- Cantabrian mythology
It seems that the native Cantabrian
mythologyconnected, from the beginning and with the passing of the years, with Celtic and Roman mythologybecoming partly related with legends and traditions from the rest of the Cantabrian Mountains. In most cases its deeper meaning, passed from parents to children through oral tradition, has been diluted, either because this meaning has been lost or because the classic writers didn't gather all the popular wealth and mentality of the time, paying attention only to cults and divinities that were similar to theirs. On the other hand, the romanization and later incursion of Christianismtransformed the sense and representation of these pagan rites, reaching in many cases religious syncretism.
Cantabrianpeople still conserve more apologues and legends with a great ritualor behavioral component than significant tales.
Among the remains of myths that still persist as substrate in the Cantabrian tradition is the cult to great protective divinities, like the adoration to the
Sun, as is evident in Cantabrian Steles, and in relation to the cult of the fire [ bonfires of Saint John, coincident with solsticeof summer, could be a reminiscence] . Also, the Cantabrians worshiped a supreme divinity-father which in Roman time was associated with Jupiter and the cult to the Sun, and later with the Christian God[a beautiful bronze sculpture was discovered at Herrera de Camargo] .
Combined with the marked warlike disposition of the Cantabrians, appears a
godof war, subsequently identified as the Roman Mars, to whom they offered sacrifices of male goats, horses, or large numbers and prisoners, as Strabo, Horaceand Silius Italicuspoint out. [Estr. III,3,7] [Carm. III,4,34] [Silius III, 361] These hecatombs were accompanied by the drinking of the still warm blood of the horses, [Tacitus considers them by the Germans as ministers of the gods: quote|se (sacerdotes) enim ministros deorum, illos (equos) coscious putant|Germ. X] as Horace mentions in regard to the "concanos", and it will be, then, a true communion.
For the ancient Cantabrians these practices had a mystic origin thanks to the belief that these animals were sacred [
Julio Caro Barojasuggests the possibility of the existence of an equestrian deity among Hispanian Celts similar to that of the other European Celts.] . Some link this ritual very closely with the variant of the Celtic solar god Mars and that these animals they represented his reincarnation. [E. Thevenot. "Sur les traces des Mars Celtiques", Bruges, 1995.] [At Numantia, these representations of the horse-god are decorated with solar signs.]
Human sacrifices among the northern peoples are also mentioned by Saint Martin of Braga["De correctione rusticorum VIII"] and they will have the same value of redemption and prediction that for the rest of the Celts of Gaul, where they were very frequent. Then Strabo will tell that those who examined the prisoners' viscus, covering them with thin tunics, cut the right hand and consecrated it to the gods. The way to predict the future depended on the fall of the victim. [cite web
title=La religiosidad de los pueblos hispanos vista por los autores griegos y latinos
author=José María Blázquez Martínez
Together with this war deity, appear the germinator mother-godessess related to the Moon, remaining almost until the present time, when they have a clear influence in rural environments, evident in the phases of
sowingand gathering of the crops.
In the same way, the cult to a god of the
seawas assimilated in Roman times through Neptune (a statuette of this deity, but with features of the original Cantabrian divinity, was found in Castro Urdiales).
The ancient Cantabrians believed in the
immortalityof the spirit. Thus they demonstrated in their funeral rites where cremationpredominated, with the exception of those who died in combat, who had to rest in the battlefield until vultures opened their entrails to take their soulto Heavenand reunite in glory with their ancestors. This practice is testified in the engravings of the Cantabrian Stele of Zurita.
Sacrifice played a major role in the complex Cantabrian society in both its aspects: as a means to fulfill the divine will as well as the prevalence of abnegation to collectivity against the individual. Then, in a warring society, as the Cantabrian,
immolationwas not considered as primitive or barbarian but the strong determination required from the person to commit sacrifice gave it a great importance. That was the case of the " devotio", a singular and extreme sacrifice practices by the Cantabrians in which the warring communities joined their destiny to that of their leader. [cite web
author=Juan Carlos Cabria
title=Mitos y leyendas de Cantabria. El sacrificio, vía de unión con la divinidad
Telluric and arboreal mythology
At the same time, a terrenal mythology of adoration to
Gaia, the Mother Earth, exists through the divinization of animals, trees, mountains and waters like elementary spirits. Beliefs, on the other hand, common to all the people who received celtic influences.
Pico Dobra, in the valley of Besaya, have given evidence of their sacred condition since pre-Roman times through the altardedicated to the Cantabrian God " Erudinus", dated on the year 399, which demonstrates that these rites extended beyond the instauration of Christianity in the Roman Empireas official religion. In the same way toponyms like " Peña Sagra" ("Sacred Mount"), " Peña Santa" ("Saint Mount"), " Mozagro" ("Montem sacrum" = Sacred Mount) or " Montehano" ("montem fanum" = Mount of the Sanctuary) [Actually there is a old monastery whose origins date back to the 14th century and where there already was a small chapel-] indicate that they have been considered sacred places from the most remote antiquity.
Also divinized were the rivers and water bodies. At the
Mount Cildáappeared an area dedicated to the mother goddess "Mater Deva", known though the Celtic world and personified in the Deva river. At Otañesit was found a pateradedicated to the nymphof a fountain with medicinal properties. Pliny the Elder[Plin.,NH XXXI 23-24] mentions the existence in Cantabria of one of the intermitent fountains -the " Fuentes Tamáricas"- adored by the Cantabrians and that had a prophetic value and that corresponded to the current Velilla del Río Carrión. [According to Pliny there would be three close fountains whose waters got toghether in one pond and stop circulating from 12 to 20 days, interpreting these discontinuity of the flow as a negative sign.] Suetonius, in a story about the life of Galba, points uut as a symbolof good devinationhaving found, during his stay at Cantabria, 12 axes in a lake. [Suet., Galba, VIII 13] There were, without any doubt " exvotos" left there following their tradition (which is also found in other European peoples), which suggests a cult to the lakes. [A. Schulten. "Los cántabros y astures y su guerra con Roma". Madrid. 1943] The offerings to the waters of stipes, or bronze coins of low value, as well as other pieces of higher value, as denari, aurei and solidi, its manifested in the presence of some of those pieces at La Hermida, Peña Cutral, Alcedaand at the Híjar river.
At the same time, the forest were also divinized, a cult with clear Celtic influences through an arboreal mythology. Some species of trees were specially respected; the yew and the oak. The former is the most emblematic and symbolic species of Cantabria and it was venerated by Cantabrians in antiquity, being part of some of their rituals. We know by the accounts of Silius,
Florus, Plinyand Isidore of Seville, that Cantabrians committed suicidewith poisonthey got from the leaves of this tree, [The leaves of the yews and its seed, present in its red berries, contain a very toxic alkaloid, the taxine, that provokes hypotensionand cardiac arrests if consumed.] but they preferred deathrather than slavery. [Silius III, 328] [Florus II, 33, 50] [Pliny XVI, 50] [Isidore Book XVII, 9, 25] It's usual to find them at the town squares, at cemeteries, churches, chapels, palaces and big houses because of being considered a witness tree, which has allowed them to perpetuate that halo of mystery and sanctity that surrounds everything related with this species. [It's worth to mention the presence of millenary yews as the one that exists next to the pre-Roman church of Saint Mary of Lebeñaand under which the town councils took place. This tree, present in the [http://www.dgmontes.org/arboles.htm Inventory of Singular Trees of Cantabria] , has been [http://www.eldiariomontanes.es/prensa/20070324/cantabria/requiem-tejo-mariomontanes.es/prensa/20070324/cantabria/requem-tejo-milenario-lebena_20070324.html severwly damaged by a recent gale] .]
The oak is the Celtic tree by excellence maybe because it is the most sacred specied for the
druids, from which they recollected the muérdago. It is a species that carries lots of folkloristic, symbolic and magicmeanings in Cantabria, it was frequent to use it as " Maypole", the pole that presides the festivities in some towns, around which the people dance to celebrate the rebirth of the vegetal life. The quercussymbolized the union between the skyand the earth, image that gave them the position as axis of the world. They tend to attract lightnings, so it played a preponderant role in the ceremonies to attract the rainand the firein all Europe.
Oaks, beeches, holly oaks and yews were used as a place of tribal meetings for many generations where religious and secular
laws were taught. Until recent times it was usual to celebrate open meetings under centennial trees (the meetings of Trasmieragot together at Hoz de Anero, Ribamontán al Monte, under a great holly oak that still stands).
As in other peoples, in Cantabria there were dates that have been appropriated since antiquity for rituals and legends, days that are charged with dark or ancient meanings. For this reason during the summer solstice, the "night is magic". Tradition says, in all different variants, that the "
Caballucos del Diablo" ("Devil's little horses") and the witches loose their powers after dusk and the curanderos gain control over them; plants as the four-leaf clover, the fruit of the elder berry, the leaves of the willow, the common jupiter or the tree heath among others cure and bring happiness if they are collected at dawn. Around Christmas( winter solstice) there were ritual ceremonies, remains of ancient cults to the tree, the fireand the water. Around those dates the sources of the rivers and the balconies were dressed with flowers and people danced and jumped over the fire.
Also important were specific moments of the day, mostly the
twilight. Ancient Cantabrians talked about the " Sun of the Dead", referring to the last part of the day when the Sun was still visible and that they believed was sent by the dead. They believed that it marqued the moment in which the dead came back to life and several author have related it with the solar cult. [cite web
author= Juan Carlos Cabria
title=El culto solar II
Cantabrian people have not only telluric and natural divinities, but also fabulous beings with different aspectas that people feared or adored and have legends and histories on their own. There are many of the them in Cantabrian mythology, yet the most important are:
* The "
Ojáncano". The sorrow of Cantabria, this creature embodies the evil among the Cantabrians and represents the cruelty and the brutality. This giant cyclopsis the Cantabrian version of the Greek Polyphemusthat appears in other Indoeuropean mythologies. [Beings similar to the " Ojáncano" or the " Ojáncana" are found in other pantheons such as the Extremenian mithology(the Jáncanu or Pelujáncanu and the Jáncanas, where is also evident the similar denominations [http://www.funjdiaz.net/folklore/07ficha.cfm?id=1491] , [http://www.funjdiaz.net/folklore/pdf/292.pdf] , [http://www.alonsoquijano.org/esferas/marco1/paginas%20word/monstruos%20Susana.htm] , [http://www.babuesa.com/torri.htm] ) or the Basque mithology ( Tartaloor Torto] , among others.]
* The "
Ojáncana" or "Juáncana". Wife of the former, is even more ruthless as children are counted among her victims.
* The "
Anjana". Is the antithesis of the "Ojáncano" and the "Ojáncana". Good and generous fairy, she protects honest people, the lovers and those who get lost in the woods or roads.
* The "
Esteru". This is a Christmas character, he is a lumberjack that lives alone in the forest and makes toys to give them away in Christmas troughout Cantabria.
goblins. This is a large group of little mythological creatures, most of them mischievous. There are two groups among them, the domestic goblins, those who live in or around houses as Trasgoand Trastolillo; and the forest goblins, as Trentiand Tentirujo.
There are other fabulous beings that populate the mythological pantheon of Cantabria, as the "
Ventolín", the " Caballucos del Diablo", the " Nubero", the " Musgosu", the " Cuélebre", the " Ramidreju", etc. Or beautiful legends such as that of the " Sirenuca" ("Little Mermaid"), a beautiful but disobedient and spoiled lady with a fancy for climbing the most dangerous cliffs of Castro Urdialesto sing with the waves and was, therefore, transformed into an ephydriad. Or that of the Fish-man, a man from Liérganeswho loved to swim and that got lost at the Miera river, being finally found at the Bay of Cádiz, transformed into a strange aquatic being.
Cantabrian mythology nowadays
All these beings and legends prove the mystical mentality of a time, that was required in order to satisfy the Cantabrians needs to express their fears and to be able to enter into the hard and sometimes hostile and dangerours surrounding environment.
Even today there are Cantabrians that worship the "Anjanas", not being replaced by saints or virgins, as they still consider that some gifts are granted by these good fairies of the mountains, and even today the "Ojáncano" is used to scare the children when they are mischievous. But this world of meanings and values has become diluted little by little with the advance of the modernity and time, giving place to new urban legends and forgetting the old deities.
It is until now that Cantabrian mythology has attracted the interest of scholars, specially after the publishing of the recopilation made by the writer
Manuel Llano Merino(1898-1938) throughout his work, enrichened with oral tradition, and several other writers like Adriano García-Lomas.
* [http://www.atc.unican.es/~rafa/mitologia.html Cantabrian Mythology] (Spanish)
* [http://www.cantabriajoven.com/mitologia Cantabria joven. Mythology and Legends] (Spanish)
*"Mitos y Leyendas de Cantabria". Santander 2001. Llano Merino, M.. Ed. Librería Estvdio. ISBN 84-95742-01-2
*"Los Cántabros". Santander 1983. González Echegaray, J.. Ed. Librería Estvdio. ISBN 84-87934-23-4
*"Gran Enciclopedia de Cantabria". Santander 1985 (8 tomos) y 2002 (tomos IX, X y XI). Various. Editorial Cantabria S.A. ISBN 84-86420-00-8
*"Mitología y Supersticiones de Cantabria". Santander 1993.
Adriano García-Lomas. Ed. Librería Estvdio. ISBN 84-87934-87-0
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