Claudius Maximus

Claudius Maximus (2nd century AD) was a Stoic philosopher and a teacher of Marcus Aurelius.[1]

Marcus describes him as the perfect sage:

From Maximus I learned self-government, and not to be led aside by anything; and cheerfulness in all circumstances, as well as in illness; and a just admixture in the moral character of sweetness and dignity, and to do what was set before me without complaining. I observed that everybody believed that he thought as he spoke, and that in all that he did he never had any bad intention; and he never showed amazement and surprise, and was never in a hurry, and never put off doing a thing, nor was perplexed nor dejected, nor did he ever laugh to disguise his vexation, nor, on the other hand, was he ever passionate or suspicious. He was accustomed to do acts of beneficence, and was ready to forgive, and was free from all falsehood; and he presented the appearance of a man who could not be diverted from right, rather than of a man who had been improved. I observed, too, that no man could ever think that he was despised by Maximus, or ever venture to think himself a better man. He had also the art of being humorous in an agreeable way.[2]

Marcus also mentions his death and that of his wife Secunda.[3]

He may be the Claudius Maximus who was the proconsul of Africa before whom Apuleius delivered a defence against a charge of magic (c. 158 AD) in which he calls him a most religious man.[4]


  1. ^ Historia Augusta, Marcus Aurelius, 3.
  2. ^ Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, i. 15
  3. ^ Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, viii. 25
  4. ^ Apuleius, Apology.

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