Rawalpindi District


Rawalpindi District

Infobox Pakistan district
district = Rawalpindi District
area = 5286
population = 3,363,911
pop_year = 1998
density =
caption =
region = Punjab
established =
nazim = Raja Javed Ikhlas
naib_nazim = Muhammad Afzal Khokhar
seats =
tehsils = 7
languages =
website = http://www.rawalpindi.gov.pk


caption = Rawalpindi is located in the north of Punjab.

Rawalpindi is a district of Pakistan in the north of the Punjab province which contains the city of Rawalpindi. The district has an area of convert|5286|km2|sqmi|abbr=on and, according to the 1998 census of Pakistan, a population of about 3,363,911 of which 53.03% were urban [ [http://www.urckarachi.org/Population%20Table-5.htm 1998 Census details] ] , and is the second-most urbanised district in Punjab. The population was estimated to be 4.41 million in 2008. [ [http://www.dawn.com/weekly/herald/herald29.htm District Profil: Northern Punjab - Rawalpindi] ] It was part of Rawalpindi Division, until the year 2000 when the division was abolished. It is situated on the southern slopes of the north-western extremities of the Himalayas, including large mountain tracts with rich valleys traversed by mountain rivers. It contains the Murree hills and the sanatorium of the same name, the chief hill station in the Punjab. The chief rivers are the Indus and the Jhelum, and the climate is noted for its health benefitsRawalpindi - Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition] .

History

Ancient history

In ancient times the whole or the greater part of the area between the Indus and the Jhelum seems to have belonged to a Turanian race called Takkas or Takshakas, who gave their name to the city of Takshasila. Known as Taxila by the Greek historians, the location of the ancient city has been identified to be in the ruins of Shahdheri in the north-west corner of the District. At the time of Alexander's invasion Taxila was described by Arrian as a flourishing city, the greatest indeed between the Indus and the Hydaspes ; Strabo adds that the neighbouring country was crowded with inhabitants and very fertile ; and Pliny speaks of it as a famous city situated in a district called Amanda. The invasion of Demetrius in 195 B.C. brought the Punjab under the Graeco-Bactrian kings. Later they were superseded by the Sakas, who ruled at Taxila with the title of Satrap. At the time of Hiuen Tsiang the country was a dependency of Kashmir [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V21_271.gifRawalpindi District - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 21, p. 264.] ] .

Mughal era

Mahmud of Ghazni passed through the District after his defeat of Anand Pal and capture of Ohind. The Gakhars, a tribe still of importance within the district trace their origins back to Mahmud of Ghanzi. The first mention of the Gakhars occurs in the memoirs of Babar, who gives an interesting account of the capture of their capital, Paralah. It was strongly situated in the hills, and was defended with great bravery by its chief Hati Khan, who escaped from one gate as the Mughal army marched in at the other. Hati Khan died by poison in 1525 ; his cousin and murderer Sultan Sarang then submitted to Babar, who conferred on him the area of Potwar. From that time on the Gakhar chieftains remained firm allies of the Mughal dynasty, and provided significant aid to the Mughal in their struggle against the house of Sher Shah. Salim Shah attempted in vain to subdue their country.

In 1553 Adam Khan, Sarang's successor, surrendered the rebel prince Kamran to Humayun. Adam Khan was subsequently deposed by Akbar, and his principality given over to his nephew Kamal Khan. During the height of the Mughal empire, the family of Sarang retained its territorial possessions. Its last and gakhars chief, Mukarrab Khan, ruled over a kingdom which extended from the Chenab to the Indus.

ikh era

In 1765, during the total paralysis of the Mughal government, Sardar Gujar Singh Bhangi, a powerful Sikh chieftain, marched from Lahoreagainst Mukarrab Khan, whom he defeated outside the walls of Gujrat.Mukarrab Khan then retired across the Jhelum, where he was soon treacherously murdered by his own tribesmen; but the traitors forthwith quarrelled over their spoil, and fell one by one before Sardar Gujar Singh. The Sikhs ruled Rawalpindi with their usual rapacity, exacting as revenue the last coin that could be wrung from the proprietors, who were often glad to admit their tenants as joint-sharers, in order to lighten the incidence of the revenue. Gujar Singh held the District throughout his life, and left it on his death to his son, Sahib Singh, who fell in 1810 before the power of the great Ranjit Singh. Another Sikh Sardar, Milka Singh, fixed upon Rawalpindi, then an insignificant village, for his headquarters. In spite of Afghan inroads and the resistance of the Gakhars, he soon conquered on his own account a tract of country round Rawalpindi worth 3 lakhs a year. On his death in 1804, his estates were conferred to his son, Jiwan Singh, by Ranjit Singh, until 1814, when, upon Jiwan Singh's death, they were annexed to the territory of Lahore.

The Murree and other hills long retained their independence under their Gakhar chieftains ; but in 1830 they were defeated after a bloody struggle, and handed over to Gulab Singh of Jammu, under whose merciless rule the population was almost decimated, and the country reduced to a desert.

British era

In 1849 Rawalpindi passed with the rest of the Sikh dominions under British rule ; and though tranquillity was disturbed by an insurrection four years later, led by a Gakhar chief with the object of placing a pretended son of Ranjit Singh on the throne, its administration was generally peaceful until the outbreak of the Mutiny in 1857.The Dhunds and other tribes of the Murree Hills, incited by Hindustani agents, rose in insurrection, and the authorities received information from a faithful native of a projected attack upon the station of Murree in time to organise measures for defence. The women near the station, who were present in large numbers, were placed in safety, while the Europeans and police were drawn up in a cordon round the station. The rebels arrived expecting no resistance, but were met with organised resistance and were repelled.

The district of Rawalpindi was created during British rule as part of Punjab province. The district obtained its current boundaries in 1904 when Attock District was created as a separate district. According to the 1901 census of India the population in 1901 was 558,699, an increase of 4.7% from 1891.

The principal crops were wheat, barley, maize, millets, and pulses. The district was traversed by the main line of the North-Western railway, crossing the Indus at Attock, and also by a branch towards the Indus at Kushalgarh.

Subdivisions

The district is divided into seven tehsils:
* Gujar Khan
* Kahuta
* Kallar Syedan
* Kotli Sattian
* Murree
* Pothohar Town
* Rawal Town
* Taxila

Kallar Syedan became the seventh Tehsil of Rawalpindi district on the 1st of July 2007; prior to this date it was part of Kahuta Tehsil [ [http://www.dawn.com/2004/07/02/local29.htm Dawn Pakistan - RAWALPINDI: Kallar Syedan starts functioning as tehsil] ] .

Notable people

Khan Ghulam Sarwar Khan is a prominent politician from the District of Rawalpindi from Taxila who was a Federal Minister of Labour, Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis. He has served as a Member of the Provincial Assembly (MPA) of Punjab, Health Minister of Punjab and Member of the Central Zakat Council in the past. His younger brother, Khan Muhammad Sadeeq Khan, was elected Nazim of Tehsil Taxila.

Sheikh Rashid Ahmad was elected 4 times as a Member to the National Assembly (MNA) and is Ex. Minister of Railways. He was the Minister of Information and Broadcasting. Ejaz-ul-Haq was also an MNA and remain the Minister of Religious Affairs from Rawalpindi. He is the son of the Dictator General Zia-ul-Haq who served as President of Pakistan and Chief Marshal Law Officer for 11 years. Three of the above mentioned ministers lost their seats in the 2008 Elections.

Hanif Abbasi is elected MNA from Rawalpindi. He was well known social worker of Jamaat-e-Islami, the main religious party of the country. He is now a member of the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz)and defeated Sheikh Rashid with a huge margin in Election 2008.

Gujar Khan

Gujar Khan is located in the heart of the Potohar region and is also called the land of Shaheed. The region has produced people from all walks of life. Two recipients of Nishan-i-Haider came from Gujar Khan. The area is notable for producing many top Military professionals as well. See also famous personalities of Gujar Khan.

Taxila

Taxila is famous for UET Taxila, and the historic Taxila Museum.

Federal Minister of Labour, Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis Khan Ghulam Sarwar Khan is elected MNA from Taxila.prof Muhammad waqas is a former MPA and prominent politico religious leader of wah cantt texila.Khan Muhammad Sadeeq Khan is elected Tehsil Nazim of Taxila. Pakistan's prominent tank factory HIT is also in this area.

Murree

In the North of Rawalpindi District, where the Punjab meets the North-West Frontier Province is the city of Murree, Murree is one of the hill stations that was established during the British Raj [Murree - Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition] .

Kotli Sattian

Provincial Minister of Public Health Engineering, Mushtaq Ahmad Kiani is elected MPA from Kotli Satyan.

Rawal Town

* The Administration of Rawalpindi city is called Rawal Town administration.The main Rawalpindi city is Rawal Town.Famous personality is Former Minister Shaikh Rasheed Ahmad.The main Shoping Centers and Bazars are Raja Bazaar, Committee Chowk, Kashmiri Bazar, Sarafa Bazar, Seattlite Town, Commircial Market, Kohati Bazar,Dhoke Hassu Chowk, Pirwadhai.

External links

* [http://www.rawalpindi.gov.pk Rawalpindi Official Website]
* [http://www.pindiplus.com

References


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