The ALSE (Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment) (also known as Scientific Experiment S-209, according to NASA designations) was a
ground-penetrating radar(subsurface sounder) experiment that flew on the Apollo 17mission.
Mission and Science
This experiment used radar to study the
Moon's surface and interior. Radarwaves with wavelengths between 2 and 60 meters (frequencies of 5, 15, and 150 MHz) were transmitted through a series of antennas near the back of the Apollo Service Module. After the waves were reflected by the Moon, they were received using the same antennas and the data was recorded on film for analysis on Earth. The primary purpose of this experiment was to "see" into the upper 2 kilometers of the Moon's crust in a manner somewhat analogous to using seismic waves to study the internal structure of the Moon. This was possible because very long radar wavelengths were used and because the Moon is very dry, which allowed the radar waves to penetrate much deeper into the Moon than would have been possible if water were present in lunar rocks. (A radar experiment on the space shuttlehas been similarly used to map ancient river valleys beneath the SaharaDesert.) This experiment also provided very precise information about the Moon's topography. In addition to studying the Moon, the experiment also measured radio emissions from the Milky Way Galaxy.
This experiment revealed structures beneath the surface in
Mare Crisium, Mare Serenitatis, Oceanus Procellarum, and many other areas  . In the mare areas, layers were observed in several different parts of the basins and are therefore believed to be widespread features. Based on the properties of the reflected radar waves, the structures are believed to be layering within the basalt that fills both of these mare basins. In Mare Serenitatis, layers were detected at depths of 0.9 and 1.6 kilometers below the surface. In Mare Crisium, a layer was detected at a depth of 1.4 kilometers below the surface. The bottom of the mare basalts were apparently not detected by this experiment. However, in Mare Crisiumthe Lunar Sounder Experiment results were combined with other observations to estimate a total basalt thickness of between 2.4 and 3.4 kilometers.
The Lunar Sounder Experiment also contributed to our understanding of wrinkle ridges on the Moon. These long, low ridges are found in many of the lunar maria. Most lunar geologists believe that these ridges formed when the Moon's surface was deformed by motion along faults ("moonquakes") in the Moon's crust more than 3 billion years ago. The weight of several kilometers of mare basalt in these areas caused the Moon's surface to sag somewhat, and this motion caused the surface to buckle in some places, forming the wrinkle ridges. However, other scientists suggested that these ridges are volcanic features, formed by the flow of magma either on the Moon's surface or within the crust. The Lunar Sounder Experiment studied several wrinkle ridges in southern
Mare Serenitatisin detail, providing information about both the topography of these ridges and about structures in the crust below these ridges. These results support the idea that wrinkle ridges formed primarily by motions along faults. 
The ALSE instrument operated in two HF bands (5 MHz - HF1 - and 15 MHz - HF2) center frequencies and one
VHFband (150 MHz), each with a bandwidth of 10% (using a chirped signal). The two HF bands shared the same center-feed dipole antenna, while a 7 elements Yagi antennawas used for the VHF channel. Two different transceiver were used for the HF (alternating operation between HF1 and HF2 on a PRF-by-PRF basis) and VHF, sharing a common optical recorder. It was not possible to operate in VHF and HF simultaneously.The whole system weighted 43 kg and required 103 W of power.The electronics was located inside the Apollo Service Module. The two halves of the dipole antenna where retractable, on the two sides of the service module itself, while the Yagi used for VHF was stowed close to the main engine and then deployed into position after launch.
Being the primary objective of the experiment the mapping of subsurface layers, the most critical trade-off in the design was that of penetration depth vs resolution: lower frequencies penetrates more, but allowed a smaller signal bandwidth and, therefore, a worst resolution which, in turn, affected the capability to discriminate subsurface echoes close to the surface.The sounding capability was also affected by:
* the range
sidelobes of the compressed chirp: they can mask weak subsurface echoes if not properly controlled. ALSE was designed to have a minimum peak-to-sidelobes ratio of 45 dB after the 3rd lobe.
* the surface off-nadir clutter return, which can be confused with the subsurface echo with the same delay. To reduce the along-track clutter, a
synthetic apertureis generated in the ground processing, thus narrowing the effective antenna footprint.Clutter from across-track scatterers had instead to be inferred from the knowledge of the surface topography.
Automatic gain control(AGC) feature was included in all the channels to optimize the signal allocation within the receiver dynamic range. The AGC update rate was 30 sec.In both the HF and VHF transceivers, the chirp signal was generated by a swept oscillatorsynchronized with a STAble Local Oscillator (STALO) in order to preserve the phase coherency for the SAR processing. The received signal was converted at IF and the signal amplitude was used to amplitude-modulate a CRT (swept at PRF rate), in turn impressing a 70 mm film for optical recording of the data. Due to the high recording speed required for the wider bandwidth VHFchannel, to minimize the amount of recorded data, this channel used an echo tracking system to acquire and record only the main surface return and the 70 usec of echoes immediately following it. Additionally, on this channel, the receiver gain was increased 13 usec after the arrival of the main surface echo to best exploit the dynamic range on weak subsurface returns.
Being the recorder located in the service module, one of the astronauts (Ron Evans) had to perform an
Extra-Vehicular Activity(EVA) during the return flight from the Moonto collect the recorded films.
The processing facility on ground allowed for both full optical processing (at that time, the standard approach for SAR processing) performing azimuth and/or range compression, or digitization of rough or azimuth-compressed data for later digital processing.
During the developments phase, a modified ALSE prototype was installed on-board a KC-135 aircraft to perform sounding tests over the southeast US and over
Greenland, demonstrating the capabilities of the system.
The main parameters of the ALSE radar are summarized in the table below  :
Estimated Depth of Penetration(m)
Chirp bandwidth (MHz)
Range resolution, free space (m)
Transmitter peak power (W)
Antenna effective Gain (dBone-way)
Noise Figure (dB)
Pulse Repetition Frequency (Hz)
Acquisition window length (usec)
AGC Gain Range (dB)
# - http://www.lpi.usra.edu/expmoon/Apollo17/A17_Orbital_sounder.html on February 21, 2007
# - Porcello et al - "The Apollo Lunar Sounder Radar System" - Proceedings of the
IEEE, June 1974
# - Cooper, B.L.et al - "New evidence for graben origin of Oceanus Procellarum from lunar sounder optical imagery"
Journal of Geophysical Research[Planets] , ISSN 0148-0227, vol. 99, no. E2, p. 3799-3812, February 1994.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
alse — ⇒ALSE, subst. fém. Nymphe habitant les bois : • Les rangifères, les alses et les satyres couraient comme des ombres à travers la brume. V. HUGO, Le Rhin, 1842, p. 212. Rem. Attesté ds Lar. 19e, GUÉRIN 1892 et Nouv. Lar. ill. Prononc. ET ORTH. Dér … Encyclopédie Universelle
Alse — (Alosa Cuv.), Gattung der Fische, gebildet aus den Arten der Häringe, die in der Mitte der Oberkinnlade einen Ausschnitt haben, gleichen sonst den Pilcharden. Arten: a) A. communis (Clupea Alosa), Kopf klein, Unterkiefer etwas vorstehend, Seiten… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Alse — (Alose, Alosa Cuv.), Gattung der Heringe (Clupeidae), Fische mit seitlich zusammen gedrücktem Leib und sägeförmig gezähnelter Bauchkante. Der Maifisch (Mutterhering, A. vulgaris Cuv.), über 60 cm lang, 2,5 kg schwer, auf dem Rücken metallisch… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Alse — (Alōsa), Fischgattg. der Heringsfische; die gemeine A. oder der Maifisch (A. vulgāris Cuv. [Abb.]), im Mittelmeer und in der Nordsee, steigt im April und Mai zum Laichen aus dem Meer in die Flüsse; wohlschmeckendes Fleisch. Die Finte oder der… … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Alse — Alse, Mutterhäring, Maifisch (Alosa communis), Seiten weiß und schwarz gefleckt, oben blau, orange und grün schillernd, 4 Pfd. schwer, geht zur Laichzeit aus dem Meere in die Flüsse und im Herbste wieder zurück; das Fleisch der in den Flüssen… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Alse — Maifisch Alosa alosa Systematik Teilklasse: Echte Knochenfische (Teleostei) Überordnung … Deutsch Wikipedia
ALSE — Aviation Life Support Equipment (Governmental » Military) * Airlift Support Element (Governmental » Military) * Available Logistics Support Elements (Governmental » Military) … Abbreviations dictionary
Alse — Ạl|se 〈f. 19; Zool.〉 = Maifisch [<frz. alose <lat. alausa] … Universal-Lexikon
Alse — Ạl|se 〈f.; Gen.: , Pl.: n; Zool.〉 Maifisch, Heringsfisch, der bes. im Mai in Schwärmen auftritt [Etym.: <frz. alose <lat. alausa] … Lexikalische Deutsches Wörterbuch
ALSE — Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment Contributor: CASI … NASA Acronyms