Expressways of China


Expressways of China
Chinese expressway, complete with signage. Shown here is the G106 (Jingkai Expressway section) in southern Beijing. (Summer 2004 image)

The Expressway Network of the People's Republic of China (simplified Chinese: 中国高速网; traditional Chinese: 中國高速網; pinyin: Zhōngguó gāosùwǎng) is one of the longest in the world. The network is also known as National Trunk Highway System (NTHS). The total length of China's expressways was 74,000 kilometres (46,000 mi) at the end of 2010,[1] the world's second longest only after the United States and slightly longer than the total expressway length in the European Union. In 2010, 9,816 kilometres (6,099 mi) of expressways were added to the network.[2] The length of China's expressway system is expected to surpass that of the Interstate Highway System in 2011, but will remain shorter than that country's National Highway System.[3]

Expressways in China are a fairly recent addition to a complex network of roads. China's first expressway was built in 1988. Until 1993, very few expressways existed. One of the earliest expressways nationwide was the Jingshi Expressway between Beijing and Shijiazhuang in Hebei province. This expressway now forms part of the Jingzhu Expressway, currently one of the longest expressways nationwide at over 2,000 km.

Contents

History

Originally, China had been carrying out an ambitious plan to build up a 35,000 kilometer national trunk highway system. Construction of expressways began in 1988 and the network had been scheduled to be complete in 2020. The scale of the project can be seen by the fact that on January 1, 1989, the PRC had 147 km of freeways, but by January 1, 2008, it had 53,600 km of freeway, about 8,000 km of which were built in 2007. The main objective of the NTHS was to construct 12 high standard trunk roads: five longitudinal roads and seven latitudinal roads. 70% of the trunk roads are expressways. This project was completed by the end of 2007, 13 years ahead of the original plan.[4] By the end of 2007, there were already 3.57 million km of highways, which includes 53,600 km (33,300 mi) of expressways.[4] Design standards for China's National Trunk Highway System are derived from the standards used on the American Interstate Highway System, with Chinese expressway cross-sections, interchange profiles, and bridge designs closely reflecting their counterparts in the United States.

On January 13, 2005, it was announced by Zhang Chunxian, minister of communications, that China would build a network of 85,000 km expressways over the next three decades, connecting all provincial capitals and cities with a population of over 200,000. Of this total length, 68,000 km are trunk roads and 17,000 km are 5 regional ring roads. There are also 2 parallel routes and more than 30 connecting links. 32,000 km of expressway are to be built in central and western regions.

Historical development of expressway length in Mainland China

Combined G4/G5 (formerly, G030) (Jingshi Expressway section) after Zhaoxindian/Changxindian exit (Early July 2004 image)
Historical Development of Expressway Length in Mainland China[5]
Year Distance (KM)
01-01-1988 0
01-01-1989 147 km (91 mi)
01-01-1990 271 km (168 mi)
01-01-1991 522 km (324 mi)
01-01-1992 574 km (357 mi)
01-01-1993 652 km (405 mi)
01-01-1994 1,145 km (711 mi)
01-01-1995 1,603 km (996 mi)
01-01-1996 2,141 km (1,330 mi)
01-01-1997 3,422 km (2,126 mi)
01-01-1998 4,771 km (2,965 mi)
01-01-1999 8,733 km (5,426 mi)
01-01-2000 11,605 km (7,211 mi)
01-01-2001 16,314 km (10,137 mi)
01-01-2002 19,453 km (12,088 mi)
01-01-2003 25,200 km (15,700 mi)
01-01-2004 29,800 km (18,500 mi)
01-01-2005 34,300 km (21,300 mi)
01-01-2006 41,005 km (25,479 mi)
01-01-2007 45,339 km (28,172 mi)
01-01-2008 53,913 km (33,500 mi)
01-01-2009 60,436 km (37,553 mi)
01-01-2010 65,065 km (40,430 mi)
01-01-2011 74,000 km (46,000 mi)
01-01-2016 108,000 km (67,000 mi)

Costs

G42 Hurong expressway crossing Si Du River in Enshi Prefecture, Hubei. The bridge cost around US $100 million.[6]

The total costs of the national expressway network are estimated to be 2 trillion yuan (some 240 billion US dollars). From 2005 to 2010, the annual investment was planned to run from 140 billion yuan (17 billion US dollars) to 150 billion yuan (18 billion US dollars), while from 2010 to 2020, the annual investment planned is to be around 100 billion yuan (12 billion US dollars).

The construction fund will come from vehicle purchase tax, fees and taxes collected by local governments, state bonds, domestic investment and foreign investment. Unlike other freeway systems, almost all of the roads on the NTHS/"7918 Network" are toll roads that are largely financed by private companies under contract from provincial governments. The private companies raise money through bond and stock offerings and recover money through tolls.

Efforts to impose a national gasoline tax to finance construction of the tollways met with opposition and it has been very difficult for both the Communist Party of China and the State Council to pass such a tax through the National People's Congress of China.

Expressway nomenclature

An old signpost refers the Jingshi Expressway as the Jingshi Freeway, thus hinting at its previous nomenclature. (Summer 2004 image)

Neither officially named "motorway" nor "highway", the PRC used to call these roads "freeways". In this sense, the word "free" means that the traffic is free-flowing; that is, cross traffic is grade separated and the traffic on the freeway is not impeded by traffic control devices like traffic lights and stop signs. However, many misinterpret "free" as meaning "no cost", and this may be misleading because most of the expressways charge tolls. Sometime in the 1990s, "expressways" became the standardised term.

Note that "highways" refers to China National Highways, which are not expressways at all.

"Express routes" exist too; they are akin to expressways but are mainly inside cities. The "express route" name is a derivation of the Chinese name kuaisu gonglu (compare with expressway, gaosu gonglu). Officially, "expressway" is used for both expressways and express routes, which is also the standard used here.

The names of the individual expressways regularly are composed by two characters representing start and end of expressway, e.g. "Jingcheng" expressway is the expressway between "Jing" (meaning Beijing) and Chengde.

Expressway speed limits

The Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China has raised the speed limit nationwide from 110 km/h to 120 km/h (75 mph), effective May 1, 2004. It may still take some time for local expressways to raise the speed limit accordingly.

A minimum speed limit is in force, of 70 km/h. On overtaking lanes, however, this could be as high as 100 km/h to 110 km/h. Penalties for driving both below and in excess of the prescribed speed limits are in force.

Expressway legislation

Only motor vehicles are allowed to enter expressways. As of May 1, 2004, "new drivers" (i.e., those with a PRC driver's licence for less than a year) are allowed on expressways, something that was prohibited from the mid-1990s.

Overtaking on the right, speeding, and illegal use of the emergency belt (or hard shoulder) cost violators stiff penalties.

Expressway signage

Chinese expressway distances road sign. Shown here are some connections to the Expressways of Beijing in eastern Beijing. (Spring 2003 image)
Chinese expressway exit sign (older version). Shown here is an exit sign to Liangxiang Airport in southwestern Beijing on the Jingshi Expressway. (Summer 2004 image)

Expressways in China are signed in both Simplified Chinese and English (except for parts of the Jingshi Expressway, which relies only on Chinese characters, and some provinces, in Inner Mongolia for example signs are in Mongolian and Chinese). This sharply reduces the language barrier; however, very few toll officials at toll gates speak English.

The signs on Chinese expressways use white lettering on a green background, like Japanese highways, Swiss autobahns and United States freeways. Newer signage places the exit number in an exit tab to the upper right of the sign, making them very similar in appearance to American freeway signs.

Exits are well signed, with signs far ahead of exits. There are frequent signs that announce the next three exits. At each exit, there is a sign with the distance to the next exit. Exit signs are also posted 3000 m, 2000 m, 1000 m, and 500 m ahead of the exit, immediately before the exit, and at the exit itself.

Service areas and refreshment areas are standard on some of the older, more established expressways, and are expanding in number. Gas stations are frequent.

Signs indicate exits, toll gates, service/refreshment areas, intersections, and also warn about keeping a fair distance apart. "Distance checks" are commonplace; the idea here is to keep the two second rule (or, as PRC law requires, at least a 100 m distance between cars). Speed checks and speed traps are often signposted (in fact, on the Jingshen Expressway in the Beijing section, even the cameras have a warning sign above them), but some may just be scarecrow signs. Signs urging drivers to slow down, warning about hilly terrain, banning driving in emergency lanes, or about different road surfaces are also present. Also appearing from time to time are signs signaling the overtaking lane (which legally should only be used to pass other cars). Although most English signs are comprehensible, occasionally the English is garbled.

Some, if not most, expressways have digital displays. These displays may advise against speeding, indicate upcoming road construction, warn of traffic jams, or alert drivers to rain. Recommended detours are also signaled. The great majority of messages are only in Chinese.

Expressway exit numbering

Exit numbering has been standard in China from virtually day one, while some other nations are just catching on (e.g. Switzerland only in 2002). Most Chinese expressways, especially those in the national network, use distance-based exit numbering, with the last three numbers before the decimal point taken used as the exit number. Hence, an exit present at km 982.7 would be Exit 982, whereas an exit at km 3,121.2 would be Exit 121.

Mostly regional expressways still use sequential exit numbering, although even here, new signage feature distance-based exit numbering. Before the 2009–2010 numbering switchover, nearly all of China's expressways used sequential numbering, and a few expressways used Chinese names outright.

The exit is written inside an oval in green letters to the immediate right of the Chinese word for exit, "出口" (chukou).

Expressway tolls and financing

Chinese expressway toll gate. Shown here is the Dujiakan toll gate on the Jingshi Expressway in southwest Beijing. (Summer 2004 image)

Nearly all expressways charge tolls. Tolls are roughly around CNY 0.5 per kilometre, and minimum rates (e.g. CNY 5) usually apply regardless of distance. However, some are more expensive (the Jinji Expressway costs around CNY 0.66 per kilometre) and some are less expensive (the Jingshi Expressway in Beijing costs around CNY 0.33 per kilometre). It is noteworthy that cheaper expressways do not necessarily mean poorer roads or a greater risk of traffic congestion.

Chinese expressway toll charges table. In many jurisdictions it is legally required that charges be openly disclosed. Shown here is the toll charges table at Doudian exit on the Jingshi Expressway in southwest Beijing. (Autumn 2004 image)

Expressway planning is performed by the Ministry of Transportation of the People's Republic of China. Unlike the road networks in most nations, most Chinese expressways are not directly owned by the state, but rather are owned by for-profit corporations (which have varying amounts of public and private ownership) which borrow money from banks or securities markets based on revenue from projected tollways. One reason for this is that Chinese provinces, which are responsible for road building, have extremely limited powers to tax and even fewer powers to borrow.

Expressway construction has also been one of the rare instances in which the Communist Party of China and the State Council has had to back down on a major policy initiative. During the late-1990s, there were proposals to fund public highways by means of a fuel tax, but this was voted down by the National People's Congress.

Toll methods

Most expressways use a card system. Upon entrance to an expressway (or to a toll portion of the expressway), an entry card is handed over to the driver. The tolls to be paid are determined from the distance traveled when the driver hands the entry card back to the exit toll gate upon leaving the expressway. A small number of expressways do not use a card system but charge unitary fares. Passage through these expressways is relatively faster but it is economically less advantageous. An example of such an expressway would be the Jingtong Expressway.

ETC sign, along with exit signage, on China National Expressway 1 in Hebei

China is increasingly deploying a system of ETC systems, and in the latest edition of expressway toll gate signage, a new ETC sign is now shown at an increasing number of toll gates. ETC networks based around Beijing [1], Shanghai [2] and Guangdong province [3] all feature either mixed toll passages supporting toll card payment or full-service dedicated ETC lanes. Beijing, in particular, has a dedicated ETC lane at almost all toll gates.[7]

City transit cards are not widely used; one of the first experiments with the Beijing Yikatong Card on what is now the Jingzang Expressway (G6)[8] went live for only a year before a new national standard replaced it in early 2008.

Numeric System and List by number

G000 Series

A previous system, the 1992 "five vertical + seven horizontal expressways" system, was used for arterial expressways and were, in essence, G0-series expressways (e.g. G020, G025). This was replaced by the present-day new numeric system (see below).

New Numbering System

Signs using the new numbering system as seen on China National Expressway 1 in Tianjin

A new system, which dates from 2004 and began use on a nationwide level beginning late 2009 and early 2010, integrates itself into the present-day G-series number system. The present-day network, termed the 7918 Network (also known as the National Trunk Highway System (NTHS)), uses one, two or four digits in the G-series numbering system, leaving three-figured G roads as the China National Highways.

The new 7918 Network is composed of

  • 7 radial expressways leaving Beijing (G1-G7)
  • 9 vertical expressways going north to south (double digit G roads with numbers ending in an odd numeral)
  • 18 horizontal expressways head west to east (double digit G roads with numbers ending in an even numeral)

The network is additionally composed of connection expressways as well as regional and metropolitan ring expressways.

On a nationwide basis, expressways use the G prefix (short for "guojia" or "nation" in Chinese), as well as the character "国家高速" (National Expressway, white letters on a red stripe on top of the sign). For regional expressways, the prefix S (short for "shengji" or "province-level") is used instead, as well as the one-character abbreviation of the province and "高速" (expressway, black letters on an orange-yellow stripe on top of the sign.) The same numbering system is used for both national and regional expressways.

Map of the National Trunk Highway System
     operational
     under construction / planned

Numbering Rules

  • All expressways in this network begin with the letter G. (For regional expressways, the letter S is used instead.)
  • All expressways have a thin band on top of the sign. For national expressways, this will be red; for regional expressways, it will be orange-yellow.
  • For radial expressways leaving from or ending in Beijing, use a single digit from 1 to 9 (e.g. G1, G2).
  • For north-south expressways, use an odd number from 11-89 (e.g. G13, G35).
  • For west-east expressways, use an even number from 10-90 (e.g. G30, G46).
  • For regional expressways in the 7918 network, use numbers from 91-99 (e.g. G91, G93)
    • Note: G99 or the Taiwan Ring Expressway is currently a theoretical expressway based in Taiwan Province, which is claimed by the People's Republic of China, but is actually administered by the Republic of China. (In additional, the ROC has not built the eastern half as an expressway.) See Political status of Taiwan. See also Highway System in Taiwan for the current Republic of China-maintained Taiwan freeway system, which uses a different numbering system.
  • For the parallel expressways running alongside primary expressways, add the direction signal "W", "E", "N", "S" after the primary expressway number (e.g. G4W).
  • For connection expressways, use "1" plus an order number after the main line (e.g. G1511).
  • For city ring expressways, use "0" plus an order number after the main line number, starting from the smallest possible number.

List

Number and Name Origin Terminus Length
(km)
Notes
Radial Expressways from Beijing
China Expwy G1 sign with name.png G1 Beijing–Harbin Expressway Beijing Harbin 1,280 km (800 mi)
China Expwy G2 sign with name.png G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway Beijing Shanghai 1,245 km (774 mi)
China Expwy G3 sign with name.png G3 Beijing–Taipei Expressway Beijing Fuzhou (Taipei) 2,030 mi (3,270 km) See also Political Status of Taiwan.
China Expwy G4 sign with name.png G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway Beijing Hong KongMainland China border 2,285 km (1,420 mi) Extends into Shenzhen section of Hong Kong Route 10 and connects other expressways in Hong Kong. Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China.
China Expwy G4w sign with name.png G4W Guangzhou–Macau Expressway Guangzhou MacauMainland China border Connects to Macau's roads. Macao is a special administrative region of China.
China Expwy G5 sign with name.png G5 Beijing–Kunming Expressway Beijing Kunming 2865
China Expwy G6 sign with name.png G6 Beijing–Lhasa Expressway Beijing Lhasa 3710
China Expwy G7 sign with name.png G7 Beijing–Ürümqi Expressway Beijing Ürümqi 2540
North–South Expressways
China Expwy G11 sign with name.png G11 Hegang–Dalian Expressway Hegang Dalian 1390
China Expwy G1111 sign with name.png G1111 Hegang–Harbin Expressway Hegang Harbin
China Expwy G1112 sign with name.png G1112 Ji’an–Shuangliao Expressway Ji'an Shuangliao
China Expwy G1113 sign with name.png G1113 Dandong–Fuxin Expressway Dandong Fuxin
China Expwy G15 sign with name.png G15 Shenyang–Haikou Expressway Shenyang Haikou 3710
China Expwy G15w sign with name.png G15W Changshu–Taizhou Expressway Changshu Taizhou
China Expwy G1511 sign with name.png G1511 Rizhao–Lankao Expressway Rizhao Lankao
China Expwy G1512 sign with name.png G1512 Ningbo–Jinhua Expressway Ningbo Jinhua
China Expwy G1513 sign with name.png G1513 Wenzhou–Lishui Expressway Wenzhou Lishui
China Expwy G1514 sign with name.png G1514 Ningde–Shangrao Expressway Ningde Shangrao
China Expwy G25 sign with name.png G25 Changchun–Shenzhen Expressway Changchun Shenzhen 3580
China Expwy G2511 sign with name.png G2511 Xinmin–Lubei Expressway Xinmin Lubei, Jarud Banner
China Expwy G2512 sign with name.png G2512 Fuxin–Jinzhou Expressway Fuxin Jinzhou
China Expwy G2513 sign with name.png G2513 Huai'an–Xuzhou Expressway Huai'an Xuzhou
China Expwy G35 sign with name.png G35 Jinan–Guangzhou Expressway Jinan Guangzhou 2110
China Expwy G45 sign with name.png G45 Daqing–Guangzhou Expressway Daqing Guangzhou 3550
China Expwy G4511 sign with name.png G4511 Longnan–Heyuan Expressway Longnan Heyuan
China Expwy G55 sign with name.png G55 Erenhot–Guangzhou Expressway Erenhot Guangzhou 2685
China Expwy G5511 sign with name.png G5511 Jining–Arun Expressway Jining Arun (Arong) Banner
China Expwy G5512 sign with name.png G5512 Jincheng–Xinxiang Expressway Jincheng Xinxiang
China Expwy G5513 sign with name.png G5513 Changsha–Zhangjiajie Expressway Changsha Zhangjiajie
China Expwy G65 sign with name.png G65 Baotou–Maoming Expressway Baotou Maoming 3130
China Expwy G75 sign with name.png G75 Lanzhou–Haikou Expressway Lanzhou Haikou 2570
China Expwy G7511 sign with name.png G7511 Qinzhou–Dongxing Expressway Qinzhou Dongxing Connects Vietnamese expressway to Hanoi, Vietnam
China Expwy G85 sign with name.png G85 Chongqing–Kunming Expressway Chongqing Kunming 838
China Expwy G8511 sign with name.png G8511 Kunming–Mohan Expressway Kunming Mohan, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture Part of the Kunming-Bangkok Expressway via Laos and Thailand to Bangkok
East–West Expressways
China Expwy G10 sign with name.png G10 Suifenhe–Manzhouli Expressway Suifenhe Manzhouli 1520 Two terminal are both boundary cities. Connects the expressway in Russia and Mongolia
China Expwy G1011 sign with name.png G1011 Harbin–Tongjiang Expressway Harbin Tongjiang, Heilongjiang
China Expwy G12 sign with name.png G12 Huichun–Ulanhot Expressway Huichun Ulanhot 885 Connects the expressways in North Korea
China Expwy G1211 sign with name.png G1211 Jilin–Heihe Expressway Jilin City Heihe Connects the expressways in Russia
China Expwy G1212 sign with name.png G1212 Shenyang–Jilin Expressway Shenyang Jilin City
China Expwy G16 sign with name.png G16 Dandong–Xilinhot Expressway Dandong Xilinhot 960
China Expwy G18 sign with name.png G18 Rongcheng–Wuhai Expressway Rongcheng, Shandong Wuhai 1820
China Expwy G1811 sign with name.png G1811 Huanghua–Shijiazhuang Expressway Huanghua, Hebei Shijiazhuang
China Expwy G20 sign with name.png G20 Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressway Qingdao Yinchuan 1600
China Expwy G2011 sign with name.png G2011 Qingxin Expressway Qingdao Xinhe County, Hebei
China Expwy G2012 sign with name.png G2012 Dingwu Expressway Dingbian Wuwei
China Expwy G22 sign with name.png G22 Qingdao–Lanzhou Expressway Qingdao Lanzhou 1795
China Expwy G30 sign with name.png G30 Lianyungang–Khorgas Expressway Lianyungang Khorgas 4280
China Expwy G3011 sign with name.png G3011 Liuyuan–Golmud Expressway Liuyuan, Guazhou County, Jiuquan Golmud
China Expwy G3012 sign with name.png G3012 Turpan–Hotan Expressway Turpan Hotan
China Expwy G3013 sign with name.png G3013 Kashgar–Irkeshtam Expressway Kashgar Irkeshtam Connects to Kyrgyzstan
China Expwy G3014 sign with name.png G3014 Kuytun–Aksu Expressway Kuytun Aksu
China Expwy G3015 sign with name.png G3015 Kuytun–Tacheng Expressway Kuytun Tacheng Connects Kazakh expressways
China Expwy G3016 sign with name.png G3016 Qingshuihe–Ghulja Expressway Qingshuihe Yining
China Expwy G36 sign with name.png G36 Nanjing–Luoyang Expressway Nanjing Luoyang 712
China Expwy G40 sign with name.png G40 Shanghai–Xi'an Expressway Shanghai Xi'an 1490
China Expwy G4011 sign with name.png G4011 Yangzhou–Liyang Expressway Yangzhou Liyang
China Expwy G42 sign with name.png G42 Shanghai–Chengdu Expressway Shanghai Chengdu 1960
China Expwy G4211 sign with name.png G4211 Nanjing–Wuhu Expressway Nanjing Wuhu
China Expwy G4212 sign with name.png G4212 Hefei–Anqing Expressway Hefei Anqing
China Expwy G50 sign with name.png G50 Shanghai–Chongqing Expressway Shanghai Chongqing 1900
China Expwy G5011 sign with name.png G5011 Wuhu–Hefei Expressway Wuhu Hefei
China Expwy G56 sign with name.png G56 Hangzhou–Ruili Expressway Hangzhou Ruili 3405 Connects Burmese expressways
China Expwy G5611 sign with name.png G5611 Dali–Lijiang Expressway Dali Lijiang
China Expwy G60 sign with name.png G60 Shanghai–Kunming Expressway Shanghai Kunming 2370
China Expwy G70 sign with name.png G70 Fuzhou–Yinchuan Expressway Fuzhou Yinchuan 2485
China Expwy G7011 sign with name.png G7011 Shiyan–Tianshui Expressway Shiyan Tianshui
China Expwy G72 sign with name.png G72 Quanzhou–Nanning Expressway Quanzhou Nanning 1635
China Expwy G7211 sign with name.png G7211 Nanning–Youyiguan Expressway Nanning Youyiguan Connects Vietnamese expressways
China Expwy G76 sign with name.png G76 Xiamen–Chengdu Expressway Xiamen Chengdu 2295
China Expwy G78 sign with name.png G78 Shantou–Kunming Expressway Shantou Kunming 1710
China Expwy G80 sign with name.png G80 Guangzhou–Kunming Expressway Guangzhou Kunming 1610
China Expwy G8011 sign with name.png G8011 Kaiyuan–Hekou Expressway Kaiyuan Hekou County, Yunnan Connects Vietnamese expressways
Zonal Ring Expressways
China Expwy G91 sign with name.png G91 Liaozhong Ring Expressway Liaozhong Liaozhong Interconnects Tieling, Fushun, Benxi, Liaoyang,
Liaozhong, Xinmin, Tieling
China Expwy G92 sign with name.png G92 Hangzhou Bay Ring Expressway Shanghai Ningbo Interconnects Shanghai, Hangzhou, Ningbo
China Expwy G9211 sign with name.png G9211 Ningbo–Zhoushan Expressway Ningbo Zhoushan Interconnects Ningbo and Zhoushan
China Expwy G93 sign with name.png G93 Chengdu–Chongqing Ring Expressway Chengdu Chengdu Interconnects Chengdu, Mianyang, Suining, Chongqing,
Hejiang, Luzhou, Yibin, Leshan, Yaan, and Chengdu
China Expwy G94 sign with name.png G94 Pearl River Delta Ring Expressway Hong Kong-Mainland China border Hong Kong-Mainland China border Interconnects Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Zhongshan, Jiangmen, Foshan, Huadu, Zengcheng and Dongguan of mainland China,
Hong Kong and
Macao
China Expwy G9411 sign with name.png G9411 Dongguan–Foshan Expressway Dongguan Foshan Interconnects Dongguan, Humen, Foshan
China Expwy G98 sign with name.png G98 Hainan Ring Expressway Haikou Haikou Interconnects Haikou, Qionghai, Sanya, Dongfang, Haikou
China Expwy G99 sign with name.png G99 Taiwan Ring Expressway (observed)
currently branded:
TWHW1.png TNH 1, TW PHW1.png TPH 1 [Kaohsiung-Fangshan],
TW PHW9.png TPH 9 [Fangshan-Luodong], & TWHW5.png TNH 5 (counter clockwise)
Taipei Taipei Connects Taipei, Taichung, Kaoshiung, Taitung, Hualien, Taipei together
This is a theoretical expressway listed by the People's Republic of China.
Taiwan Province is currently administered by the Republic of China.
See Political Status of Taiwan. See also Highway System in Taiwan for the
current Republic of China-maintained Taiwan freeway system, which uses a different numbering system.

List of expressways in China

Municipalities: All expressways are ordered by direction (starting from the north, in west-to-east direction).
Other Regions: All expressways are ordered alphabetically.

Radial Expressways - Beijing

Existing expressways

Jingda Expressway (Madian - Datong (Shanxi))
(Jinghu Expressway (Beijing - Shanghai)
(Jingzhu Expressway (Liuliqiao - Zhuhai (Guangdong))

Expressways under construction

Projected expressways

Radial Expressways - Tianjin

Existing expressways

Radial Expressways - Shanghai

The Hujia Expressway in Shanghai. (Summer 2001 image)

Existing expressways

  • Huhang Expressway (A8) (Xinzhuang Interchange - Hangzhou)
  • Huning Expressway (A11) (Zhenbei Road Interchange - Nanjing)
/ Jinghu Expressway (Beijing - Shanghai)
  • A9 Expressway (Waihuan Huqingping Interchange - Qingpu - Zhujiajiao)
  • A12 Expressway (Wenshui Road - Jiading - Taicang)
  • A4 Expressway (Xinzhuang Interchange - Fengxian - Jinshan)
  • A5 Expressway
  • A30 Expressway (Suburb circular expressway, partly G010 National Highway)

Radial Expressways - Chongqing

Existing expressways

Hebei Province

Existing expressways

Expressways under construction

Projected expressways

  • Chengtang Expressway
  • Zhangshi Expressway
  • Yanhai Expressway
  • Qinghong Expressway

Shanxi Province

Liaoning Province

Jilin Province

Heilongjiang Province

Jiangsu Province

Zhejiang Province

Anhui Province

Fujian Province

Shenghai Expressway

Jiangxi Province

Shandong Province

Henan Province

Hubei Province

Existing Expressways

  • Airport Expressway (Jianghan District, Wuhan - Huangpi District, Wuhan)
  • G70 Fuyin Expressway (Huangmei County, Huanggang - Yunxi County, Shiyan)
    • Hanshi Expressway (Huangpi District, Wuhan - Zhangwan District, Shiyan)
      • Xiaoxiang Expressway (Xiaonan District, Xiaogan - Xiangyang District, Xiangfan)
    • Huangxiao Expressway (Huangmei County, Huanggang)
    • Shiman Expressway (Zhangwan District, Shiyan - Yunxi County, Shiyan)
    • Wuhuang Expressway (Hongshan District, Wuhan - Huangshigang District, Huangshi)
  • Hancai Expressway (Hanyang District, Wuhan - Caidian District, Wuhan)
  • Han'e Expressway (Qingshan District, Wuhan - Hongshan District, Wuhan)
  • Hanhong Expressway (Hanyang District, Wuhan - Hannan District, Wuhan)
  • Hanhuang Expressway (Jiang'an District, Wuhan - Huangpi District, Wuhan)
  • Hanma Expressway (Huangpi District, Wuhan - Hong'an County, Huanggang)
  • Hanyi Expressway (Caidian District, Wuhan - Xiling District, Yichang)
  • Huanghuang Expressway (Huangshigang District, Huangshi - Huangmei County, Huanggang)
  • Jingdong Expressway (Jingzhou District, Jingzhou - Gong'an County, Jingzhou)
  • Jingxiang Expressway (Jingzhou District, Jingzhou - Xiangyang District, Xiangfan)
  • Jingzhu Expressway (Dawu County, Xiaogan - Chibi City, Xianning)
  • Qingzheng Expressway (Hongshan District, Wuhan - Jiangxia District, Wuhan)
  • Wuhan Middle Ring Expressway
  • Wuhan Outer Ring Expressway (some parts concurrent with G4 Jinggang'ao Expressway, G42 Hurong Expressway, G50 Huyu Expressway, G70 Fuyin Expressway)

Expressways under construction

  • Suiyue Expressway (Zengdu District, Suizhou - Jianli County, Jingzhou)

Hunan Province

Guangdong Province

Hainan Province

  • Haiwen expressway
  • Hainan Ring Expressway

Sichuan Province

Guizhou Province

  • Yusan Expressway
  • Sankai Expressway
  • Kaima Expressway
  • Guixin Expressway
  • Qingzhen Expressway
  • Zhensheng Expressway
  • Chongzun Expressway
  • Guizun Expressway
  • Guibi Expressway
  • Guanxing Expressway
  • Liuhuang Expressway
  • Yutong Expressway
  • Guiyang City Ring Expressway

Yunnan Province

Shaanxi Province

  • Xiyu Expressway
  • Xihan Expressway
  • Hanning Expressway
  • Wuzi Expressway
  • Zijing Expressway
  • Jingwang Expressway
  • Shaanxi section of Qinglan Expressway
  • Xitong Expressway
  • Xibao Expressway
  • Xilan Expressway
  • Shanmeng Expressway
  • Yujing Expressway
  • Jingan Expressway
  • Huangyan Expressway
  • Xihuang Expressway
  • Xizha Expressway
  • Xilan Expressway
  • Yongxian Expressway
  • Yongchang Expressway
  • Shaanxi section of Dingwu Expressway
  • Xi'an City Ring Expressway
  • Shaanxi section of Shitian Expressway
  • Xi'an Airport Expressway
  • Tongfeng Expressway

Gansu Province

  • Liubai Expressway
  • Bailan Expressway
  • Lanhai Expressway
  • Gansu section of Jingxin Expressway
  • Tianding Expressway
  • Dinglan Expressway
  • Liuzhong Expressway
  • Yinzhong Expressway
  • Shuxu Expressway
  • Xugu Expressway
  • Guyong Expressway
  • Yongshan Expressway
  • Shanlin Expressway
  • Linqing Expressway
  • Qingjia Expressway
  • Jia'an Expressway
  • Gansu section of Fuyin Expressway
  • Lanlin Expressway
  • Gansu section of Dingwu Expressway
  • Gansu section of Liuge Expressway
  • Gansu section of Shitian Expressway
  • Yinzhong Expressway

Qinghai Province

  • Maping Expressway
  • Pingxi Expressway
  • Xihuang Expressway
  • Qinghai section of Liuge Expressway
  • Xita Expressway
  • Ningda Expressway
  • Ping'a Expressway

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region

  • Jilao Expressway
  • Huji Expressway
  • Hubao Expressway
  • Baoli Expressway
  • Liwu Expressway
  • Inner Mongolia section of Jingxin Expressway
  • Inner Mongolia section of Suiman Expressway
  • Inner Mongolia section of Hunwu Expressway
  • Chida Expressway
  • G109 Highway
  • Chitong Expressway
  • Baijifeng Expressway
  • Baodong Expressway
  • Dongsu Expressway
  • Tonglu Northwest Ring
  • Inner Mongolia section of Ji'a Expressway
  • Hohhot City Ring Expressway
  • Huzhun Expressway

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

  • Guiliu Expressway
  • Liunan Expressway
  • Nanwu Expressway
  • Nanbai Expressway
  • Nanyou Expressway

Tibet Autonomous Region

  • Tibet section of Jingzang Expressway

Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

  • Yinchuan City Ring Expressway
  • Ningxia section of Jingzang Expressway
  • Ningxia section of Qingyin Expressway
  • Ningxia section of Qinglan Expressway
  • Ningxia section of Fuyin Expressway
  • Ningxia section of Dingwu Expressway

Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

  • Xinjiang section of Jingxin Expressway
  • Tuwu Expressway
  • Wuda Expressway
  • Wukui Expressway
  • Kuisai Expressway
  • Saihuo Expressway
  • Tuhe Expressway
  • Heku Expressway
  • Xinjiang section of Tuhe Expressway
  • Xinjiang section of Kuia Expressway
  • Xinjiang section of Kuita Expressway
  • Xinjiang section of Qingyi Expressway
  • Wuda Expressway
  • Ürümqi/Wulumuqi Airport Expressway

See also

References

External links