Elstow Abbey was a monastery for
Benedictinenuns in Bedfordshire, England. It was founded c.1075 by Judith, Countess of Huntingdon, a niece of William the Conquerorand therefore classed as a royal foundation.
The monastery was known to have been involved in numerous lawsuits, with an array of monasteries including that of
Dunstable Priory, Newhouse and St Albans Abbey, concerning the advowsonof various parishes. The nuns often appear to have resorted to aggressive behaviour.There was further trouble in the 14th century when the nearby hospital of St Leonard needed to close and divert a footpath used by the abbey, for the purpose of building construction. The abbess objected and even following a lawsuit in which the abbey lost, they still prevented the work for a further two years until the hospital successfully sought intervention by the Crown, obtaining letters patent.
Further incidents followed:
In 1337 Elizabeth Morteyn, who was then abbess, claimed the 'third penny' from the town of
Bedford, in virtue of an alleged grant from Malcolm IV, King of Scotland; the case was carried before Parliament, and the burgesses were successful in proving that Malcolm never had any lordship in the town.
There were numerous reports and complaints of unorthodox behaviour, with a visiting bishop commenting that there was 'too much wandering of the nuns out of the monastery.' Also, as many of the nuns and usually the abbess came from high ranking families, they had friends at court who often visited and even stayed in the monastery purely for social reasons. Some 'secular' women even seem to have been living in the monastery and eventually Bishop Gynwell ordered that none were to stay except those granted a special license to do so. Even so, in 1379 Bishop Buckingham had to order the abbess to dismiss all secular persons from the monastery.
Various records of subsequent years show that little ever improved and if anything the monastery became increasingly secularised, with the nuns maintaining individual households, dining with friends and wearing secular clothing. Successive attempts at intervention seem to have been unsuccessful and probably ignored.
The dissolution and beyond
There were twenty three nuns in residence besides the abbess, Elizabeth Boyvill, when the monastery was closed in 1539, all of whom were then pensioned off. The land then passed to Edmund Harvey.
Following the dissolution, the majority of the church nave was blocked off and retained for parish use. The remainder of the church was demolished after 1580. In 1616 Sir Thomas Hillersdon purchased the remaining monastic buildings and incorporated them into a new house, which itself later became a ruin. The church contains some 15th century brasses, 17th century and later tombs and furnishings. Another survivor of the monastery is a small vaulted building on the south side of the church, originally a
parlourand now used as a vestry.
* 'Houses of Benedictine nuns: The abbey of Elstow', A History of the County of Bedford: Volume 1 (1904), pp. 353-58.
* Anthony New. 'A Guide to the Abbeys of England And Wales', p166-68. Constable.
Abbeys and priories in England
* [http://www.elstow-abbey.org.uk/index.html Official site]
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