Askold and Dir
Askold ("Haskuldr" in Old East Norse and "Höskuldr" in Old West Norse) and Dir ("Dyri" in both dialects of
Old Norse) were, according to the " Primary Chronicle", two of Rurik's men who ruled Kievin the 870s. The chronicle implies that they were neither his relatives nor of noble blood.
The "Primary Chronicle" relates that Askold and Dir were sanctioned by Rurik to go to
Constantinople(Norse " Miklagard", Slavic " Czargrad"). When travelling on the Dnieper, they saw a settlement on a mountain and asked to whom it belonged. They were told that it was Kievand had been built by three brothers named Kyi, Schek and Khoriv, who were the ancestors of the inhabitants, who were now paying tribute to the Khazars. Askold and Dir settled in the town and gathered a large number of fellow Varangiansand began to rule the town and the land of the Polyane.
The only foreign source to mention one of the co-rulers is the
Arabhistorian Al-Masudi. According to him, "king al-Dir [Dayr] was the first among the kings of the " Saqaliba" (Slavs)." Although some scholars have tried to prove that "al-Dir" refers to a Slavic ruler and Dir's contemporary, this speculation is questionable and it is at least equally probable that "al-Dir" and Dir were the same person.Golden, P.B. (2006) "Rus." " Encyclopaedia of Islam" (Brill Online). Eds.: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill.] It seems that in old Russian it was originally "askold Dir" and not "Askold i Dir" as it is known from the Primary Chronicle. The word "askold" or "oskold" is derived from Old Norse"óskyldr" meaning "strange", so there was probably a ruler Kiev called Dir by the Slavs and the Varangians called him something like "óskyldr Dyri"—"stranger Dir". The Russian Varangians later forgot the meaning of "óskyldr" so Nestor wrote about two rulers of Kiev—about Askold and Dir.The interpretation of name Oskold/Askold is mentioned in the K.J.Erben's translation of the Primary Chronicleinto Czech language.]
The Rus' attack on Constantinople in June 860 took the Greeks by surprise, "like a thunderbolt from heaven," as it was put by Patriarch Photius in his famous oration written for the occasion. Although the Slavonic chronicles tend to associate this expedition with the names of Askold and Dir (and to date it to 866), the connection remains tenuous. Despite Photius' own assertion that he sent a
bishopto the land of Rus which became Christianized and friendly to Byzantium, most historians discard the idea of Askold's subsequent conversion as apocryphal.
When Rurik died he was succeeded by Oleg who was of his kin and in whose care was Rurik's son Igor. Oleg attacked and conquered Kiev around 882. [Many scholars believe the conquest of Kiev took place a generation later; see
Oleg of Novgorodfor discussion of the controversy surrounding this date.] According to the Primary Chronicle he tricked and killed Askold and Dir using an elaborate scheme. Vasily Tatischev, Boris Rybakovand some other Russian and Ukrainian historians interpreted the 882 coup d'état in Kiev as the reaction of the pagan Varangiansto Askold's baptism. Tatischev went so far as to style Askold "the first Russian martyr".
A Kievan legend identifies Askold's burial mound with Uhorska Hill, where
Olga of Kievlater built two churches, devoted to Saint Nicholasand to Saint Irene. Today this place on the steep bank of the Dnieper is marked by a monument called [http://www.kiev.info/culture/askold_grave.htm Askold's Grave] .
* [http://guide.kyiv.ru/ Kiev and Ukraine Travel Guide ]
* [http://www.kiev.info/culture/askold_grave.htm Guide to Askold's Grave]
* [http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=8072 Askold] at Find-A-Grave
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Askold y Dir — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Barcos en el Dniéper Askold (Haskuldr en nórdico antiguo oriental y Höskuldr en nórdico antiguo occidental) y Dir (Dyri en ambos diclectos del nórdico antiguo) fueron, según la Crónica de Néstor … Wikipedia Español
Askold's Grave — Askold’s Grave (also: Askold s Tomb , Russian: Аскольдова могила – Askol’dova mogila) is an opera in 4 acts by Alexey Verstovsky (1799 1862) to a libretto by Mikhail Zagoskin (1789 1852). It was the most successful of Verstovsky s six operas, and … Wikipedia
Askold — may refer to:*Askold and Dir *Russian cruiser Askold (1900) … Wikipedia
Dir — Contents 1 Acronyms 2 In computing 3 Places and areas 4 Peo … Wikipedia
Rus'–Byzantine War (860) — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Rus Siege of Constantinople caption=The Rus under the walls of Constantinople. partof=Rus Byzantine Wars date=860 place=Constantinople (Old East Slavic: Tsargrad , Old Norse: Miklagarðr ) result=Successful Rus… … Wikipedia
Historia de Kiev — El Arcángel Miguel, patrón de la ciudad de Kiev. La Historia de Kiev, la ciudad más grande y la capital de Ucrania, es larga y destacada. El momento exacto de la fundación de la ciudad es difícil de determinar. La legenda dice que el lugar del… … Wikipedia Español
Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate — The Christianization of the Rus Khaganate is supposed to have happened in the 860s and was the first stage in the process of Christianization of the East Slavs which continued well into the 11th century. Despite its obvious… … Wikipedia
Oleg of Novgorod — Oleg the Seer Grand Prince of Rus Oleg of Novgorod by Vasnetsov Reign 879–912 Predecessor Rurik Successor … Wikipedia
History of Kiev — The History of Kiev (also spelled Kyiv as per uk. Київ), the largest city and the capital of Ukraine, is long and remarkable.The exact time of city foundation is hard to determine.The legend has it that the emergence of the great city on the… … Wikipedia
Rus' Khaganate — The Rus Khaganate was a polity that flourished during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe (roughly the late 8th and early to mid 9th centuries CE). [ e.g., Christian 338.] A predecessor to the Rurik Dynasty and the Kievan… … Wikipedia