B movies (1980s to the present)
Cinematic exhibition of the
B movie, defined as a relatively low-cost genre film, has declined substantially from the early 1980s to the present. Spurred by the historic success of several big-budget movies with B-style themes beginning in the mid-1970s, the major Hollywood studios moved progressively into the production of A-grade films in genres that had long been low-budget territory. With the majors also adopting exploitation-derived methods of booking and marketing, B movies began to be squeezed out of the commercial arena. The advent of digital cinema in the new millennium appeared to open up new opportunities for the distribution of inexpensive genre movies.
The B movie loses its place: 1980s
Most of the B-movie production houses founded during the exploitation era collapsed or were subsumed by larger companies as the field's financial situation changed in the early 1980s. Even a comparatively cheap, efficiently made genre picture intended for theatrical release began to cost millions of dollars, as the major movie studios steadily moved into the production of expensive genre movies, raising audience expectations for spectacular action sequences and realistic special effects. Intimations of the trend were evident as early as "Airport" (1969) and especially in the mega-schlock of "The Poseidon Adventure" (1972), "Earthquake" (1973), and "The Towering Inferno" (1974). Their disaster plots and dialogue were B-grade at best; from an industry perspective, however, these were pictures firmly rooted in the tradition of star-stuffed extravaganzas like "The Ten Commandments" (1956) and "Around the World in Eighty Days" (1956). "The Exorcist" (1973) and, though not effects-driven,
George Lucas's " American Graffiti" (1973) were the first serious steps in Hollywood's transformation into an industry built around high-budget B-themed movies. But the tidal shift in the majors' focus owed largely to the enormous success of three films: Steven Spielberg's creature feature "Jaws" (1975) and Lucas's space opera"" (1977) had each, in turn, become the highest-grossing film in motion picture history. "Superman", released in December 1978, had proved that a studio could spend $55 million on a movie about a children's comic book character and make a very handsome profit. Not an all-time record-breaker like "Jaws" and "Star Wars", it was merely the biggest box-office hit of 1979. [ [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=superman.htm "Superman" (1978)] part of "Box Office Mojo" website. Retrieved 12/29/06.] Blockbuster fantasy spectacles like the original, 1933 "King Kong" had once been exceptional; in the new Hollywood, increasingly under the sway of multi-industrial conglomerates, they would rule. [See The eight majors in the post-system era for a record of the sales and mergers involving the eight major studios of the Golden Age.] It had taken a decade and half, from 1961 to 1976, for the production cost of the average Hollywood feature to double from $2 million to $4 million—actually a decline if adjusted for inflation. In just four years it more than doubled again, hitting $8.5 million in 1980 (a constant-dollar increase of about 25 percent). Even as the U.S. inflation rate eased, the average expense of moviemaking would continue to soar. [Finler (1988), p. 36. Prince (2002) gives $9 million as the average production cost in 1980, and a total of $13 million after adding on costs for manufacturing exhibition prints and marketing (p. 20). See also p. 21, chart 1.2. The "Box Office Mojo" website gives $9.4 million as the 1980 production figure; see [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/yearly/ Movie Box Office Results by Year, 1980–Present] . Retrieved 12/29/06.] With the majors now routinely saturation booking in over a thousand theaters, it was becoming increasingly difficult for smaller outfits to secure the exhibition commitments needed to turn a profit. Revival houses were now the almost-exclusive preserve of the double feature. One of the first leading casualties of the new economic regime was venerable B studio Allied Artists, which declared bankruptcy in April 1979. [Lubasch (1979).] In the late 1970s, American International Pictures(AIP) had moved into the production of relatively expensive comedies and genre films like the very successful "Amityville Horror" and the disastrous, $20 million "Meteor" in 1979. That same year, the studio was sold off to Filmways, a company with a history in TV production, and was dissolved as a moviemaking concern by the end of 1980. [Cook (2000), pp. 323–324.] Capitalizing on the popularity of "Hercules", in 1960 Roger Cormanhad made "Atlas" for a total of $75,000. [Per Corman in Di Franco (1979), p. 101] In 1982, Universal released a movie in the same tradition: fantasy plus muscles. The lead role was to be played by an Austrian-born actor with a great reputation as a bodybuilder but entirely unproven as a major film star. Adjusting for inflation, the cost of "Atlas" was about $400,000 in 1982 dollars. Production cost on "Conan the Barbarian" was an estimated $20 million. [ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0082198/business Business Data for "Conan the Barbarian" (1982)] part of "IMDb.com." Retrieved 1/8/07.] "Hercules" had opened in 600 theaters, an astonishing figure at the time. [Cook (2000), p. 324.] "Conan" opened in 1,395, making it one of more than twenty movies that year to open at over 900 theaters. [ [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?view2=releasedate&view=opening&yr=1982&p=.htm 1982 Yearly Box Office Results] part of "Box Office Mojo" website. Retrieved 12/29/06.]
Despite the mounting financial pressures, distribution obstacles, and overall risk, a substantial number of genre movies from small studios and independent filmmakers were still reaching theaters. In September 1980, Corman released his most expensive movie to date: "
Battle Beyond the Stars", with screenplay by John Saylesand art direction by James Cameron, cost his New World Picturesa grand total of $2 million. By comparison, the "Star Wars" sequel " The Empire Strikes Back", which came out three-and-a-half months before the Corman epic, was originally budgeted at $18.5 million and wound up costing $33 million, triple the cost of "Star Wars" just three years before. [Mackey-Kallis (2001), pp. 204–205.] Horror was the strongest low-budget genre of the time, particularly in the "slasher" mode as with "The Slumber Party Massacre" (1982), directed by Amy Holden-Jones and written by feminist author Rita Mae Brown. The film was produced for New World on a budget of $250,000. [Collum (2004), pp. 11–14.] At the beginning of 1983, Corman sold New World; New Horizons, later Concorde–New Horizons, became his primary company. In 1984, New Horizons released a critically applauded movie set amid the punk scene written and directed by Penelope Spheeris. Vincent Canby's admiring review ends with a definitive compliment: "Suburbia" is a good genre film." [Canby (1984). Note that [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0086589/ IMDb.com's entry on the film] incorrectly states that it was released by New World. Note that in his [http://www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/directors/06/corman.html "Senses of Cinema" entry on Corman] , Professor Wheeler Winston Dixon makes the following error: "Aimed strictly at the home video and direct-to-cable market, Corman's Concorde films included such titles as Penelope Spheeris' "Suburbia" (1984)." Aside from the fact that the Concorde name did not appear on the film, it received a widely reviewed theatrical release.]
Larry Cohencontinued to twist genre conventions in pictures such as "Q" (aka "Q: The Winged Serpent"; 1982): "the kind of movie that used to be indispensable to the market: an imaginative, popular, low-budget picture that makes the most of its limited resources, and in which people get on with the job instead of standing around talking about it." [Petit (1999), p. 1172.] In 1981, New Line Cinemaput out "Polyester", a John Waters movie with an estimated $300,000 budget and an old-school exploitation gimmick: Odorama. In October that year, a gore-filled yet stylish horror movie made for less than $400,000 was premiered at a theater in Detroit. [Cost per Bruce Campbell, cited in Warren (2001), p. 45] The writer, director, and co–executive producer of "The Book of the Dead", Sam Raimi, was a week shy of his twenty-second birthday; star and co–executive producer Bruce Campbellwas twenty-three. Retitled " The Evil Dead", it was picked up for distribution by New Line in 1983 and became a critical and commercial hit. Comparing it to "Night of the Living Dead", one reviewer said "it achieves a similarly claustrophobic intensity on a microscopic budget. It's a shoestring "tour de force"." [David Chute ("Los Angeles Herald-Examiner", May 27, 1983), quoted in Warren (2001), p. 94.]
One of the most successful B-movie companies of the 1980s was a survivor from the heyday of the exploitation era, Troma Pictures, founded in 1974. Troma's most characteristic productions, including "
Class of Nuke 'Em High" (1986), " Redneck Zombies" (1986), and " Surf Nazis Must Die" (1987), take exploitation for an absurdist spin. Troma also built on another B-studio tradition: re-releasing the often embarrassing early films of actors turning into major stars. In 1986, the company acquired and distributed two unreleased films, "Sizzle Beach U.S.A." (shot in 1974) and "Shadows Run Black" (shot in 1981), capitalizing on performances by Kevin Costner, who had recently appeared in the popular "Silverado" (1985) and was set to headline "The Untouchables" (1987). [Harper (2004), pp. 156–157.] Troma's best-known production is " The Toxic Avenger" (1985), whose hero, after plunging into a vat of toxic wastewhile attempting to escape a loathsome gang of tormentors, mutates into a hideous creature with enhanced physical strength and revenge on what's left of his mind. After the film's successful release, the character, affectionately known as Toxie, became the symbol of Troma and an icon of the 1980s B movie. One of the few successful B-studio startups of the decade was Rome-based Empire Pictures, whose first production, " Ghoulies", reached theaters in 1985. Despite other profitable ventures such as " Re-Animator" (1985), financial difficulties forced the company's American founder to sell it off in 1988. [ Morrow (1996), pp. 112–113; [http://www.cinematical.com/2005/10/03/interview-charles-band/ "Interview: Charles Band"] interview by Robert Newton, October 3, 2005; part of "Cinematical" website. Retrieved 1/4/07.]
The growth of the
cable televisionindustry in the 1980s helped support the low-budget film market, as many B movies quickly wound up as "filler" material for 24-hour cable channels or were made expressly for that purpose. The broadcast version of the midnight movieremained popular: the nationally syndicated "Movie Macabre" package starring Cassandra Peterson—aka Elvira, Mistress of the Dark—was essentially a brassier copy of "The Vampira Show", presenting mostly low-budget horror films interspersed with Elvira's satiric commentary and abundant display of cleavage. The video rental market was also becoming central to B-film economics: Empire's financial model, for instance, relied on seeing a profit not from theatrical rentals, but only later, at the video store. [Morrow (1996), p. 112.] A number of Concorde–New Horizon releases appeared only briefly in theaters, or not at all.
B's in the arthouse: 1990s
By 1990, the cost of the average U.S. film had passed $25 million. [ [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/yearly/ Movie Box Office Results by Year, 1980–Present] part of "Box Office Mojo" website. Retrieved 12/29/06.] Of the nine films released that year to gross more than $100 million at the U.S. box office, two would have been strictly B-movie material before the late 1970s: "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles" and "Dick Tracy". Three more—the science-fiction thriller "
Total Recall", the action-filled detective thriller " Die Hard 2", and the year's biggest hit, the slapstick kiddie comedy " Home Alone"—were also far closer to the traditional arena of the B's than to classic A-list subject matter. [ [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?yr=1990&p=.htm 1990 Yearly Box Office Results] part of "Box Office Mojo" website. Retrieved 12/29/06. Dick Tracy literally had been B-movie material—the character was featured in four low-budget RKO films in the mid- to late 1940s. For how espionage and crimebusting thrillers historically were "widely regarded as nothing more than B-movie fodder," see James Chapman, "Licence to Thrill: A Cultural History of the James Bond Films" (New York and Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press, 2000), pp. 46–50.] The growing popularity of home video and access to unedited movies on cable and satellite televisionalong with real estate pressures were making survival more difficult for the sort of small- or non-chain theaters that were the primary home of independently produced genre films. Drive-in screens were rapidly disappearing from the American landscape: between 1987 and 1990, the number in operation fell from 2,507 to 910. [ [http://www.drive-ins.com/exbgover.htm A Brief Overview] part of the "Drive on In" website. Retrieved 1/2/06.] Surviving B-movie operations adapted in different ways. Releases from Troma now frequently went straight to video. As if in farewell, the company brought a title to the big screen in 1991 that summed up much of the preceding three-and-a-half decades of B movies: " Chopper Chicks in Zombietown". Empire's founder, Charles Band, started a new production company, Full Moon, specifically to address the direct-to-video market. New Line, in its first decade, had been almost exclusively a distributor of low-budget independent and foreign genre pictures. With the smash success of exploitation veteran Wes Craven's original " Nightmare on Elm Street" (1984), whose nearly $2 million cost it had directly backed, the company began moving steadily into higher-budget genre productions. In 1994, New Line was sold to the Turner Broadcasting System; it was soon being run as a midsized studio with a broad range of product alongside Warner Bros.within the Time Warnerconglomerate. The following year, Showtimelaunched "Roger Corman Presents", a series of thirteen straight-to-cable movies produced by Concorde–New Horizons. A "New York Times" reviewer found that the initial installment qualified as "vintage Corman...spiked with everything from bared female breasts to a mind-blowing quote from Thomas Mann's " Death in Venice"." [O'Connor (1995).]
At the same time as exhibition venues for B films vanished, the independent film movement was burgeoning; among the results were various crossovers between the low-budget genre movie and the "sophisticated" arthouse picture. Director
Abel Ferrara, who built a reputation with violent B movies such as " The Driller Killer" (1979) and " Ms. 45" (1981), made two works in the early nineties that marry exploitation-worthy depictions of sex, drugs, and general sleaze to complex examinations of honor and redemption: " King of New York" (1990) was backed by a group of mostly small production companies and the cost of " Bad Lieutenant" (1992), $1.8 million, was financed totally independently. [Johnstone (1999), p. 16; [http://mondofausto.com/interview-abelferrara.htm "Abel Ferrara, Bad Lieutenant"] part of the Mondo Video website. Retrieved 1/1/07. Online claims that "King of New York" was budgeted at $8 million do not appear to be well founded. No reliable figure has been located to date.] Ferrara followed these two movies with " Body Snatchers" (1993), a major-studio remake of the sci-fi classic and an acknowledgment of his debt to the B's of an earlier generation. Larry Fessenden's micro-budget monster movies, such as "No Telling" (1991) and "Habit" (1997), reframe classic genre subjects— Frankensteinand vampirism, respectively—to explore issues of contemporary relevance—animal experimentation, ecological destruction, drug addiction, and fin-de-siècle urban romance. David Cronenberg, one of the leading B-movie auteursof the , had stepped up in financial grade with " Scanners" (1980), a $3.5 million production that " Time" critic Richard Corlissassociated with his earlier, low-budget films as well as George Romero's " Dawn of the Dead" (1978) and John Carpenter's " The Fog" (1980) as "hip parables of contemporary moral malaise." [Corliss (1981).] Cronenberg's crowning achievement in that vein would come a decade and a half later: Like that of "Scanners" in 1980, the budget of "Crash", $10 million, wasn't comfortably A-grade by 1996, but it was hardly B-level either. The film's imagery was another matter: "On its scandalizing surface, David Cronenberg's "Crash" suggests exploitation at its most disturbingly sick," is how Janet Maslin's "New York Times" review begins. The review ends with an explanation of the film's rating: "Crash" has the NC-17 rating (No one under 17 admitted) that it fully deserves. It includes frontal nudity, many sexual encounters and coolly grotesque situations linking sex and violence in graphic, sickening ways." [Maslin (1997).] Financed, like "King of New York", by a consortium of production companies, it was ultimately picked up for U.S. distribution by Fine Line Features. In more ways than one, this result resonated perfectly with the way the film scrambled definitions: Fine Line was a subsidiary of New Line, recently merged into the Time Warner empire—specifically, it was the old exploitation distributor's arthouse division.
The B movie in the digital age: 2000s
By the turn of the millennium, the average production cost of an American feature had already spent three years above the $50 million mark. [ [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/yearly/ Movie Box Office Results by Year, 1980–Present] part of "Box Office Mojo" website. Retrieved 12/29/06.] In 2005, the top ten movies at the U.S. box office included three adaptations of children's fantasy novels (including one extending and another initiating a series), a child-targeted cartoon, a comic book adaptation, a sci-fi series installment, a sci-fi remake, and a "King Kong" remake. [ [http://www.boxofficemojo.com/yearly/chart/?yr=2005&p=.htm 2005 Yearly Box Office Results] part of "Box Office Mojo" website. Retrieved 1/2/07.] It was a slow year for Corman: he produced just one movie, which had no American theatrical release, true of most of the pictures he had been involved in recently. "Bloodfist 2050", directed by long-time B filmmaker and Corman collaborator
Cirio H. Santiago, went straight to DVD in the United States. [See, e.g., [http://www.firecracker-media.com/issue17/interview1701.shtml "Made in the Philippines: Cirio H. Santiago Interviewed"] interview by Erika Franklin, "Firecracker" webzine, April 2006.] Ultrawide openings at many thousands of theaters were becoming the norm. In May 2007 alone, three fantasy blockbusters—"" (third in a series based on an amusement-park ride), " Spider-Man 3" (third in a series based on a superhero comic book), and " Shrek the Third" (third in a series of "family" cartoons)—each opened on over 10,000 screens. [Halbfinger (2007).] As big-budget Hollywood movies further usurped the genre territories that were traditionally the domain of the B's, the ongoing viability of the familiar brand of B movie was in grave doubt. Critic A. O. Scottof the "New York Times" warned of the impending "extinction" of
the cheesy, campy, guilty pleasures that used to bubble up with some regularity out of the B-picture ooze of cut-rate genre entertainment. Those cherished bad movies—full of jerry-built effects, abominable acting, ludicrous story lines—once flickered with zesty crudity in drive-ins and grind houses across the land. B-picture genres—science fiction and comic-book fantasy in particular, but also kiddie cartoons and horror pictures—now dominate the A-list, commanding the largest budgets and the most attention from the market-research and quality-control departments of the companies that manufacture them.... [F] or the most part, the schlock of the past has evolved into star-driven, heavily publicized, expensive mediocrities.... [Scott (2005).]On the other hand, recent industry trends suggest the reemergence of something that looks very like the traditional A-B split in major studio production, though with fewer "programmers" bridging the gap. According to a 2006 report by industry analyst Alfonso Marone, "The average budget for a Hollywood movie is currently around $60m, rising to $100m when the cost of marketing for domestic launch (USA only) is factored into the equation. However, we are now witnessing a polarisation of film budgets into two tiers: large productions ($120-150m) and niche features ($5-20m). The rationale is that the likelihood of success is maximised by coupling ultra-large budget and highly marketable features (e.g., ""), with multiple low-cost bets (e.g., "
Little Miss Sunshine"). Fewer $30-70m releases are expected." [ [http://www.spectrumstrategy.com/Pages/GB/perspectives/Spectrum-The-Hollywood-movie-business.pdf "One More Ride on the Hollywood Roller-coaster"] industry analysis by Alfonso Marone, Spectrum Strategy Consultants senior manager; part of the Spectrum Strategy website. Retrieved 12/29/06.]
"Little Miss Sunshine" was produced by
Fox Searchlight, the major studio's pseudo-indie subsidiary, for $8 million. With its quirky, "indie"-style comedy, the film hardly meets any conventional definition of a B movie beyond its relatively small budget, but the sorts of movies embraced by the term have shifted drastically before. Classic film noir's combination of visual beauty and verbal wit, for instance, was hardly common coin in exploitation-era B filmmaking. Further expanding the field, Fox launched a new subsidiary in 2006, Fox Atomic, to concentrate on teen-oriented genre films, mostly variations of horror. The genre focus is similar to that of Sony's Screen Gemsdivision and the Weinsteins' Dimension Films, but the economic model is deliberately low-rent, at least by major studio standards. According to a "Variety" report, "Fox Atomic is staying at or below the $10 million mark for many of its movies. It's also encouraging filmmakers to shoot digitally—a cheaper process that results in a grittier, teen-friendly look. And forget about stars. Of Atomic's nine announced films, not one has a big-name." [Zeitchik and Laporte (2006).] In sum, this is an updated version of a Golden Age big studio B unit targeting a market very similar to the one Samuel Z. Arkoffand James H. Nicholson's AIP helped define in the 1950s.
In a development hinted at in this "Variety" piece, recent technological advances are greatly facilitating the production of truly low-budget motion pictures. Although there have always been economical means with which to shoot movies, including Super 8 and
16 mm film, as well as videocameras recording onto analog videotape, these mediums could hardly rival the image quality of 35 mm film. The development and widespread usage of digital cameras and postproductionmethods allow even low-budget filmmakers to produce films with excellent (and not necessarily "grittier") image quality and precise editing effects—though technical excellence is no guarantee of aesthetic value or even cinematographic competence. As Marone observes, "the equipment budget (camera, support) required for shooting digital is approximately 1/10th that for film, significantly lowering the production budget for independent features. At the same time, over the past 2-3 years, the quality of digital filmmaking has improved dramatically." [ [http://www.spectrumstrategy.com/Pages/GB/perspectives/Spectrum-The-Hollywood-movie-business.pdf "One More Ride on the Hollywood Roller-coaster"] .] Independent filmmakers, whether working in a genre or arthouse mode, continue to find it difficult to gain access to distribution channels, though so-called digital end-to-end methods of distribution offer new opportunities. The so-called day-and-date strategy, in a which a film is released simultaneously in theaters as well as DVD and/or cable, may offer a way for the true low-budget B movie to regain some of the audience it has lost. [For a discussion of how day-and-date is being used for independent and foreign arthouse films, see Dargis (2007), p. 19.] In a similar fashion, the popularity of Internet sites such as YouTubehave opened up entirely new avenues for the presentation of motion pictures made on a shoestring. Abel Ferrara, envisioning his first digital film, says, "I want to do it on the Internet...and put it out in 10-minute increments. I know that watching films on computer is the future—it's a direct connection to the audience." [Nelson (2007), p. 66.]
Many of these developments have come together to create a boom in a relatively new form of low-budget genre picture. The fan film, typically an unauthorized production set in the imaginary universe of a popular genre movie or TV series, may be thought of as the most widespread present incarnation of the B movie. "Arguably the first fan film was "
Hardware Wars", a short spoof from 1977 depicting toasters and egg-beaters fighting in space," according to journalist Curt Holman. "In the first decade of the new millenni [um] , fan films have grown exponentially in quantity and improved significantly in quality and ambition... [t] hanks to digital cameras, affordable editing software and online distribution." [Holman (2007), p. 12.] In 2002, Lucasfilmcreated a yearly award ceremony for noncommercial fan films, arranging to screen them online via AtomFilms(purchased in 2006 by MTV Networks). "Star Wars: Revelations" (2005), a 40-minute drama directed by Shane Felux for a production cost of $20,000, has apparently been downloaded by millions. [Holman (2007), p. 12.] Similar projects are designed as "episodes" set in the TV-based " Star Trek" and "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" universes. In the realm of commercial filmmaking, a close relative of the fan film is the overt homage. Quentin Tarantinoand Robert Rodriguez's "Grindhouse" (2007) nods to a wide variety of exploitation styles popular from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. Criticizing the film, notwithstanding its "posture of cool," as yet another "blockbuster B-movie," Adario Strange places it in historical context: "Despite themselves, Tarantino and Rodriguez have the right idea. As the tools for filmmaking have become cheaper and more malleable, now is the time for rough, ugly, experimental films to shine again as they did in the '70s. The problem for these directors is that they are just too rich, too well-connected and too self-aware to produce films that are truly spit and chewing gum, bleeding-edge like Eric Nicholas' "Alone With Her", Vincent Gallo's " The Brown Bunny" or Shane Carruth's "Primer"—films most Americans will never see." [Strange (2007), p. 17.]
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*Halbfinger, David M. (2007). "Summer Cinema’s One-Week Wonders," "New York Times", July 18 (available [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/18/movies/18stud.html?_r=1&oref=slogin online] ).
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*Leydon, Joe (1997). "100 Proof"," "Variety", March 2 (available [http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117432607.html?categoryid=31&cs=1&p=0 online] ).
*Lubasch, Arnold H. (1979). "Allied Artists Seeks Help Under Bankrupcty Act; Allied Artists Files Chapter XI," "New York Times", April 5.
*Mackey-Kallis, Susan (2001). "The Hero and the Perennial Journey Home in American Film" (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press). ISBN 0-8122-3606-8
*Maslin, Janet (1997). "An Orgy of Bent Fenders and Bent Love," "New York Times", March 21 (available [http://movies2.nytimes.com/mem/movies/review.html?_r=1&title1=Crash%20(Movie)&oref=slogin online] ).
*Morrow, John (1996). "Cinekirbyesque: Examining Jack's Deal with Empire Pictures," "Jack Kirby Collector" 12 (July).
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*O'Connor, John J. (1995). "Horror Hero of the 90's, Half Man, Half Bomb," "New York Times", July 11 (available [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CEEDE173AF932A25754C0A963958260 online] ).
*Petit, Chris (1999). "The Winged Serpent" (aka "Q—The Winged Serpent")," in "Time Out Film Guide", 8th ed., ed. John Pym (London et al.: Penguin), 1172. ISBN 0-140-28365-X
*Prince, Stephen (2002). "A New Pot of Gold: Hollywood Under the Electronic Rainbow, 1980–1989" (Berkeley: University of California Press). ISBN 0-520-23266-6
*Rockoff, Adam (2002). "Going to Pieces: The Rise and Fall of the Slasher Film, 1978–1986" (Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland). ISBN 0-7864-1227-5
*Russell, Carolyn R. (2001). "The Films of Joel and Ethan Coen" (Jefferson, N.C., and London: McFarland). ISBN 0-7864-0973-8
*Sapolsky, Barry S., and Fred Molitor (1996). "Content Trends in Contemporary Horror Films," in "Horror Films: Current Research on Audience Preferences and Reactions", ed. James B. Weaver (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum), 33–48. ISBN 0-8058-1174-5
*Scott, A. O. (2005). "Where Have All the Howlers Gone?" "New York Times", "Arts & Leisure," December 18.
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*Warren, Bill (2001). "The Evil Dead Companion" (New York: St. Martin's). ISBN 0-312-27501-3
*Zeitchik, Steven, and Nicole Laporte (2006). "Atomic Label Proves a Blast for Fox," "Variety", November 19 (available [http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117954196.html?categoryid=13&cs=1 online] ).
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