Galvanic skin response
Galvanic skin response (GSR), also known as electrodermal response (EDR), psychogalvanic reflex (PGR), or skin conductance response (SCR), is a method of measuring the
electrical resistanceof the skin. There has been a long history of electrodermal activity research, most of it dealing with spontaneous fluctuations. Most investigators accept the phenomenon without understanding exactly what it means. There is a relationship between sympathetic activity and emotional arousal, although one cannot identify the specific emotion being elicited. The GSR is highly sensitive to emotions in some people. Fear, anger, startle response, orienting response and sexual feelings are all among the emotions which may produce similar GSR responses.
One branch of GSR explanation interprets GSR as an image of activity in certain parts of the body. The mapping of skin areas to
internal organsis usually based on acupuncture points. Fact|date=June 2008
GSR is conducted by attaching two leads to the skin, and acquiring a base measure. Then, as the activity being studied is performed, recordings are made from the leads. There are two ways to perform a GSR - in active GSR, current is passed through the body, with the resistance measured. In passive GSR, current generated by the body itself is measured.
The scientific study of GSR began in the early 1900s. One of the first references to the use of GSR instruments in
Psychoanalysisis the book by C. G. Jungentitled "Studies in Word Analysis", published in 1906. [ [http://www.trans4mind.com/transformation/gsr.htm The Biofeedback Monitor] ] It was used for a variety of types of research in the 1960s through the late 1970s, with a decline in use as more sophisticated techniques (such as EEG and MRI) replaced it in many areas of psychological research. GSR still sees limited use today, as it is possible to use with low-cost hardware ( galvanometer).
GSR measurement is one component of
polygraphdevices and is used in scientific research of emotional arousal. E-meterwhich is being used by the Church of Scientologyalso is based on GSR measurement.
GSR measurement is also becoming commonplace in
hypnotherapyand psychotherapypractice where it can be used as a method of detecting depth of hypnotic trance prior to suggestion therapycommencing. When traumatic material is experienced by the client (for example, during hypnoanalysis), immediate changes in galvanic skin response can indicate that the client is experiencing emotional arousal. It is also used in behavior therapyto measure physiological reactions such as fear. Skin conductance is also a factor in some modern electronics to measure the activation of touchscreendevices. This is notable as many of these devices that use capacitive screens cannot be used while wearing gloves as the sensors are not triggered by the low conductivity of rubber or leather.
* [http://it.uku.fi/biosignal/research/gsr.shtml University of Kuopio page on GSR Use]
* [http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/courses/ee476/FinalProjects/s2006/hmm32_pjw32/index.html Cornell GSR Class Project]
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galvanic skin response — noun a change in the electrical properties of the skin in response to stress or anxiety; can be measured either by recording the electrical resistance of the skin or by recording weak currents generated by the body • Syn: ↑GSR, ↑psychogalvanic… … Useful english dictionary
galvanic skin response — (also galvanic skin reflex) noun a change in the electrical resistance of the skin caused by emotional stress … English new terms dictionary
galvanic skin response — noun Date: 1942 a change in the electrical resistance of the skin that is a physiochemical response to emotional arousal which increases sympathetic nervous system activity … New Collegiate Dictionary
galvanic skin response — a change in the electrical conductivity of the skin caused by an emotional reaction to a stimulus. [1960 65] * * * … Universalium
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electrical skin response — noun a change in the electrical properties of the skin in response to stress or anxiety; can be measured either by recording the electrical resistance of the skin or by recording weak currents generated by the body • Syn: ↑galvanic skin response … Useful english dictionary
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