Wuhan


Wuhan
Wuhan
武汉
—  Sub-provincial city  —
武汉市
From top: Wuhan and the Yangtze River, Yellow Crane Tower, Wuhan Custom House, and Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge
Wuhan City in Hubei
Wuhan is located in China
Wuhan
Location in China
Coordinates: 30°35′N 114°17′E / 30.583°N 114.283°E / 30.583; 114.283Coordinates: 30°35′N 114°17′E / 30.583°N 114.283°E / 30.583; 114.283
Country People's Republic of China
Province Hubei
County-level divisions 13
Township divisions 153
Settled 223 BC
Government
 – CPC Wuhan Ruan Chengfa (阮成发)
 – Mayor Tang Liangzhi (唐良智)
Area[1]
 – Total 8,494.41 km2 (3,279.7 sq mi)
Population (2010)[2]
 – Total 9,785,392
 – Density 1,152/km2 (2,983.6/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard Time (UTC+8)
Postal code 430000 – 430400
Area code(s) +86/27
License plate prefixes 鄂A
鄂O (police and authorities)
GDP (2008) CNY 396 billion (13th)[3]
GDP per capita CNY 44,148 (43rd)[3]
Website http://www.wuhan.gov.cn
City trees: metasequoia;City flowers: plum blossom
[citation needed]

Wuhan (simplified Chinese: 武汉; traditional Chinese: 武漢; pinyin: Wǔhàn [wùxân] ( listen)) is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in Central China. It lies at the east of the Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han rivers. Arising out of the conglomeration of three boroughs, Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, Wuhan is known as "the nine provinces' leading thoroughfare"; it is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city. It is recognized as the political, economic, financial, cultural, educational and transportation center of central China. The city of Wuhan, first termed as such in 1927, has a population of 9,785,392 people (Census 2010), with about 6,177,000 residents in its urban area. In the 1920s, Wuhan was the capital of a leftist Kuomintang (KMT) government led by Wang Jingwei in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek.

Contents

History

The area was first settled more than 3,000 years ago. During the Han Dynasty, Hanyang became a fairly busy port. In the 3rd century AD one of the most famous battles in Chinese history and a central event in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms—the Battle of Red Cliffs—took place in the vicinity of the cliffs near Wuhan. Around that time, walls were built to protect Hanyang (AD 206) and Wuchang (AD 223). The latter event marks the foundation of Wuhan. In AD 223, the Yellow Crane Tower (黄鹤楼) was constructed on the Wuchang side of the Yangtze River. Cui Hao, a celebrated poet of Tang Dynasty, visited the building in the early 8th century; his poem made the building the most celebrated building in southern China. The city has long been renowned as a center for the arts (especially poetry) and for intellectual studies. Under the Mongol rulers (Yuan Dynasty), Wuchang was promoted to the status of provincial capital, and by the dawn of the 18th century, Hankou had become one of China's top four most important towns of trade.

Wuhan Custom House, opened in 1862

In the late 19th century railroads were extended on a north-south axis through the city, making Wuhan an important transshipment point between rail and river traffic. Also during this time period foreign powers extracted mercantile concessions, with the riverfront of Hankou being divided up into various foreign controlled merchant districts. These districts contained trading firm offices, warehouses, and docking facilities.

In 1911, Sun Yat-sen's followers launched the Wuchang Uprising that led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic of China. Wuhan was the capital of a leftist Kuomintang government led by Wang Jingwei, in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek during the 1920s.

In 1938, Wuhan and the surrounding region was the site of the Battle of Wuhan, a major conflict in the Second Sino-Japanese War. After being taken by the Japanese in 1938, Wuhan became a major Japanese logistics center for operations in southern China. In December 1944, the city was largely destroyed by U.S. firebombing raids conducted by the Fourteenth Air Force. In 1967, civil strife struck the city in the Wuhan Incident as a result of tensions arising out of by the Cultural Revolution.

The city has been subject to numerous devastating floods, which are supposed to be controlled by the ambitious Three Gorges Dam, a project which was completed in 2008.

Opening Hankou as a trading port

During the Second Opium War (known in the West as the Arrow War, 1856–1860), the Government of Qing Dynasty was defeated by the western powers and signed the Treaties of Tianjin and the Convention of Peking, which stipulated eleven cities or regions (including Hankou) as trading ports. In December 1858, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, High Commissioner to China, led four warships up the Yangtze River in Wuhan to collect the information needed for opening the trading port in Wuhan. And in the spring of 1861, Counselor Harry Parkes and Admiral Herbert were sent to Wuhan to open a trading port. On the basis of the Convention of Peking, Harry Parkes concluded the Hankou Lend-Lease Treaty with Guan Wen, the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei. It brought an area of 30.53 square kilometers along the Yangtze River (from Jianghan Road to Hezuo Road today) to become a British Concession and permitted Britain to set up their consulate in the British Concession. Thus, Hankou became an open trading port.

Hubei under Zhang Zhidong

In the fifteenth year of Guangxu Period (1889) of the Qing Dynasty, Zhang Zhidong was transferred from Guangdong to be the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei. By 1906, he had governed Hubei for 17 years. During this period, he elucidated the theory of “Chinese learning as the basis, Western learning for application,” known as the ti-yong ideal. He set up many heavy industries, founded Hanyang Steel Plant, Daye Iron Mine, Pingxiang Coal Mine and Hubei Arsenal and set up local textile industries, boosting the flourishing modern industry in Wuhan. Meanwhile, he initiated educational reform, opened dozens of modern educational organizations successively, such as Lianghu (Hunan and Hubei) Academy of Classical Learning, Civil General Institute, Military General Institute, Foreign Languages Institute and Lianghu (Hunan and Hubei) General Normal School, and selected a great many students for study overseas, which well promoted the development of China’s modern education. Furthermore, he trained modern military and organized a modern army including a zhen and a xie (both zhen and xie are military units in the Qing Dynasty) in Hubei. All of these laid a solid foundation for the modernization of Wuhan.

Yellow Crane Tower

Wuchang Uprising

The Wuchang Uprising of October 1911, which overthrew the Qing Dynasty, originated in Wuhan. Prior to the uprising, anti-Qing secret societies were active in Wuhan. In September 1911, the outbreak of the protests in Sichuan forced the Qing authorities to send part of the New Army garrisoned in Wuhan to suppression the rebellion. On September 14 the Literature Society and Gongjinhui, two revolutionary organizations in Hubei, set up joint headquarters in Wuchang and planned for an uprising. On the morning of October 9, a bomb at the office of the political arrangement exploded prematurely and alerted local authorities. The proclamation for the uprising, beadroll and the revolutionaries’ official seal fell into the hands of Rui Cheng, the governor-general of Hunan and Hubei, who demolished the uprising headquarters the same day, and set out to arrest the revolutionaries listed in the beadroll. This forced the revolutionaries to launch the uprising earlier than planned.

On the night of 10th, the revolutionaries fired shots to signal the uprising at the engineering barracks of Hubei New Army, and then led on the New Army of all barracks to join the revolution. Under the guidance of Wu Zhaolin, Cai Jimin and others, this revolutionary army seized the official residence of the governor and government offices. Rui Cheng fled in panic into the Chu-Yu Ship, and Zhang Biao, the commander of Qing army, also fled the city. On the morning of 11th, the revolutionary army took the whole city of Wuchang, but leaders such as Jiang Yiwu and Sun Wu disappeared., thus the acephalous revolutionary army recommended Li Yuanhong, the assistant governor of Qing army, as the commander-in-chief. Li founded the Hubei Military Government, proclaimed the abolition of the Qing rule in Hubei, the founding of the Republic of China and published an open telegram calling for other provinces to join the revolution. In the next two months, fourteen other provinces would declare their independence from the Qing government.

As the revolution spread to other parts of the country, the Qing government concentrated loyalist military forces to suppress the uprising in Wuhan. From October 17 to December 1, the revolutionary army and local volunteers defended the city in the Battle of Yangxia against better armed and more numerous Qing forces commanded by Yuan Shikai. After fierce fighting and heavy casualties, Qing forces seized both Hankou and Hanyang, but Yuan agreed to halt the advance on Wuchang and participated in peace talks, which would eventually lead to the return of Sun Yat-sen from exile, founding of the Republic of China on January 1, 1912, the abdication of the Last Emperor on February 12, and the formation of a united provisional government in the spring of 1912. Through the Wuchang Uprising, Wuhan is known as the birthplace of the Xinhai Revolution, named after the Xinhai year on the Chinese calendar. The city has several museums and memorials to the revolution and the thousands of martyrs who died defending the revolution.

National government moved its capital to Wuhan

In 1926, with the north extension of Northern Expedition, the center of Great Revolution shifted from the Pearl River basin to the Yangtze River basin. On November 26, the KMT Central Political Committee decided to move the capital to Wuhan. In middle December, most of the KMT central executive commissioners and National Government commissioners arrived in Wuhan, set up the temporary joint conference of central executive commissioners and National Government commissioners, performed the top functions of central party headquarters and National Government, and declared they would work in Wuhan on January 1, 1927 and decided to combined the three towns of Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang into Wuhan City, called “Capital District”. The National Government was located in the Nanyang Building in Hankou, while the central party headquarters and other organizations chose their locations in Hankou or Wuchang.

Battle of Wuhan

In early October 1938, Japanese aggressors moved east and north respectively upon outskirts of Wuhan. As a result, numerous companies and enterprises and large amounts people had to withdraw from Wuhan to the west of Hubei and Sichuan. The KMT navy undertook the responsibility of defending the Yangtze River on patrol and covering the withdrawal. On 24 October, while overseeing the waters of the Yangtze River near the town of Jinkou (Jiangxia District in Wuhan) in Wuchang, the KMT warship Zhongshan came up against six Japanese planes. The planes took turns to dive, strafe and bomb the ship. Though two planes were eventually shot down, the Zhongshan warship sank down due to serious damage with 25 casualties.

Completion and opening-to-traffic of the First Yangtze River Bridge

The project of building the Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, also known as the First Yangtze River Bridge, was regarded as one of the key projects during the period of the first five-year plan. The Engineering Bureau of the First Yangtze River Bridge, set up by the Ministry of Railway in April 1953, was responsible for the design and construction of the bridge. The document “Resolutions on Building the First Yangtze River Bridge” was passed in the 203rd conference of State Council on 15 January 1954. The technical conference on the routes of the bridge, was held in Hankou on 15 January 1955, determined that the route from Tortoise Hill to Snake Hill was the best choice. On 25 October, the bridge proper was under construction. The same day in 1957 the whole project was completed and an opening-to-traffic ceremony was held on 15 October. The whole bridge was 1,670 m (5,479.00 ft) long, of which the superstratum was a highway with a width of 22.5 m (73.82 ft) and the substratum was a double-line railway with a width of 18 m (59.06 ft). The bridge proper was 1,156 m (3,792.65 ft) long with two pairs of eight piers and nine arches with a space of 128 m (419.95 ft) between each arch. Thanks to the First Yangtze River Bridge, Beijing-Wuhan and Guangdong-Wuhan railways were available and any place could be reached from Wuchang, Hankou to Hanyang. Thus Wuhan was a thoroughfare to nine provinces not only in reality but in name as well.

Geography and climate

Wuhan
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
43
 
8
0
 
 
59
 
10
2
 
 
95
 
14
7
 
 
131
 
21
13
 
 
164
 
26
18
 
 
225
 
30
22
 
 
190
 
33
25
 
 
112
 
33
25
 
 
80
 
28
20
 
 
92
 
23
14
 
 
52
 
17
8
 
 
26
 
11
2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: CMA [4]
Looking west from the Yellow Crane Tower in Wuchang. The First Bridge over the Yangtze, and the Tortoise Hill in Hanyang, with its TV tower, are in the background

Wuhan is situated in the middle of Hubei province, 113°41′-115°05′ East, 29°58′-31°22′ North, east of the Jianghan Plain, and the confluence of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and Hanshui River.

The metropolitan area comprises three parts – Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, commonly called the "Three Towns of Wuhan" (hence the name "Wuhan", combining "Wu" from the first city and "Han" from the other two). The consolidation of these three cities occurred in 1927 and Wuhan was thereby established. These three parts face each other across the rivers and are linked by bridges, including one of the first modern bridges in China, known as the "First Bridge". It is simple in geographical structure – low and flat in the middle and hilly in the south, with the Yangtze and Han rivers winding through the city. Wuhan occupies a land area of 8494.41 km2, most of which is plain and decorated with hills and a great number of lakes and pools.

Wuhan's climate is humid subtropical (Koppen Cfa) with abundant rainfall and four distinctive seasons. Wuhan is known for its oppressively humid summers, when dewpoints can often reach 26 °C (79 °F) or more.[5] Because of its hot summer weather, Wuhan is commonly known as one of the Three Furnaces of China, along with Nanjing and Chongqing. Spring and autumn are generally mild, while winter is cool with occasional snow. In the recent thirty years, the average annual rainfall is 1269 mm, mainly from June to August; annual temperature is 15.8℃-17.5℃, annual frost free period lasts 211 to 272 days and annual sunlight duration is 1810 to 2100 hours. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −18.1 °C (−1 °F) to 42.0 °C (108 °F).

Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Wuhan has direct jurisdiction over 13 districts (区 qu):

Map Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010 census)[2]
Area (km²)[1] Density
(/km²)
Subdivisions of Wuhan-China.png
Central Districts 6,434,373 888.42 7,242
Jiang'an District 江岸区 Jiāng'àn Qū 895,635 64.24 13,942
Jianghan District 江汉区 Jiānghàn Qū 683,492 33.43 20,445
Qiaokou District 硚口区 Qiáokǒu Qū 828,644 46.39 17,863
Hanyang District 汉阳区 Hànyáng Qū 792,183[6] 108.34 7,312
Wuchang District 武昌区 Wǔchāng Qū 1,199,127 87.42 13,717
Qingshan District 青山区 Qīngshān Qū 485,375 68.40 7,096
Hongshan District 洪山区 Hóngshān Qū 1,549,917[7] 480.20 3,228
Suburban and Rural Districts 3,346,271 7,605.99 440
Dongxihu District 东西湖区 Dōngxīhú Qū 451,880 439.19 1,029
Hannan District 汉南区 Hànnán Qū 114,970 287.70 400
Caidian District 蔡甸区 Càidiàn Qū 410,888 1,108.10 371
Jiangxia District 江夏区 Jiāngxià Qū 644,835 2,010.00 321
Huangpi District 黄陂区 Huángpí Qū 874,938 2,261.00 387
Xinzhou District 新洲区 Xīnzhōu Qū 848,760 1,500.00 566
Water Region (水上地区) 4,748 - -
Total 9,785,392 8,494.41 1,152

Transportation

The First Bridge at Wuhan. This view is upstream, toward the distant Three Gorges and Chongqing

Bridges

Wuhan has six bridges and one tunnel across the Yangtze River. The Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, also called the First Bridge, was built over the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) in 1957, carrying the railroad directly across the river between Snake Hill (on the left in the picture below) and Turtle Hill. Before this bridge was built it could take up to an entire day to barge railcars across. Including its approaches, it is 5,511 feet (1680 m) long, and it accommodates both a double-track railway on a lower deck and a four lane roadway above. It was built with the assistance of advisers from the Soviet Union.

The Second Bridge, a cable-stayed bridge, built of pre-stressed concrete, has a central span of 400 meters; it is 4,678 meters in length (including 1,877 meters of the main bridge) and 26.5 to 33.5 meters in width. Its main bridgeheads are 90 meters high each, pulling 392 thick slanting cables together in the shape of double fans, so that the central span of the bridge is well poised on the piers and the bridge's stability and vibration resistance are ensured. With six lanes on the deck, the bridge is designed to handle 50,000 motor vehicles passing every day. The bridge was completed in 1995.[citation needed]

Second bridge

The Third Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge was completed in September 2000. Located 8.6 kilometers southwest of the First Bridge, construction of Baishazhou Bridge started in 1997. With an investment of over 1.4 billion yuan (about 170 million U.S. dollars), the bridge, which is 3,586 meters long and 26.5 meters wide, has six lanes and has a capacity of 50,000 vehicles a day. The bridge is expected to serve as a major passage for the future Wuhan Ring Road, enormously easing the city's traffic and aiding local economic development.

The Yangluo Bridge carries Wuhan's Ring Road across the Yangtze in the city's eastern suburbs (connecting the Hongshan District with the Xinzhou District). It was opened on December 26, 2007.

The Wuhan Tianxingzhou Yangtze River Bridge crosses the Yangtze in the northeastern part of the city, downstream of the Second bridge. Its name is due to the Tianxing Island (Tianxingzhou), above which it crosses the river. Built at the cost of 11 billion yuan, the 4,657-meter cable suspension bridge was opened on December 26, 2009,[8] in time for the opening of the Wuhan Railway Station. It is a combined road and rail bridge, and carries the Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway across the river.

Railways

The old Dazhimen Station (大智门火车站), the original Hankou terminus of the Beijing-Hankou Railway. Constructed in 1900–1903, it was closed in 1991, after the opening of the present Hankou Railway Station

Until the late 2009, the city proper in Wuhan was served by two major railway stations, namely the Hankou Railway Station in Hankou and the Wuchang Railway Station in Wuchang. As a result, the railway system in China actually did not have a unique designation for the name "Wuhan", and trains heading to Wuhan are marked with the respective borough's station name, and not the city's.

The (original) Hankou Station was the terminus for the Jinghan Railway from Beijing, while the Wuchang Station was the terminus for the Yuehan Railway to Guangzhou. But since the construction of the First Yangtze Bridge and the linking of the two lines into the Jingguang Railway, both Hankou and Wuchang stations have been served by trains going to all directions, which contrasts with the situation in such cities as New York or Moscow, where different stations serve different directions.

With the opening of the Hefei-Wuhan high-speed railway on April 1, 2009,[9] Wuhan became served by high-speed trains with Hefei, Nanjing, and Shanghai; several trains a day now connect the city with Shanghai, getting there in under 6 hours. As of the early 2010, most of these express trains leave from the Hankou Railway Station.

The new Wuhan Railway Station, opened in 2009

In 2006, construction began on the new Wuhan Railway Station with 11 platforms, located on the northeastern outskirts of the city. In December 2009, the station was opened, as China unveiled its second high-speed train with scheduled runs from Guangzhou to Wuhan. Billed as the fastest train in the world, it can reach a speed of 394 km/h (244.82 mph). The travel time between the two cities has been reduced from ten and a half hours to just three. Eventually, the rail service will extend north to Beijing.[10]

As of the early 2010, the new Wuhan Railway Station is primarily used by the Wuhan-Guangzhou high-speed trains, while most regular trains to other destinations continue to use the Hankou and Wuchang stations.

Public transit

When Wuhan Metro opened in September 2004, Wuhan became the fifth Chinese city with a metro system (after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Guangzhou).[11] The first 10.2 km line (10 stations) is an elevated rail (and therefore called 'light rail' in Chinese terminology). It runs from Huangpu to Zongguan in the downtown area of the Hankou District, and it is the first one in the country to use a communication-based train control system (a Moving Block signalling system, provided by Alcatel). The designed minimum interval is only 90 seconds between two trains and it features driverless operation.[11] Phase 2 of this line will extend the length to 28.8 km (17.90 mi) with 26 stations in total. It plans to start revenue service on July 28, 2010.[12]

Air

Opened in April 1995, Wuhan Tianhe International Airport is one of the busiest airports in central China and it is located 26 km north of Wuhan. It has also been selected as China's fourth international hub airport after Beijing Capital International Airport, Shanghai-Pudong and Guangzhou Baiyun. A second terminal was completed in March 2008, having been started in February 2005 with an investment of CNY 3.372 billion.

Highway

Tourist sites

Replica instruments of ancient originals are played at the Hubei Provincial Museum. A replica set of bronze concert bells is in the background and a set of stone chimes is to the right
  • Wuchang has the largest lake within a city in China, the East Lake, as well as the South Lake.
  • The Hubei Provincial Museum includes many artifacts excavated from ancient tombs, including a concert bell set (bianzhong). A dance and orchestral show is frequently performed here, using reproductions of the original instruments.
  • The Rock and Bonsai Museum includes a mounted platybelodon skeleton, many unique stones, a quartz crystal the size of an automobile, and an outdoor garden with miniature trees in the penjing ("Chinese Bonsai") style.
  • Jiqing Street(吉庆街) holds many roadside restaurants and street performers during the evening, and is the site of a Live Show (生活秀) with stories of events on this street by contemporary writer Chi Li.
  • The Lute Platform in Hanyang was where the legendary musician Yu Boya is said to have played. According to the story of 知音 (zhi yin, "understanding music"), Yu Boya played for the last time over the grave of his friend Zhong Ziqi, then smashed his lute because the only person able to appreciate his music was dead.[citation needed]
  • Some luxury riverboat tours begin here after a flight from Beijing or Shanghai, with several days of flatland cruising and then climbing through the Three Gorges with passage upstream past the Gezhouba and Three Gorges dams to the city of Chongqing. With the completion of the dam a number of cruises now start from the upstream side and continue west, with tourists traveling by motor coach from Wuhan.
  • The Yellow Crane Tower (Huanghelou) is presumed to have been first built in approximately 220 AD. The tower has been destroyed and reconstructed numerous times, was burned last according to some sources in 1884. The tower underwent complete reconstruction in 1981. The reconstruction utilized modern materials and added an elevator, while maintaining the traditional design in the tower's outward appearance.
East lake  
Ancient bronze concert bells at the Hubei Provincial Museum  
Hubei Provincial Museum  
Yellow Crane Tower Bell of Wuhan  
Yellow Crane Tower of Wuhan  

Economy

Wuhan is a sub-provincial city. Its GDP was 450 billion CNY [3] and GDP per capita was approximately 64,000 CNY[3] as of 2009. In 2008, the city's annual average disposable income was 16,360 CNY.[13] Wuhan has currently attracted about 50 French companies, representing over one third of French investment in China, and the highest level of French investment in any Chinese city.[14]

Wuhan is an important center for economy, trade, finance, transportation, information technology, and education in Central China. Its major industries includes optic-electronic, automobile manufacturing, steel manufacturing, new pharmaceutical sector, biology engineering, new materials industry and environmental protection. Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Co. and Dongfeng-Citroen Automobile Co., Ltd headquartered in the city. There are 35 higher educational institutions including the well-known Wuhan University, Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 3 state-level development zones and many enterprise incubators. Wuhan ranks third in China in overall strength of science and technology.[15]

Industrial zones

Headquarters of Wu Chuan (Wuhan Shipbuilding Company)

Major industrial zones in Wuhan include:

  • Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone

Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone is a national level high-tech development zone. Optical-electronics, telecommunications, and equipment manufacturing are the core industries of Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone (ELHTZ) while software outsourcing and electronics are also encouraged. ELHTZ is China's largest production centre for optical-electronic products with key players like Changfei Fiber-optical Cables (the largest fiber-optical cable maker in China), Fenghuo Telecommunications and Wuhan Research Institute of Post and Telecommunications (the largest research institute in optical telecommunications in China). Wuhan ELHTZ also represents the development centre for China's laser industry with key players such as HUST Technologies and Chutian Laser being based in the zone.[16]

  • Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone

Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone is a national level industrial zone incorporated in 1993.[17] Its current zone size is about 10–25 square km and it plans to expand to 25–50 square km. Industries encouraged in Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone include Auto-mobile Production/Assembly, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals Production and Processing, Food/Beverage Processing, Heavy Industry, Telecommunications Equipment.

  • Wuhan Export Processing Zone

Wuhan Export Processing Zone was established in 2000. It is located in Wuhan Economic & Technology Development Zone, planned to cover land of 2.7sqkm. The first 0.7sqkm area has been launched.[18]

  • Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park

Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park is located in Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone. Wuhan Optics Valley Software Park is jointly developed by East Lake High-Tech Development Zone and Dalian Software Park Co., Ltd.[19] The planned area is 0.67 sqkm with total floor area of 600,000 square meters. The zone is 8.5 km (5.28 mi) away from the 316 National Highway and is 46.7 km (29.02 mi) away from the Wuhan Tianhe Airport.

Colleges and universities

Wuhan is the scientific and educational center of Central China, with 35 higher educational institutions such as Wuhan University and Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Wuhan ranks 3rd in China in scientific and educational strength: it contains three national development zones and four scientific and technologic development parks, as well as numerous enterprise incubators, over 350 research institutes, 1470 hi-tech enterprises, and over 400,000 experts and technicians. Wuhan also boasts eight national colleges and universities[20] and fourteen public colleges and universities.[21]

National

Wuhan University (founded in 1893)
武汉大学
Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST,founded in 1953)
华中科技大学
Wuhan University of Technology(WHUT)
武汉理工大学
China University of Geosciences
中国地质大学 (武汉)
Huazhong Agricultural University (founded in 1898)
华中农业大学
Central China Normal University (founded in 1903) (Huazhong Normal University)
华中师范大学
Zhongnan University of Economics and Law (founded in 1948)
中南财经政法大学
South-Central University for Nationalities
中南民族大学

Public

Hubei University
湖北大学
Wuhan University of Science and Technology
武汉科技大学
Jianghan University
江汉大学
Hubei University of Technology
湖北工业大学
Wuhan Institute of Technology
武汉工程大学
Wuhan University of Science and Engineering
武汉科技学院
Wuhan Polytechnic University
武汉工业学院
Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine
湖北中医学院
Wuhan Institute of Physical Education
武汉体育学院
Hubei Institute of Fine Arts
湖北美术学院
Hubei Police College
湖北警官学院
Wuhan Conservatory of Music
武汉音乐学院
Hubei University of Economics
湖北经济学院
Wuhan Bioengineering Institute
武汉生物工程学院
Hubei University of Education
湖北第二师范学院

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

Language

Wuhan natives speak a variety of Southwestern Mandarin Chinese.

Popular foods

Doupi on the left and Re-gan mian on the right
  • Hot and Dry Noodles, Re-gan mian (热干面) consists of long freshly boiled noodles mixed with sesame paste. The Chinese word re means hot and gan means dry. It is considered to be the most typical local food for breakfast.
  • Duck's neck or Ya Bozi (鸭脖子) is a local version of this popular Chinese dish, made of duck necks and spices.
  • Bean skin or Doupi (豆皮)is a popular local dish with a filling of egg, rice, beef, mushrooms and beans cooked between two large round soybean skins and cut into pieces, structurally like a stuffed pizza without enclosing edges.
  • Soup dumpling or Xiaolongtangbao(小笼汤包)is a kind of dumpling with thin skin made of flour, steamed with very juicy meat inside so that is why it is called Tang (soup) Bao (bun), because every time one takes a bite from it the soup inside spills out.
  • A salty doughnut or Mianwo (面窝) is a kind of doughnut with a salty taste. It's much thinner than a common doughnut, and is a typical Wuhan local food.

Notable people

  • Zhong Ziqi — (name in Chinese: 钟子期), ancient Chinese musician whose musical composition Flowing Water had been burned on a CD carried by the U.S. space probe Voyager 1 as a representative of the earth civilization in the hope of being picked by humans from other planets.
  • Peng Xiuwen — (name in Chinese: 彭修文), composer and conductor
  • Paula Tsui — (Chinese name: 徐小凤), a popular Chinese singer who spent most of her singing career in Hong Kong
  • Xu Fan — (name in Chinese: 徐帆), actress[citation needed]
  • Liu Yi Fei — (name in Chinese: 刘亦菲), actress and singer
  • Li Yuanhong — (name in Chinese: 黎元洪), the former President of the Republic of China.
  • Xiong Bingkun — (name in Chinese: 熊秉坤), the armyman who called the start to the Wuhan Uprising in the 1911 Revolution of China which gave birth to the Republic of China, Asia's first democratic country.
  • Chang-lin Tien — Professor Chang-lin Tien (name in Chinese: 田长霖) (24 July 1935 – 29 October 2002), the seventh Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley (1990–1997), the first Asian to head a major university in the United States.[citation needed]
  • Li Ting — (name in Chinese: 李婷), woman tennis player, Olympic gold medalist (in woman's doubles, Athens 2004)
  • Fu Mingxia — (name in Chinese: 伏明霞), woman diving athlete, four-time Olympic gold Medalist (1 in Barcelona 1992, 2 in Atlanta 1996, 1 in Sydney 2000), the only athlete that had won gold medals at 3 Olympiads as well as one of the very few divers in the world who are able to win world championship in both platform diving and springboard diving. diver
  • Zhou Jihong — (name in Chinese: 周继红), woman diving athlete, Olympic gold medalist (Los Angeles 1984), the first Chinese who has won an Olympic gold medal in diving.
  • Qiao Hong — (name in Chinese: 乔红), woman table tennis player, two-time Olympic gold medalist (in woman's doubles, Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996)
  • Wu Yi — (name in Chinese: 吴仪), former Vice-Premier and Minister Of Health of the People's Republic of China[22]
  • Xiao Hailiang — (name in Chinese: 肖海亮), Olympic gold medalist (in 3m springboard synchronized diving, Sydney 2000) diver
  • Gao Ling — (name in Chinese: 高凌), professional badminton player, two-time Olympic gold medalist (Sydney 2000, Athens 2004)
  • Li Na — (name in Chinese: 李娜), woman tennis player, Champion of the French Open 2011
  • Chi Li — (name in Chinese: 池莉), modern writer[citation needed]
  • Zhou Mi — Super Junior M member
  • Tang Jie Li — AIBA Women's Boxing World Champion
  • Tian Yuan — singer and actress

International relations

Pal cities

Wuhan is twinned with:

A karaoke bar near the HUST campus

Diplomatic representation

As of October 2011 there are three countries that have consulates in Wuhan:

The U.S. Consul General, the Honorable Ms. Diane L. Sovereign, has been stationed in Wuhan since 30 November 2009. The office of the U.S. Consulate General, Central China (located in Wuhan) celebrated its official opening on 20 November 2008 and is the first new American consulate in China in over 20 years.[26][27]

Image gallery

See also

References

Bibliography

  • Chi, Li (2000). Lao Wuhan (Old Wuhan): Yong Yuan De Lang Man... (part of the "Lao Cheng Shi" series). Nanjing: Jiangsu Meishu Chubanshe. 
  • Coe, John L. (1962). Huachung University (Huazhong Daxue). New York: United Board for Christian Higher Education. 
  • Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "The Three Wuhan Cities," pp.1–96 in The Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. 
  • Latimer, James V. (1934). Wuhan Trips: A Book on Short Trips in and Around Hankow. Hankow: Navy YMCA. 
  • MacKinnon, Stephen R. (2000). "Wuhan's Search for Identity in the Republican Period," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900–1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. 
  • Rowe, William T. (1984). Hankou: Commerce and Society, 1796–1889. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 
  • Rowe, William T. (1988). Hankou: Conflict and Community in a Chinese City, 1796–1895. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 
  • Song, Xiaodan and Zhu, Li (1999). Wuhan Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Wuhan). Beijing: Renmin Meishu Chubanshe (People's Fine Arts Publishing House). 

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Wuhan Statistical Yearbook 2010". Wuhan Statistics Bureau. http://www.whtj.gov.cn/documents/tjnj2010.pdf. Retrieved 31 July 2011. p. 15
  2. ^ a b "武汉市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报". Wuhan Statistics Bureau. 10 May 2011. http://www.whtj.gov.cn/Article/ShowArticle.aspx?id=6417. Retrieved 31 July 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d Almanac of Wuhan 2009, ranking 11th in mainland China: Wuhan Bureau of Statistics, Chapter 1 Section 9 http://www.whtj.gov.cn/documents/tjnj2009/1/1-9.htm
  4. ^ a b "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年)" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/shuju/search1.jsp?dsid=SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MMON_19712000_CES&tpcat=SURF&type=table&pageid=3. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  5. ^ Wunderground Archives (2008-01-09). "Temperatures in Wuhan". Wunderground. http://www.wunderground.com/cgi-bin/findweather/getForecast?query=wuhan. Retrieved 2008-01-09. 
  6. ^ includes 208,106 in Wuhan Economic Development Zone (武汉经济技术开发区)
  7. ^ includes 396,597 in Donghu New Technology Development Zone (东湖新技术开发区), 67,641 in Donghu Scenic Travel Zone (东湖生态旅游风景区), and 36,245 in Wuhan Chemical Industry Zone (武汉化学工业区)
  8. ^ Tianxingzhou highway-railway Bridge in Wuhan opens to traffic. english.cnhubei.com 2009-12-28
  9. ^ Two high-speed rail links start April 1
  10. ^ [Source: Beijing (AFP, Sat Dec 26, 7:54 am ET]
  11. ^ a b "> Asia > China > Wuhan Metro". UrbanRail.Net. http://urbanrail.net/as/wuha/wuhan.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  12. ^ "武汉建设网-国内最长轻轨今晨贯通 力争7月28日通车". Zdgc.whjs.gov.cn. http://zdgc.whjs.gov.cn/content/2010-04/21/content_186692.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-21. 
  13. ^ With monthly disposable income:1392.7 CNY. Almanac of Wuhan 2009: Wuhan Bureau of Statistics, Chapter 1 Section 8 http://www.whtj.gov.cn/documents/tjnj2009/1/1-8.htm.
  14. ^ People's Daily Online (2005-10-25). "Wuhan absorbs most French investment in China". People's Daily. http://english.people.com.cn/200510/25/eng20051025_216752.html. Retrieved 2006-10-23. 
  15. ^ 大汉网络 (2004-09-03). "The Thoroughfare to Nine Provinces-Wuhan City". Cnhubei.com. http://www.cnhubei.com/200502/ca677743.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 
  16. ^ RightSite.asia | Wuhan East Lake High-Tech Development Zone
  17. ^ RightSite.asia | Wuhan Economic and Technological Development Zone
  18. ^ RightSite.asia | Wuhan Export Processing Zone
  19. ^ RightSite.asia | Wuhan Optical Valley (Guanggu) Software Park
  20. ^ "National Colleges and Universities" (in Simplified Chinese). Hubei Provincial Department of Education. 2006-08-31. http://www.hbe.gov.cn/e21web/jyt/hbgx_list.php?college_kinds=1. 
  21. ^ "Public Colleges and Universities" (in Simplified Chinese). Hubei Provincial Department of Education. 2006-08-31. http://www.hbe.gov.cn/e21web/jyt/hbgx_list.php?college_kinds=2. 
  22. ^ "#2 Wu Yi Vice Premier, minister of health". Forbes. 2005-11. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/11/GGD7.html. 
  23. ^ US Department of State (2008-11-23). "Consulate General of the United States Wuhan, China". http://wuhan.usembassy-china.org.cn/index.html. 
  24. ^ French Foreign Ministry (2008-11-23). "Consulat General de France a Wuhan". http://www.ambafrance-cn.org/spip.php?rubrique718&lang=fr&ville=wuhan. 
  25. ^ Embassy of the Republic of Korea in China (2010-12-23). "Welcome to the Embassy of the Republic of Korea in China". http://china.koreanembassy.cn/consular/consular_02.aspx?bm=4&sm=2. 
  26. ^ "U.S. Opens Consulate in China Industry Center Wuhan". Associated Press. 20 November 2008. http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5i9eETZIZiun01Oj6prVkAdZwW8DAD94IJQ180. 
  27. ^ US Department of State (20 November 2008). "The United States Consulate General in Wuhan, China Opens on November 20, 2008". http://wuhan.usembassy-china.org.cn/112008p_wuhan.html. 

External links

Preceded by
Nanjing
(wartime) Capital of China
1937
Succeeded by
Chongqing (wartime)


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  • Wuhan — 武汉 Von oben links: Stadtsilhouette, Kranichpagode, altes Zollhaus und Wuhan Jangtsekiang Brücke Wǔhàn Shì • 武汉市 Staat …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Wuhan — Wǔhàn · 武汉 Localisation de la préfecture de Wuhan (en jaune) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Wuhan — Wuhan,   Hauptstadt der Provinz Hubei, China, an der Mündung des Han Shui in den Jangtsekiang, 1953 durch den Zusammenschluss der drei Städte Wuchang, Hanyang und Hankou gebildet, 7,20 Mio. Einwohner; geographischer und wirtschaftlicher… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Wuhan — (chino simplificado: 武汉, chino tradicional: 武漢, pinyin: Wǔhàn) es la capital de la provincia de Hubei y la ciudad más poblada en la zona central de la República Popular China. Está en la confluencia del río Yangzi y del río Han. Tiene una… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Wuhan — conurbation industrielle de la Chine centrale, ch. l. de prov. du Hubei, au confluent du Yangzijiang et du Hanshui; 4 273 080 hab …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Wuhan — [wo͞o′hän′] city in EC China, formed by the merger of the cities of Hankow, Hanyang, & Wuchang; capital of Hubei province: pop. 4,450,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Wuhan — /wooh hahn /, n. Pinyin, Wade Giles. a conglomerate city in and the capital of Hubei province, in E China, at the junction of the Han Shui and Chang Jiang: comprises the former cities of Hankou, Hanyang, and Wuchang. 4,400,000. Also called Han… …   Universalium

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  • Wuhan — Original name in latin Wuhan Name in other language Gorad Ukhan , Gouchan, Uhana, Uhanas, Uhaa, Ukhan, Ukhan , Uxan, Vu Han, Vu hon su, Vuhan, Vuhani, Vuhano, Vujhan, Vukhan, V hon s V Hn, WUH, Wu chan, Wu han shih, Wuhan, Wuhan Shi, uhan si,… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

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