions of Grosse Pointejust outside the city. Detroit's proximity to Windsor, Ontario, provides for spectacular views and nightlife, along with Ontario's 19-and-older drinking age.cite web
url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/03/AR2006020302747.html
title = Detroit's Big Party Next Door. In Windsor, Temptation Waits for Players, Fans
accessmonthday = October 2
accessyear = 2006
last = La Canfora
first = Jason
publisher = The Washington Post
Entertainment and performing arts
Live music has been a prominent feature of Detroit's nightlife since the late 1940s, bringing the city recognition under the nickname
Motown. The metropolitan area has two nationally prominent live music venues: DTE Energy Music Theatreand The Palace of Auburn Hills. The Detroit Theatre Districtis the nation's second largest. [ [http://www.theworldiscoming.com/getinfo_coolstuff.html Firsts and facts] "Detroit Tourism Economic Development Council". Retrieved on July 24, 2008.] [ [http://www.°C.org/arts-culture.aspx Arts & Culture] "Detroit Economic Growth Corporation". Retrieved on July 24, 2008. "Detroit is home to the second largest theatre district in the United States."] Major theaters include the Fox Theatre, Music Hall, the Gem Theatre, Masonic Temple Theatre, the Detroit Opera House, the Fisher Theatreand Orchestra Hall which hosts the renowned Detroit Symphony Orchestra. The Nederlander Organization, the largest controller of Broadway productions in New York City, originated with the purchase of the Detroit Opera Housein 1922 by the Nederlander Family and continues to operate to this day.
Important music events in the city include: the
Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival, the Detroit Electronic Music Festival, the Motor City Music Conference (MC2), the Urban Organic Music Conference, the Concert of Colors, and the hip-hop Summer Jamz festival.
The city of Detroit has a rich musical heritage and has contributed to a number of different genres over the decades leading into the new millennium.
In the 1940s, blues artist
John Lee Hookerbecame a long-term resident in the city's southwest Delray neighborhood. Hooker, among other important blues musicians migrated from his home in Mississippibringing the Delta Bluesto northern cities like Detroit. During the 1950s, the city became a center for jazz, with stars performing in the Black Bottom neighborhood. [Boyd, Herb (September 17, 1997). [http://www.metrotimes.com/music/special/jazzhist/51jazzhist.html Cookin' in the Motor City] . "The Metro Times"] Prominent emerging Jazzmusicians of the 1960s included: trumpet player Donald Byrdwho attended Cass Tech and performed with Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers early in his career and Saxophonist Pepper Adamswho enjoyed a solo career and accompanied Byrd on several albums. The Graystone International Jazz Museum documents jazzin Detroit. [cite web|title=The Graystone Online|url=http://www.ipl.org.ar/exhibit/detjazz/Graystone.html|work=Internet Public Library|publisher= University of Michigan|accessdate=2008-08-01] [ [http://www.ipl.org.ar/exhibit/detjazz/ Swinging Through Time: The Graystone Museum and the story of Detroit jazz ] ] Berry Gordy, Jr.founded Motown Recordswhich rose to prominence during the 1960s and early 1970s with acts such as Stevie Wonder, The Temptations, The Four Tops, Smokey Robinson & The Miracles, Diana Ross & The Supremes, the Jackson 5, Martha and the Vandellasand Marvin Gaye. The Motown Sound played an important role in the crossover appeal with popular music, since it was the first record label owned by an African American to primarily feature African-American artists. Gordy moved Motown to Los Angeles in 1972 to pursue film production, but the company has since returned to Detroit. Aretha Franklinis another Detroit R&B star who carried the Motown Sound; however, she did not record with Berry's Motown Label.
Detroit's music includes many popular rock bands from the 1960s and 70's. During this period, local and national acts performed regularly at venues such as the
Grande Ballroomand the Eastown Theater. Popular local bands producing and performing music included artists like: the MC5, The Stooges, Bob Seger, Amboy Dukesfeaturing Ted Nugent, Mitch Ryderand The Detroit Wheels, Rare Earth, and Alice Cooper. The group Kiss emphasized the city's connection with rock in the song " Detroit Rock City" and the movie produced in 1999.
In recent times, the city's music scene has produced a number of influential artists. From the late 1990s into the new millennium, the band Sponge toured and produced music, with artists such as
Kid Rockand Uncle Kracker. The city has an active garage rockgenre that has generated national attention with acts such as: The White Stripes, The Von Bondies, The Dirtbombs, Electric Six, The Hard Lessons, and The Enemy Squad. Detroit has also been cited as the birthplace of technomusic. [ [http://www.plexifilm.com/title.php?id=27 Plexifilm - High Tech Soul ] ] Prominent Detroit Technoartists include Juan Atkins, Derrick May, and Kevin Saunderson.
Many of the area's prominent museums are located in the historic cultural center neighborhood around
Wayne State University. These museums include the Detroit Institute of Arts, the Detroit Historical Museum, Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History, the Detroit Science Center, and the main branch of the Detroit Public Library. Other cultural highlights include Motown Historical Museum, Tuskegee AirmenMuseum, Fort Wayne, Dossin Great Lakes Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit(MOCAD), the Contemporary Art Institute of Detroit (CAID), and the Belle Isle Conservatory. Important history of Detroit and the surrounding area is exhibited at the The Henry Ford, the nation's largest indoor-outdoor museum complex. [America's Story, Explore the States: Michigan (2006). [http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/es/mi/ford_1 Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village] "Library of Congress" Retrieved on April 8, 2007.] [State of Michigan: MI Kids (2006). [http://www.michigan.gov/mikids/0,1607,7-163-15858_20583---,00.html Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village] Retrieved on April 8, 2007.] The Detroit Historical Society provides information about tours of area churches, skyscrapers, and mansions. The Eastern Market farmer's distribution center is the largest open-air flowerbed market in the United States and has more than 150 foods and specialty businesses. [ [http://www.easternmarket.org/page.cfm/19/ History of Eastern Market] . "Eastern Market Merchant's Association". Retrieved on March 8, 2006.] Other sites of interest are the Detroit Zooand the Anna Scripps Whitcomb Conservatoryon Belle Isle.
The city's Greektown and casino resorts serve as an entertainment hub. Annual summer events include the
Detroit Electronic Music Festival, Detroit International Jazz Festival, and Woodward Dream Cruise. Within downtown, Campus Martius Parkhosts large events such as the Motown Winter Blast. As the world's traditional automotive center, the city hosts the North American International Auto Show. Held since 1924, America's Thanksgiving Parade is one of the nation's largest. [ [http://www.theparade.org/freedomfest/ Freedom Fest] . "The Parade Company". Retrieved on October 28, 2007.]
An important civic sculpture in Detroit is
Marshall Fredericks' " Spirit of Detroit" at the Coleman Young Municipal Center. The image is often used as a symbol of Detroit and the statue itself is occasionally dressed in sports jerseys to celebrate when a Detroit team is doing well. [Baulch, Vivian M. (August 4, 1998). [http://info.detnews.com/redesign/history/story/historytemplate.cfm?id=159 Marshall Fredericks -- the Spirit of Detroit] . Michigan History, "The Detroit News". Retrieved on November 23, 2007.] A memorial to Joe Louisat the intersection of Jefferson and Woodward Avenues was dedicated on October 16, 1986. The sculpture, commissioned by "Sports Illustrated" and executed by Robert Graham, is a twenty-four foot (7.3 m) long arm with a fisted hand suspended by a pyramidal framework. [Sarah Karush, "The Associated Press" (February 23, 2004). [http://www.usatoday.com/sports/boxing/2004-02-23-louis-statue_x.htm Police arrest two men suspected of vandalizing Joe Louis statue] . "USA Today".]
River Days, a five day festival on the International Riverfront, marked the opening of the River Walk along the east river leading up to the
Windsor-Detroit International Freedom Festivalfireworks with about 3.5 million visitors.
Artist Tyree Guyton created the controversial street art exhibit known as the
Heidelberg Projectin the mid 1980s, using junk and abandoned cars, clothing, shoes, vacuum cleaners, and other garbage Guyton found in the neighborhood near and on Heidelberg Street on the near East Side of Detroit.
Detroit is one of 13 American metropolitan areas that are home to professional teams representing the four major sports in North America. All these teams but one play within the city of Detroit itself (the NBA's
Detroit Pistonsand the WNBA's Detroit Shockboth play in suburban Auburn Hills at The Palace of Auburn Hills). There are three active major sports venues within the city: Comerica Park(home of the Major League Baseballteam Detroit Tigers), Ford Field(home of the NFL's Detroit Lions), and Joe Louis Arena(home of the NHL's Detroit Red Wings). A 1996 marketing campaign promoted the nickname " Hockeytown".
In college sports, Detroit's central location within the Mid-American Conference has made it a frequent site for the league's championship events. While the MAC Basketball Tournament moved permanently to Cleveland starting in 2000, the MAC Football Championship Game has been played at Ford Field in Detroit since 2004, and annually attracts 25,000 to 30,000 fans. The
University of Detroit Mercyhas a NCAA Division Iprogram, and Wayne State Universityhas both NCAA Division I and II programs. The NCAA football Motor City Bowlis held at Ford Field each December. Sailboatracing is a major sport in the Detroit area. Lake St. Clairis home to many yacht clubs which host regattas. Bayview Yacht Club, the Detroit Yacht Club, Crescent Sail Yacht Club, Grosse Pointe Yacht Club, The Windsor Yacht Club, and the Edison Boat Club each participate in and are governed by the Detroit Regional Yacht-Racing Association or DRYA. Detroit is home to many One-Design fleets including, but not limited to, North American 40s, Cal 25s, C&C35s, Crescent Sailboats, Express 27s, J 120s, J 105, Flying Scots, and many more.
Crescent Sailboatand L Boatwere both designed and built exclusively in Detroit. Detroit also has a very active and competitive junior sailing program.
Since 1916, the city has been home to an
American Boat Racing AssociationUnlimited hydroplaneboat race, held annually (with exceptions) on the Detroit River near Belle Isle. Often, the race is for the ABRA Challenge Cup, more commonly known as the Gold Cup (first awarded in 1904, created by Tiffany) which is the oldest active motorsport trophy in the world. [ [http://www.gold-cup.com/history/index.html History] . "The Detroit ABRA Gold Cup"] Detroit was the former home of a round of the Formula OneWorld Championship, which held therace on the streets of downtown Detroit from 1982 until 1988, after which the sanction moved from Formula One to IndyCars until its final run in 2001. [ [http://www.cartracingupdate.com/Tracks/detroit.htm#History Track History] . "CART".] In 2007, open-wheel racing returned to Belle Isle with both Indy Racing Leagueand American Le Mans SeriesRacing. cite web
url = http://www.sportingnews.com/yourturn/viewtopic.php?t=133002
title = Indy racing will return to Detroit
accessmonthday = October 3
accessyear = 2006
date = 2006-09-29
publisher = Associated Press
Detroit was given the name "City of Champions" in the 1930s for a series of successes both in individual and in team sport.cite web |last=Zacharias|first=Patricia|title=Detroit, the City of Champions |url=http://info.detnews.com/redesign/history/story/historytemplate.cfm?id=91|work=Michigan History, The Detroit News|date=2000-08-22| accessdate=2006-10-02 ]
Gar Wood(a native Detroiter) won the Harmsworth Trophyfor unlimited powerboat racing on the Detroit River in 1931. In the next year, 1932, Eddie "The Midnight Express" Tolan, a black student from Detroit's Cass Technical High School, won the 100- and 200-meter races and two gold medals at the 1932 Summer Olympics. Joe Louiswon the heavyweight championship of the world in 1937. Also, in 1935 the Detroit Lions won the NFL championship. The Detroit Tigers have won ten American League pennants (The most recent being in 2006) and four World Series titles. In 1984, the Detroit Tigers' World Serieschampionship, after which crowds had left three dead and millions of dollars in property damage. The Detroit Red Wings have won 11 Stanley Cups (the most by an American NHL Franchise), [http://info.detnews.com/history/story/index.cfm?id=91&category=sports. "Detroit News". Retrieved on April 8, 2007.] [cite web|url=http://www.visitdetroit.com/visitorcenter/aboutdetroit/dates/.|title="Visit Detroit"|accessmonthday=April 8|accessyear=2007] the Detroit Pistons have won three NBA titles, and the Detroit Shock have won two WNBA titles. In 2007, Detroitwas given the nickname "Sports City USA" in recognition of its numerous sports teams with good game statistics and the high amount of dedicated sports fans. [ [http://www.sportingnews.com/yourturn/viewtopic.php?t=248801 Sporting News - Your expert source for MLB Baseball, NFL Football, NBA Basketball, NHL Hockey, NCAA Football, NCAA Basketball and Fantasy Sports scores, blogs, and articles ] ]
Detroit has the distinction of being the city which has made the most bids to host the Summer Olympics without ever being awarded the games: seven unsuccessful bids for the 1944, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968 and 1972 games. It came as high as second place in the balloting two times, losing the 1964 games to Tokyo and the 1968 games to Mexico City.
Detroit hosts many WWE events such as the 2007 WWE's
WrestleMania 23which attracted 80,103 fans to Ford Field; the event marking the twentieth anniversary of WrestleMania IIIwhich drew a reported 93,173 to the Pontiac Silverdomein nearby Pontiac, Michiganin 1987. On May 31 and June 1 of 2008, The Red Bull Air Race took place along the Detroit River.
The Detroit Free Press" and " The Detroit News" are the major daily newspapers, both broadsheetpublications published together under a joint operating agreement. Media philanthropy includes the "Detroit Free Press" high school journalism program and the Old Newsboys' Goodfellow Fund of Detroit.
The Detroit television market is the eleventh largest in the United States; [ [http://www.nielsenmedia.com/DMAs.html Nielsen Media Research Local Universe Estimates (September 24, 2005)] "The Nielson Company"] according to estimates that do not include audiences located in large areas of
Ontario, Canada (Windsor and its surrounding area on broadcast and cable, as well as several other cable markets in Ontario, such as the city of Ottawa) which receive and watch Detroit television stations.
Detroit has the eleventh largest radio market in the United States, [ [http://www.arbitron.com/radio_stations/mm001050.asp Market Ranks and Schedule)] . "Arbitron.com". Retrieved on January 23, 2008.] though this ranking does not take into account Canadian audiences.
Detroit and the surrounding region constitute a major manufacturing center, most notably as home to the Big Three automobile companies,
General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler. The city is an important center for global trade with large international law firms having their offices in both Detroit and Windsor. About 80,500 people work in downtown Detroit, comprising 21% of the City's employment. [Henion, Andy (03-22-2007).City puts transit idea in motion."The Detroit News". Retrieved on May 14, 2007.] The Urban Markets Initiative, Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program, The Social Compact Inc., University of Michigan Graduate Real Estate Program, (October 2006). [http://www.downtowndetroit.org/ddp/newsroom/Downtown_Detroit_in_Focus.pdf Downtown Detroit in Focus: A Profile of Market Opportunity] ."Detroit Economic Growth Corporation" and "Downtown Detroit Partnership". Retrieved on June 14, 2008.]
There are about four thousand factories in the area. [World Book Inc., Volume 5. 2008.] The domestic auto industry is primarily headquartered in
Metro Detroit. New vehicle production, sales, and jobs related to automobile use account for one of every ten jobs in the United States. [Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers (2006). [http://www.autoalliance.org/economic/ From the 2003 Study "Contributions of the Automotive Industry to the U.S. Economy" University of Michigan and the Center for Automotive Research] "Autoalliance.com". Retrieved on April 12, 2007.] The area is also an important source of engineering job opportunities. A 2004 Border Transportation Partnership study showed that 150,000 jobs in the Windsor-Detroitregion and $13 billion in annual production depend on the City of Detroit's international bordercrossing. [ Detroit Regional Chamber (2006) [http://www.detroitchamber.com/detroiter/articles.asp?cid=7&detcid=531 Detroit/Windsor Border Update: Part I-Detroit River International Crossing Study] Retrieved on April 8, 2007.]
The Detroit area is accustomed to the economic cycles of the auto industry. [Flint, Jerry (September 9, 1996). [http://faculty.ncwc.edu/denders/eng112/sample_summary.htm Can Detroit Weather a Downturn?] . "Forbes", found at faculty.ncwc.edu/denders/eng112/sample_summary.htm] A rise in automated manufacturing using robot technology, inexpensive labor in other parts of the world, and increased competition have led to a steady transformation of certain types of manufacturing jobs in the region. Local complications for the city include higher taxes than the nearby suburbs, with many unable to afford the levies on property. [Josar, David (May 27, 2005). [http://www.detnews.com/2005/metro/0505/27/A01-195630.htm Neighborhood rebirth stalls: High property taxes burden Detroit homeowners] . "Detroit News".] In June 2008, metropolitan Detroit's unemployment rate was 9.7%. [Bureau of Labor Statistics (8/2008). [http://www.bls.gov/news.release/metro.t01.htm Table 1. Civilian labor force and unemployment by state and metropolitan area ] . "U.S. Department of Labor".] In the city, the unemployment rate was 14.2% at the end of 2005, leaving Detroit with more than one-third of residents below the poverty line. [cite web|url=http://wsws.org/articles/2005/sep2005/detr-s02.shtml|title=One-Third of Detroit's population lives below the poverty line|author=Walsh, David|publisher=World Socialist Websight|accessdate=2007-07-22] This is in part attributed to
white flightfollowing court-ordered busing during the 1970s. Parts of the city have abandoned and burned out shells of buildings. Though the city has struggled with finances, since 2006 it has balanced its budget with more funding available to demolish blighted properties.
The Big Three automakers have collectively lost market share to foreign rivals. [Standard and Poors Report (March 14, 2006). [http://www.businessweek.com/investor/content/mar2006/pi20060314_027965.htm?chan=globalbiz_europe_more+of+today's+top+stories Asia's Auto Makers Think Globally] . "Business Week"] However, Detroit's automakers have continued to gain volume from previous decades with the expansion of the American and global automotive markets. In 1994, with rising demand for
sport-utility vehicles and pickup trucks, the industry fought Clinton administration's efforts to implement an across the board Corporate Average Fuel Economy(CAFE) increase. [Woellert, Lorraine (March 3, 2001). [http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jul2001/nf2001073_060.htm Why Detroit May Swallow Some Bitter CAFE] . "Business Week".] In 2005, the Bush administration asked Congress for the authority to reform the CAFE standard from a single average to six different size based categories in an effort to resolve the issue. [Associated Press (August 24, 2005). [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,166573,00.html] "Fox News". Retrieved on April 15, 2007.] In the late 1990s, Detroit's automakers had gained market share and were enjoying record profits until the recession of 2001 and the subsequent September 11, 2001 attackscaused a severe decline in the stock market along with a pension and benefit funds crisis. Although retiree health care costs remain a significant issue, General Motors' investment strategy generated a $17.1 billion surplus in 2007 for its $101 billion U.S pension portfolio, a $35 billion reversal from its $17.8 billion in underfunding. [Sloan, Allan (April 10, 2007). [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/09/AR2007040901262.html GM's High-Performance Pension Machine] "Washington Post", D02.] With rising oil prices and war, consumers chose to purchase fewer trucks and SUVs. This negatively impacted the profits of Detroit's automakers. As a result, GM and Ford have implemented their respective turnaround plans. Concern among analysts over restored profits has fueled economic uncertainty in the metro Detroit area. [ [http://www.businessweek.com/mediacenter/podcasts/cruisecontrol/cruise_control_01_28_06_a.htm Ford's Way Forward] "Business Week Cruise Control Radio" Retrieved on April 2, 2007.]
Initially, GM and Ford had sought to delay the introduction of unprofitable hybrids in favor of the all-fuel cell vehicle; however, with rising
gasolineprices and foreign rivals marketing hybrid cars, Detroit's automakers responded. In 2006, Ford announced a dramatic increase in production of its hybrid gas- electricmodels, [Dorinda Elliott (January 30, 2006). "Can This Man Save The American Auto Industry?" "Time Magazine".] Ford and GM have also promoted E-85ethanol capable flexible-fuel vehicles as a viable alternative to gasoline. General Motors has invested heavily in all fuel cellequipped vehicles, [ Kiley, David (June 13, 2001). [http://www.usatoday.com/money/autos/2001-06-13-gm-hydrogen.htm GM buys stake in firm tapping hydrogen power] . "USA Today".] Chrysler's focus on biodieselmay boost sales. Two days after the September 11, 2001 attacks, GM announced it had developed the world's most powerful fuel cell stack capable of powering large commercial vehicles. [ [http://www.gm.com/company/news_events/press_releases/ GM announces world's most powerful fuel cell stack (September 13, 2001)] . "GM Press Release".] In 2002, the state of Michigan established NextEnergy, a non-profit corporation whose purpose is to enable commercialization of various energy technologies, especially hydrogen fuel cells. Its main complex is located north of Wayne State University.
Firms in the suburbs pursue
emerging technologiesincluding biotechnology, nanotechnology, information technology, cognotechnology, and hydrogen fuel celldevelopment. The city of Detroit has made efforts to lure the region's growth companies downtown with advantages such as a wireless Internet zone, business tax incentives, entertainment, an international riverfront, and residential high rises. Thus far, the city has had some success, most notably the addition of Compuware World Headquarters, OnStar, EDSoffices at the Renaissance Center, PricewaterhouseCoopersPlaza offices adjacent to Ford Field, and the 2006 completion of Ernst & Young's offices at One Kennedy Square. However, ComericaBank decided to move its headquarters from Detroit to Dallasin 2007 while maintaining its substantial presence in the region. On November 12, 2007, Quicken Loansannounced its development agreement with the city to move its world headquarters, and 4,000 employees, to downtown Detroit, consolidating its suburban offices, a move considered to be a high importance to city planners to reestablish the historic downtown. [Howes, Daniel (November 12, 2007). [http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071112/UPDATE/711120450/1361 Quicken moving to downtown Detroit] ."The Detroit News". Retrieved on November 12, 2007.] The construction sites reserved for development by the agreement include the location of the former Statler on Grand Circus Parkand the former Hudson's location. [Loc. cit.]
Fortune 500companies headquartered in Detroit include General Motors, auto parts maker American Axle & Manufacturing, and DTE Energy. [ [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/states/M.html Fortune)] . "CNNMoney.com". Retrieved on April 8, 2007.] Detroit is home to Compuwareand the national pizza chain Little Caesars. Downtown Detroit has major offices for Electronic Data Systems, Visteon, Delphi, Ford Motor Company, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Ernst & Young, Deloitte Touche, KPMG, the Jeepand Dodge Truck arm of Chrysler, GMAC, and OnStar. Other major industries include advertising, law, finance, chemicals, and computer software. One of the nation's largest law firms, Miller, Canfield, Paddock & StoneP.L.C., has offices in both Windsor and Detroit. Compuware's new headquarters, GM's move to the Renaissance Center, and the State of Michigan's redevelopment of Cadillac Placein the New Centerdistrict have provided new synergies for the redevelopment of downtown.
Casino gaming plays an important economic role, with Detroit the largest city in the United States to offer casino resorts.
Caesars Windsor, Canada's largest, complements the MGM Grand Detroit, MotorCity Casino, and Greektown Casinoin Detroit. Though the casinos have brought new tax revenue and jobs to the city, the city still has high unemployment. Gaming revenues have grown steadily, with Detroit ranked as the fifth largest gambling market in the USA for 2007. However, when Casino Windsor is included, Detroit's gambling market ranks third or fourth. In 2006, downtown Detroit reported $1.3 billion in restorations and new developments which increased the number of construction jobs in the city. [ See the Change (2006) [http://www.theworldiscoming.com/seethechange.html TheWorldisComing.com] . City of Detroit Partnership. Retrieved on April 8, 2007.] Medical service providers such as the Detroit Medical Centerand Henry Ford Hospitalare major employers in the city.
Media reviews of Detroit's economy tend to reflect the economic cycles. In 2007, downtown Detroit was named among the best big city neighborhoods in which to retire by CNN Money Magazine editors. [ Bigda, Carolyn, Erin Chambers, Lawrence Lanahan, Joe Light, Sarah Max, and Jennifer Merritt. [http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2007/moneymag/0710/gallery.bpretire.moneymag/18.html Detroit Best place to retire: Downtown] . CNN Money Magazine". Retrieved on October 22, 2007.]
Metro Detroitsuburbs are among the more affluent in the U.S. in contrast to lower incomes found within the city limits. cite web
url = http://www.oakgov.com/peds/assets/docs/community_profiles/OakCounty.pdf#search=%22Oakland%20County%20richest%22
title =2004–05 Community profile Oakland County
accessmonthday = July 11
accessyear = 2007
quote = Oakland County also ranks as the fourth wealthiest county in the nation among counties with populations of more than one million people.] A 2007 report shows the city of Detroit's median household income at $34,512, a 12% increase over the Census estimate.Reppert, Joe (October 2007). [http://www.socialcompact.org/pdfs/DetroitDrillDownReport.pdf Detroit Neighborhood Market Drill Down] . "Social Compact". Retrieved on May 30, 2008.] As of the 2000 Census, there were 951,270 people, 336,428 households, and 218,341 families residing in the city. The
population densitywas 6,855.1 people per square mile (2,646.7/km²). There were 375,096 housing units at an average density of 2,703.0 units per square mile (1,043.6/km²).
The city's population increased more than sixfold during the first half of the twentieth century, fed largely by an influx of Eastern European, Lebanese and Southern migrants to work in the burgeoning automobile industry.Baulch, Vivian M. (September 4, 1999). [http://info.detnews.com/redesign/history/story/historytemplate.cfm?id=109 Michigan's greatest treasure -- Its people] . Michigan History, "The Detroit News". Retrieved on October 22, 2007.] However, since 1950 the city has seen a major shift in its population to the suburbs. The city population dropped from its peak in 1950 with a population of 1,849,568 to 916,952 in 2007. This is partly attributable to the construction of an extensive freeway system during the 1950s and
As of Census 2000, the city of Detroit was 81.6% African American, 12.3%
White American, 1.0% Asian American, 0.3% Native American, 0.03% Pacific Islander American, 2.5% from other races American, and 2.3% from two or more races. 5.0 percent of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Non-Hispanic whites accounted for 10.5% of Detroit's population. The city's foreign-born population is at 4.8%.
There were 336,428 households out of which 33.9% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 26.7% were married couples living together, 31.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.1% were non-families, 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.45.
There is a wide age distribution in the city, with 31.1% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 29.5% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 89.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males.
For the 2000 Census, median household income in the city was $29,526, and the median income for a family was $33,853. Males had a median income of $33,381 versus $26,749 for females. The
per capita incomefor the city was $14,717. 26.1% of the population and 21.7% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 34.5% of those under the age of 18 and 18.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
The Detroit suburbs in Oakland County, Macomb County, and northeastern and northwestern Wayne County are predominantly white. Of the African-Americans who live in the metropolitan area, about 70% live within the Detroit city limits. Metro Detroit's ethnic communities are diverse and include descendants of the French founders, as well as Irish,
Germans, Scots, Poles, Italians, Greeks, Serbians, Turks, Armenians, Jews, Arabs, and Lebanese who settled during the city's early twentieth century industrial boom. Metro Detroit has the largest concentration of Belgiansoutside of Belgium; Cadieux Street on the city's east side north of Grosse Pointeconstituted the heart of one of the few distinctly Belgian neighborhoods in the U.S. during the early- and mid-twentieth century. Dearbornhas a sizable concentration of Arab Americans.
Law and government
headquarters.The city government is run by a mayor and nine-member city council and clerk elected on an at-large nonpartisan ballot. Since voters approved the city's charter in 1974, Detroit has had a "strong mayoral" system, with the mayor approving departmental appointments. The council approves budgets but the mayor is not obligated to adhere to any earmarking. City ordinances and substantially large contracts must be approved by the council. The city clerk supervises elections and is formally charged with the maintenance of municipal records. Municipal
elections for mayor, city council and city clerk are held at four-year intervals, in the year after presidential elections (so that there are Detroit elections scheduled in 1993, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009, etc.). [Ward, George E. (July 1993). [http://www.crcmich.org/PUBLICAT/1990s/1993/rpt31002.pdf Detroit Charter Revision - A Brief History] . "Citizens Research Council of Michigan" (pdf file).]
Detroit's courts are state-administered and elections are nonpartisan. The Probate Court for Wayne County is located in the Coleman A. Young Municipal Center in downtown Detroit. The Circuit Court is located across Gratiot Ave. in the Frank Murphy Hall of Justice, in downtown Detroit. The city is home to the Thirty Sixth District Court, as well as the First District of the
Michigan Court of Appealsand the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan.
Politically, the city consistently supports the Democratic Party in state and national elections (local election are nonpartisan). According to a study released by the Bay Area Center for Voting Research, Detroit is the most liberal large city in America, [cite news|title=The Most Conservative and Liberal Cities in the United States|author=The Bay Area Center for Voting Research|date=2005-08-11|url=http://votingresearch.org/USAstudy.doc|accessdate=2007-03-27|format=DOC] measuring only the percentage of city residents who voted for the Democratic Party.
In 2000, the City requested an investigation by the
United States Justice Departmentinto the Detroit Police Department which was concluded in 2003 over allegations regarding its use of force and civil rights violations. [ [http://www.detroitmi.gov/police/dept/crib/crib.htm Quarterly Status Report to the Independent Federal Monitor] . "Detroit Police Department" Retrieved on April 8, 2007.] The city proceeded with a major reorganization of the Detroit Police Department. Urban development in Detroithas been an important issue. In 1973, the city elected its first black mayor, Coleman Young. Despite development efforts, his combative style during his five terms in office was not well received by many whites. [ [http://www.cnn.com/US/9711/29/young.obit.pm/ Detroit's 'great warrior,' Coleman Young, dies (November 29, 1997)] . "CNN.com".] Mayor Dennis Archer, a former Michigan Supreme Court Justice, refocused the city's attention on redevelopment with a plan to permit three casinos downtown.
Although crime in Detroit has declined in recent decades, the city had the sixth highest number of violent crimes among the twenty-five largest cities in 2006. [http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2006/data/table_06.html FBI UCR table 6] . Retrieved on February 13, 2008.] This incidence of crime in parts of the city has brought it notoriety. The city has tried to shake its crime-laden image for the city center, pointing to a 2006 study, where
crimein downtown Detroit (CBD) is shown to be much lower than national, state and metro averages.Booza, Jason C. (July 26, 2006). [http://www.tedconline.com/uploads/Downtown_Detroit_Crime_Study_2006.pdf Reality v. Perceptions: An Updated Analysis of Crime and Safety in Downtown Detroit] . Michigan Metropolitan Information Center, "Wayne State University Center for Urban Studies". Retrieved on January 21, 2008.] According to a 2007 analysis, Detroit officials note that about 65 to 70 percent of homicides in the city were confined to a narcotics catalyst.Shelton, Steve Malik (January 30, 2008). [http://www.michronicleonline.com/articlelive/articles/2322/1/Top-cop-urges-vigilance-against-crime/Page1.html Top cop urges vigilance against crime] . "Michigan Chronicle". Retrieved on March 17, 2008.] As with many border cities, there is an ongoing problem with smuggling, including drugs, human trafficking, and illicit commerce aimed at avoiding taxation. [ [http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/security/ibets_success_e.htm Integrated Border Enforcement Teams (IBETS) 2006 Joint Cross-Border Operations] ."Royal Canadian Mounted Police".Retrieved on April 12, 2008.]
Colleges and universities
Detroit is home to several institutions of higher learning, including
Wayne State University, a national research university with medical and law schools in the Midtown area. Other institutions in the city include the University of Detroit Mercywith its schools of Law and Dentistry, the College for Creative Studies, Lewis College of Business, Marygrove College, and Wayne County Community College. The Detroit College of Law, now affiliated with Michigan State University, was founded in the city in 1891 and remained there until 1997, when it relocated to East Lansing. The University of Michiganwas established in 1817 in Detroit and later moved to Ann Arbor in 1837. In 1959, another campus was established in neighboring Dearborn.
Primary and secondary schools
With 116,000 students, the
Detroit Public Schools(DPS) district is the largest school districtin Michigan and consists of 220 schools. The city is also served by various charter schools.
In the mid- to late 1990s, the
Michigan Legislatureremoved the locally elected board of education amid allegations of mismanagement and replaced it with a reform board appointed by the mayor and governor. The elected board of education was re-established following a city referendum in 2005. The first election of the new eleven-member board of education occurred on November 8, 2005. [LewAllen, Dave (August 3, 2005). [http://www1.wxyz.com/wxyz/nw_local_news/article/0,2132,WXYZ_15924_3974896,00.html Detroiters Vote for New School Board] . "WXYZ.com".] Due to declining enrollment the city planned to close 95 schools, and the state mandated deficit reduction plan calls for the closure of a total of 110 schools. [Bukowski, Diane (2006). [http://michigancitizen.com/default.asp?sourceid=&smenu=1&twindow=&mad=&sdetail=2858&wpage=1&skeyword=&sidate=&ccat=&ccatm=&restate=&restatus=&reoption=&retype=&repmin=&repmax=&rebed=&rebath=&subname=&pform=&sc=1070&hn=michigancitizen&he=.com Where did the first billion go?] . "The Michigan Citizen".] [Detroit News Staff (October 30, 2007). [http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071030/SCHOOLS/710300376 Michigan Stung by study's dropout list] ."Detroit News". Retrieved on October 30, 2007."Michigan education officials vigorously dispute the report."] The State officials report a 61% graduation rate for Detroit's public schools. [cite web |url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2006-06-20-dropout-rates_x.htm#grad |title=Big-city schools struggle with graduation rates |accessdate=2007-10-29 |author=Toppo, Greg|date=2006-06-20 |work= |publisher=USA Today] [Shultz, Marissa and Greg Wilkerson (June 13, 2007). [http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070613/SCHOOLS/706130409/1003/METRO Graduation rate] ."Detroit News".Retrieved on November 1, 2007.]
Detroit is served by various private schools, as well as parochial
Roman Catholicschools run by the Archdiocese of Detroit. [Kozlowski, Kim (February 27, 2005). [http://www.detnews.com/2005/specialreport/0502/27/A01-101701.htm Catholic schools fight to keep doors open] . "The Detroit News".]
Within the city of Detroit, there are over a dozen major hospitals which include the
Detroit Medical Center(DMC), Henry Ford Health System, St. John Health System, and the John D. Dingell VA Medical Center. The DMC, a regional Level I trauma center, consists of Detroit Receiving Hospital and University Health Center, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Harper University Hospital, Hutzel Women's Hospital, Rehabilitation Institute of Michigan, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Karmanos Cancer Institute. [ [http://www.usnews.com/usnews/health/hospitals/state_dir/dir_mi.htm US News online directory of hospitals] ."U.S. News". Retrieved on April 8, 2007.] The DMC has more than 2,000 licensed beds and 3,000 affiliated physicians. It is also the biggest non-governmental employer in the City of Detroit. [ [http://www.dmc.org/org_profile/ Organization History and Profile] "Detroit Medical Center" Retrieved on April 29, 2006.] The center is staffed by physicians from the Wayne State UniversitySchool of Medicine, the largest single-campus medical school in the United States. [ [http://www.med.wayne.edu/about_the_school/ Webpage: About the School] . "Wayne State University School of Medicine." Retrieved on April 20, 2006.] The metro area has many other hospitals, among which are William Beaumont Hospital, St. Joseph's, and University of Michigan Medical Center, mostly in suburban counties.
With its proximity to Canada and its facilities,
ports, major highways, rail connections and international airports, Detroit is an important transportation hub. The city has three international border crossings, the Ambassador Bridge, Detroit-Windsor Tunneland Michigan Central Railway Tunnel, linking Detroit to Windsor, Ontario. The Ambassador Bridge is the single busiest border crossing in North America, carrying 27% of the total trade between the U.S. and Canada. [ [http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/freight/freight_analysis/ambass_brdg/ambass_brdge_ovrvw.htm Ambassador Bridge Crossing Summary (May 11, 2005)] . "U.S. Department of Transportation". Retrieved on April 8, 2007.]
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport(DTW), the area's principal airport, is located in nearby Romulus and is the primary hub for Northwest Airlinesand Spirit Airlines. Bishop International Airport(FNT) in Flint, Michiganis the second busiest commercial airport in the region. Coleman A. Young International Airport(DET), previously called Detroit City Airport, is on Detroit's northeast side. Although Southwest Airlinesonce flew from the airport, the airport now maintains only charter service and general aviation. [Sapte, Benjamin (2003). [http://www.erau.edu/research/BA590/chapters/ch2.htm Southwest Airlines: Route Network Development since 1971] . "Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Retrieved on April 20, 2006."] Willow Run Airport, in far-western Wayne County near Ypsilanti, is a general aviation and cargo airport.
Mass transitin the region is provided by bus services. Ridership on the region's mass transit systems increased by 8.4% in 2006. [Foran, Janet - MDOT (March 22, 2007). [http://www.metromodemedia.com/devnews/masstransit11.aspx Mass tranit ridership jumps in Southeast Michigan] . "Metromode". Retrieved on July 31, 2007.] The Detroit Department of Transportation(DDOT) provides service to the outer edges of the city. From there, the Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) provides service to the suburbs. Cross border service between the downtown areas of Windsor and Detroit is provided by Transit Windsorvia the Tunnel Bus.cite web
url = http://www.citywindsor.ca/000600.asp
title = Routes and Schedules
accessmonthday = September 25
accessyear = 2006
author = Transit Windsor.
An automated guideway transit system known as the People Mover, completed in 1987, provides daily service around a 2.9 mile (4.6 km) loop downtown.
Amtrakprovides service to Detroit, operating its Amtrak lines|Wolverine service between Chicagoand Pontiac. Baggage cannot be checked at this location; however, up to two suitcases in addition to any "personal items" such as briefcases, purses, laptop bags, and infant equipment are allowed on board as carry-ons. The current passenger facility is north of downtown. The "J.W. Westcott II", which delivers mail to freighters on the Detroit River, is the world's only floating post office. [ [http://continuouswave.com/boats/westcott/ America's Floating ZIP Code 48222] "J.W. Westcott Homepage". Retrieved on April 8, 2007.]
From 1976 until June 21, 2003, Detroit operated a one mile
narrow-gauge trolleyalong an "L-shaped" route from Grand Circus Parkto the Renaissance Centeralong Washington Boulevard and Jefferson Avenue, with the trams coming from Lisbon, Portugal. The tram was originally just 3/4 miles long, but was extended 1/4 mile to the Renaissance Center in 1980. The tracks were removed in November 2003 following the extensive reconstruction of Washington Boulevard, and the carbarn (building that housed the trolleys) was demolished in 2004. With the advent of the People Mover, trolley ridership had eventually plummeted to less than 3000 per year (from its peak of 75,000 riders per year) before the trolley suspended operations indefinitely. Its trolleys are currently being refurbished in Seattle. [http://www.heritagetrolley.org/existDetroit.htm] [http://www.railwaypreservation.com/vintagetrolley/detroit.htm] [http://web.presby.edu/~jtbell/transit/Detroit/Trolley/]
Southeast Michigan Council of Governments(SEMCOG) has analyzed the feasibility of a Detroit-Ann Arbor commuter line,Schneider, Keith (August 16, 2006). [http://www.metrotimes.com/editorial/story.asp?id=9543 Rail is right] . "Metro Times". Retrieved on May 20, 2008.] which would provide an added option for daily commuters between the two regional hubs. The proposed system would be funded by a $100 million federal grant that is secured based on the results of the study.
In a separate proposal,
DDOTis pursuing a plan to bring light rail rapid transit. In March 2008, it was announced that a line is being planned for Woodward Avenue. It will cost $372 million and is tentatively scheduled to begin operation by 2013. [ [http://www.detroittransit.org/cms.php?pageid=28#Ww Transportation Riders United, Detroit Transit Options for Growth Study] accessed September 12, 2008]
Metro Detroit has an extensive freeway system administered by the
Michigan Department of Transportation. The city is at the crossroads for three Interstate Highways. Detroit is connected via Interstate 75and Interstate 96to Kings Highway 401 and to major Southern Ontariocities such as London, Ontarioand the Greater Toronto Areaalong Highway 401. Upon construction and completion of a third border crossing, Detroit and the surrounding area would have a third direct link to the 400-Series freeway network, and have a direct connection to Kings Highway 401, eliminating (or greatly diminishing) the traffic jams that plague the Ambassador Bridge, and the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel. The Blue Water Bridgenear Sarnia, Ontariois another major commercial border crossing.
Detroit has six sister cities:" [http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/usa/MI Sister Cities Online Directory: Michigan, USA] ." " [http://www.sister-cities.org/ Sister Cities International, Inc.] ." Retrieved on October 5, 2008.]
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Detroit in literature
List of films set in Detroit
List of people from Detroit
List of songs about Detroit
List of tallest buildings in Detroit
Northern Cities Shift
*Cite book | author=Bak, Richard | year=2001 | title=Detroit Across 3 Centuries | publisher=Thompson Gale | id=ISBN 1585360015
*Cite book | author=Burton, Clarence M | year=1896 | title=Cadillac's Village: A History of the Settlement, 1701–1710 | publisher=Detroit Society for Genealogical Research | id=ISBN 0-943112-21-4
*Cite book | author=Burton, Clarence M | year=1912 | title=Early Detroit: A sketch of some of the interesting affairs of the olden time | publisher=Burton Abstracts | id=OCLC|926958
*Cite book | author=Chafets, Zev | title=Devil's Night: And Other True Tales of Detroit | publisher=
Random House| year=1990 | id=ISBN 0-394-58525-9
*Cite book | author=Farley, Reynolds, et al. | title=Detroit Divided | publisher=Russell Sage Foundation Publications | year=2002 | id=ISBN 0-87154-281-1
*Cite book | author=Farmer, Silas | year=1889 | title=History of Detroit and Wayne County and Early Michigan | publisher=Omnigraphics Inc; Reprint edition (October 1998) | id=ISBN 1-55888-991-4
*Cite book | author=Gavrilovich, Peter and Bill McGraw | title=The Detroit Almanac | year=2000 | publisher=
Detroit Free Press| id=ISBN 0-937247-34-0
*Cite book | author=Hill, Eric J. and John Gallagher | title= AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture| year=2002 | publisher=
Wayne State University Press| id=ISBN 0-8143-3120-3
*Cite book | author=Meyer, Katherine Mattingly and Martin C.P. McElroy with Introduction by W. Hawkins Ferry, Hon A.I.A.| title=Detroit Architecture A.I.A. Guide Revised Edition | year= 1980| publisher= Wayne State University Press| id = ISBN 0-8143-1651-4
*Cite book | author=Parkman, Francis | title=The Conspiracy of Pontiac | year=1994 | publisher=
University of Nebraska Press| id=ISBN 0-8032-8737-2
*Cite book | author=Poremba, David Lee | title=Detroit: A Motor City History (Images of America) | publisher=Arcadia Publishing | year=2003 | id=ISBN 0-7385-2435-2
*Powell, L. P (1901). "Detroit, the Queen City," "Historic Towns of the Western States" (New York).
*Cite book | author= Sharoff, Robert | title=American City: Detroit Architecture| publisher=Wayne State University Press| year=2005| id=ISBN 0-8143-3270-6
*Cite book | author=Sobocinski, Melanie Grunow | title= Detroit and Rome: building on the past | publisher=Regents of the University of Michigan| year=2005 | id=ISBN 0933691092
*Cite book | author=Sugrue, Thomas J | title=The Origins of the Urban Crisis | publisher=
Princeton University Press| year=1998 | id=ISBN 0-691-05888-1
*Cite book| author=Woodford, Arthur M.|title=This is Detroit 1701–2001|publisher=Wayne State University Press| year=2001|id=ISBN 0-8143-2914-4
Municipal government and local Chamber of Commerce
* [http://www.detroitmi.gov/ City of Detroit official website]
* [http://www.visitdetroit.com/ Detroit Metro Convention & Visitors Bureau]
* [http://www.detroitchamber.com Detroit Regional Chamber of Commerce]
Historical research and current events
* [http://www.aerialpics.com/ Aerialpics]
* [http://www.cityscapedetroit.org/ Cityscape Detroit]
* [http://detroit1701.org/Detroit_Homepage.html Detroit1701]
* [http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/ENGLISH/exhibits/franco_ontarian/detroit.htm French Ontario in the 17th and 18th Centuries - Detroit]
* [http://www.econclub.org/ Detroit Economic Club]
* [http://www.°C.org/ Detroit Economic Growth Corporation]
* [http://www.detroitentertainmentdistrict.com/ Detroit Entertainment District]
* [http://www.detroithistorical.org Detroit Historical Museums & Society]
* [http://www.detnews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/section?Category=METRO07 Detroit News Rearview Mirror]
* [http://www.detroitriverfront.org/ Detroit Riverfront Conservancy]
* [http://www.downtowndetroit.org/ddp/home.htm Downtown Detroit Partnership]
* [http://experiencedetroit.com/ Experience Detroit]
* [http://www.guide2detroit.com/ Guide2Detroit]
* [http://www.newcenter.com/ New Center Council]
* [http://www.naias.com/ North American International Auto Show]
* [http://www.theworldiscoming.com/seethechange.html The World is Coming]
* [http://myspace.com/cityofdetroit Myspace City of Detroit]
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