Renewable energy policy
Renewable energy policy is the principal driver of the growth in
renewable energyuse. Renewable energy policy targets exist in some 66 countries around the world, and public policies to promote renewable energy use have become more common in recent years. At least 60 countries have some type of policy to promote renewable power generation. Mandates for solar hot waterin new construction are becoming more common at both national and local levels. Mandates for blending biofuelsinto vehicle fuels have been enacted in 17 countries.
International Energy Agencyestimates that nearly 50% of global electricity supplies will need to come from renewable energy sources in order to halve carbon dioxide emissions by 2050 and minimise significant, irreversible climate change impacts. The principal driver of today's rapid renewable energy growth is policy. Growth of renewables is strongest where and when the policy-makers have established favourable policy frameworks. In many countries, a rich and diverse policy landscape exists at national and local levels. [http://www.iea.org/Textbase/press/pressdetail.asp?PRESS_REL_ID=271 IEA urges governments to adopt effective policies based on key design principles to accelerate the exploitation of the large potential for renewable energy] ] [ [http://www.ren21.net/REPolicies/default.asp Renewable Energy Policies] ]
Renewable energy policy targets exist in at least 66 countries around the world, including the 27 European Union countries, 29 U.S. states, and 9 Canadian provinces. Most targets are for shares of electricity production, primary energy, and/or final energy for a future year. Most targets aim for the 2010–2012 timeframe, although an increasing number of targets aim for 2020, and there is now an EU-wide target of 20% of final energy by 2020, and a Chinese target of 15% of primary energy by 2020. In addition, targets for
biofuelsnow exist in several countries, including an EU-wide target of 10% biofuel share of transport energy by 2020. REN21(2008). [http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/renewables2007.pdf Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (PDF)] p. 7.]
Public policies to promote renewable energy use have become more common in recent years. At least 60 countries, 37 developed countries and 23 developing countries, have some type of policy to promote
renewable powergeneration. The most common policy is the feed-in law. By 2007, at least 37 countries and 9 states/provinces had adopted feed-in tariffs. Some 44 states, provinces, and countries have enacted renewable portfolio standards (RPS), also called renewable obligations or quota policies. [ REN21(2008). [http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/renewables2007.pdf Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (PDF)] p. 22.] There are also many other forms of policy support for renewable power generation, including investment subsidies or rebates, tax incentives and credits, sales tax exemptions, direct production payments (tax credits per kWh), green certificate trading, and net metering. [REN21 (2008). [http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/renewables2007.pdf Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (PDF)] p. 25.]
olar hot water
solar hot waterin new construction are becoming more common at both national and local levels. For many years Israel was the only country with a national level mandate, but Spain followed in 2006 with a national building code that requires minimum levels of solar hot water and solar photovoltaicsin new construction and renovation. [REN21 (2008). [http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/renewables2007.pdf Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (PDF)] p. 26.]
Mandates for blending
biofuelsinto vehicle fuels have been enacted in 17 countries at the national level and at least 36 states/provinces. Most mandates require blending 10–15 percent ethanol with gasoline or blending 2–5 percent biodieselwith diesel fuel. [REN21 (2008). [http://www.worldwatch.org/files/pdf/renewables2007.pdf Renewables 2007 Global Status Report (PDF)] p. 27.]
Renewable energy commercialization
Renewable energy industry
*HM Treasury (2006). "Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change", 575 pages.
*International Energy Agency (2006). "World Energy Outlook 2006: Summary and Conclusions", OECD, 11 pages.
*International Energy Agency (2007). "Renewables in global energy supply: An IEA facts sheet", OECD, 34 pages.
*National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2006). "Non-technical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature", Technical Report, NREL/TP-520-40116, September, 30 pages.
*REN21 (2008). "Renewables 2007 Global Status Report", Paris: REN21 Secretariat, 51 pages.
*United Nations Environment Program (2006). "Changing climates: The Role of Renewable Energy in a Carbon-constrained World", January, 33 pages.
*Worldwatch Institute and Center for American Progress (2006). "American energy: The renewable path to energy security", 40 pages.
* [http://www.iea.org/textbase/pm/grindex.aspx Global Renewable Energy: Policies and Measures]
* [http://www.iea.org/Textbase/work/workshopdetail.asp?WS_ID=318 Global Best Practice in Renewable Energy Policy Making]
* [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-03/07/content_7738087.htm More than 100 countries pledge to promote renewable energy]
* [http://www.iea.org/G8/2008/G8_Renewables.pdf Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies]
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