Salome (play)

"Salome" (or in French: "Salomé" ) is a tragedy by Oscar Wilde.The original 1891 version of the play was in French. Three years later an English translation was published. The play tells in one act the Biblical story of Salome, stepdaughter of the tetrarch Herod Antipas, who, to her stepfather's dismay but to the delight of her mother Herodias, requests the head of Jokanaan (John the Baptist) on a silver platter as a reward for dancing the "Dance of the Seven Veils".

Versions and premieres

Rehearsals for the play's debut on the London stage began in 1892, but were halted when the Lord Chamberlain's licensor of plays banned "Salomé" on the basis that it was illegal to depict Biblical characters on the stage. The play was first published in French in 1893, and an English translation, with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley, in 1894. On the Dedication page, Wilde indicates Lord Alfred Bruce Douglas as translator. In fact, Wilde had quarrelled about the translation with Lord Alfred because he thought his work unsatisfactory; the English text appears to be Wilde's own work, with Lord Alfred's as a basis.

The play eventually premiered in Paris in 1896, while Wilde was in prison. When asked why he had chosen to write Salomé in French, Wilde cited Maeterlinck as an example of the interesting effect resulting when an author writes in a language not his own.Fact|date=May 2008In June 1906 the play was presented privately with "A Florentine Tragedy" by the Literary Theatre Society at King's Hall, Covent Garden. The Lord Chamberlain's ban was not lifted for almost forty years; the first pulic performance of "Salomé" in England was at the Savoy Theatre on October 5, 1931.

Themes

Many view Wilde's Salomé as a superb composite of earlier treatments of the theme overlaid with Belgian playwright Maurice Maeterlinck's characteristic methodical diction. Although the "kissing of the head" element was used in Heine and even Heywood's production, Wilde's ingenuity was to move it to the play's climax. While his debts are undeniable, there are some interesting contributions in Wilde's treatment, most notably being his persistent use of parallels between Salomé and the moon.

Scholars like Nassaar point out that Wilde employs a number of the images favored by Israel's kingly poets and that the moon is meant to suggest the pagan goddess Cybele, who, like Salomé, was obsessed with preserving her virginity and thus took pleasure in destroying male sexuality.Fact|date=February 2008

Wilde's Salomé in later art

Wilde's version of the story has since spawned several other artistic works, the most famous of which is Richard Strauss's opera of the same name. The Strauss opera moves the center of interest to Salome, away from Herod Antipas.

In 1906 Maud Allan created a production entitled "Vision of Salomé", which debuted in Vienna. It was based loosely on Wilde's play. Her version of the Dance of the Seven Veils became famous (and to some notorious) and she was billed as "The Salomé Dancer". A production of the play led to a libel case in 1918, when Allan was accused of promoting sexual immorality.

The play, and most of the later filmed versions, have Herod as the center of the action. A strong actor, as with Al Pacino in his 1980s Circle in the Square production (and in 2006, in a Los Angeles production), or as with the Ken Russell movie Salome's Last Dance, Herod completely dominates the play.

The 1961 Biblical epic "King of Kings" uses lines of dialogue original to Wilde rather than the Gospel for some scenes involving Herod Antipas, John the Baptist, Herodias and Salome.

Australian musician Nick Cave wrote a 5-act play entitled "Salomé" which is included in the 1988 collection of Cave's writings, "King Ink" (the play alludes to the Gospel account, Wilde's play, and Pierre Puvis de Chavannes's 1869 painting, "The Beheading of John the Baptist").

Also heavily influenced by the play are The Smashing Pumpkins' video for the song "Stand Inside Your Love" and U2's Mysterious Ways and Salome.

Caffe Cino playwright Doric Wilson wrote a comic re-imagination of Wilde's Salome entitled "Now She Dances!".

Salome is metaphorically referenced in the anime Blood+.Spanish painter Gino Rubert created a series of pictures in 2005 [Spanish ed.: ISBN 8481095117 German edition, Club premiere 2006, without ISBN]

References

External links

*Project Gutenberg e-text of Wilde's "Salomé" (French): http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1339
*Full text of [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-salome?id=WilSalf&tag=public&
] (French) from the University of Virginia Library
* [http://www.gradesaver.com/classicnotes/titles/salome/ Study guide] containing analysis, glossary and historical background.
*Full text of [http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/browse-salome?id=WilSalo&
] (English) from the University of Virginia Library


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