Airsickness

DiseaseDisorder infobox
Name = Airsickness
ICD10 = ICD10|T|75|3|t|66
ICD9 = ICD9|994.6

Airsickness is a sensation which is induced by air travel.cite book |author=Benson AJ |title=Motion Sickness. In: Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments |volume=2 |chapter=35 |location=Borden Institute |place=Washington, DC |date=2002 |url=http://www.bordeninstitute.army.mil/published_volumes/harshEnv2/harshEnv2.html |accessdate=2008-05-09 ] It is a specific form of motion sickness, and is considered a normal response in healthy individuals. Airsickness occurs when the central nervous system receives conflicting messages from the body (including the inner ear, eyes and muscles) affecting balance and equilibrium.

The inner ear is particularly important in the maintenance of balance and equilibrium because it contains sensors for both angular (rotational) and linear motion. Airsickness is usually a combination of spatial disorientation, nausea and vomiting.Antunano, Melchor J., M.D. [http://www.faa.gov/pilots/safety/pilotsafetybrochures/media/SpatialD.pdf "Medical Facts for Pilots" (pdf)] Federal Aviation Administration, Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. Publication: AM-400-03/1.] Experimentally, airsickness can be eliminated in monkeys by removing part of the cerebellum, namely the nodulus of the vermis. [Lackner, James R. [http://www.graybiel.brandeis.edu/publications/PDF/191_ms_encns.pdf "Motion sickness" (pdf).] ]

Signs & Symptoms

Common signs and symptoms of airsickness include:

Nausea, vomiting, vertigo, loss of appetite, cold sweating, skin pallor, difficulty concentrating, confusion, drowsiness, headache, and increased fatigue. Severe airsickness may cause a person to become completely incapacitated.

Susceptibility to Airsickness

The following factors increase some people's susceptibility to airsickness:
*Fatigue, stress, and anxiety, are some factors that can increase susceptibility to motion sickness of any type.
*The use of alcohol, drugs, and medications may also contribute to airsickness.
*Additionally, airsickness is more common in women (especially during menstruation or pregnancy), young children, and individuals prone to other types of motion sickness. [Hain, Timothy C., M.D. (2006) [http://www.dizziness-and-balance.com/disorders/central/motion.htm "Motion Sickness".] ]
*Although airsickness is uncommon among experienced pilots, it does occur with some frequency in student pilots.

Avoiding Airsickness

Travelers who are susceptible to motion sickness can minimize symptoms by:
*Choosing seats with the smoothest ride in regards to pitch (the seats over the wings in an airplane).
*Sitting facing forward while focusing on distant objects rather than trying to read or look at something inside the airplane.
*Eating dry crackers, olives or suck on a lemon, to dry out the mouth, lessening nausea.
*Drinking a carbonated beverage.
*Susceptible student pilots should be handed the controls if they experience nausea. This will, in most cases, eliminate the sickness.

Treatment of Airsickness

Medication

Medications that may alleviate the symptoms of airsickness include:
*meclizine (Antivert, Bonine)
*dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) [cite journal |author=Weinstein SE, Stern RM |title=Comparison of marezine and dramamine in preventing symptoms of motion sickness |journal=Aviat Space Environ Med |volume=68 |issue=10 |pages=890–4 |year=1997 |month=October |pmid=9327113 ]
*diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
*scopolamine (available in both patch and oral form). [cite journal |author=Spinks AB, Wasiak J, Villanueva EV, Bernath V |title=Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness |journal=Cochrane Database Syst Rev |volume= |issue=3 |pages=CD002851 |year=2007 |pmid=17636710 |doi=10.1002/14651858.CD002851.pub3]
*ginger capsules [cite journal | last = Ernst | first = E. | coauthors = and M. H. Pittler | year = 2000 | title = Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials | journal = British Journal of Anaesthesia | volume = 84 | issue = 3 | pages = 367–371 | url = http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/84/3/367 | format = PDF | accessdate = 2006-09-06 | pmid = 10793599]

Pilots who are susceptible to airsickness should not take anti-motion sickness medications (prescription or over-the-counter). These medications can make one drowsy or affect brain functions in other ways.

NonPharmacologic Remedies

A method to increase pilot resistance to airsickness consists of repetitive exposure to the flying conditions that initially resulted in airsickness. In other words, repeated exposure to the flight environment decreases an individual’s susceptibility to subsequent airsickness. Recently, several devices have been introduced that are intended to reduce motion sickness through stimulation of various body parts (usually the wrist). [cite journal |author=Bertolucci LE, DiDario B |title=Efficacy of a portable acustimulation device in controlling seasickness |journal=Aviat Space Environ Med |volume=66 |issue=12 |pages=1155–8 |year=1995 |month=December |pmid=8747609 ]

Natural Remedies

There are numerous alternative remedies for motion sickness. The most popular are ginger derivatives, such as ginger tea or powdered ginger capsules. [cite journal | last = Ernst | first = E. | coauthors = and M. H. Pittler | year = 2000 | title = Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials | journal = British Journal of Anaesthesia | volume = 84 | issue = 3 | pages = 367–371 | url = http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/84/3/367 | format = PDF | accessdate = 2006-09-06 | pmid = 10793599] When the hosts of the popular American television program Mythbusters tested motion sickness remedies, they found that ginger was one of the most effective non-prescription remedies; however, the clinical study was inconclusive as the sample size was only two, and efficacy over placebo was not proven.

References

ee also

*Airsickness bag
*Motion sickness


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Airsickness — Airsick Air sick , a. Affected with air sickness or a[ e]rial sickness; feeling nauseous due to riding in an airplane. {Air sick ness}, n. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • airsickness — noun see airsick …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • airsickness — /air sik nis/, n. a feeling of nausea and dizziness, sometimes accompanied by vomiting, as a result of the motion of the aircraft in which one is traveling. Cf. motion sickness. [1775 85; AIR1 + SICKNESS] * * * …   Universalium

  • airsickness — noun a) nausea brought on by turbulence during flight b) motion sickness occurring during travel in an aircraft …   Wiktionary

  • airsickness — A condition resembling seasickness or other forms of motion sickness occurring in airplane or space flight as a result of erratic and continuous stimuli of the inner ear. * * * air·sick·ness (ārґsik nis) sickness due to change in air… …   Medical dictionary

  • airsickness — n. feelings of nausea and dizziness caused by the motion of an aircraft …   English contemporary dictionary

  • airsickness — See: airsick …   English dictionary

  • airsickness — air•sick•ness [[t]ˈɛərˌsɪk nɪs[/t]] n. pat motion sickness induced by travel in an aircraft • Etymology: 1775–85 air′sick , adj …   From formal English to slang

  • airsickness — noun motion sickness experienced while traveling by air (especially during turbulence) • Syn: ↑air sickness • Derivationally related forms: ↑airsick (for: ↑air sickness), ↑air sick (for: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Airsickness bag — An airsickness bag (also known as a barf bag, airsick bag, sick bag, or motion sickness bag) is a bag commonly provided to passengers onboard airplanes and boats to collect and contain vomit in the case of motion sickness. Hovercraft ferry… …   Wikipedia


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