ImageSize = width:590 height:120PlotArea = width:570 height:25 left:5 bottom:60TimeAxis = orientation:horizontalDateFormat = yyyyPeriod = from:-250 till:2000AlignBars = earlyScaleMajor = unit:year increment:200 start:-200ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:50 start:-200
Colors = id:turkiz value:rgb(0,0.76,0.76) id:treaty value:rgb(0.6,0.8,0.6) id:lightgrey value:rgb(0.6,0.8,0.4) id:darkgrey value:rgb(0.6,0.8,0) id:Celadon value:rgb(0.67,1,0.68) id:TeaGreen value:rgb(0.81,0.94,0.75)
Define $hx = 15 # shift text to right side of bar
PlotData = bar:Leaders color:blue width:20 align:left fontsize:s from:-250 till:0 color:treaty shift:(-10,$hx) text:
Zugotfrom:0 till:220 color:turkiz shift:(-15,$hx) text: Tannaimfrom:220 till:500 color:TeaGreen shift:(-20,$hx) text: Amoraimfrom:500 till:625 color:darkgrey shift:(-20,$hx) text: Savoraimfrom:625 till:1050 color:turkiz shift:(-15,$hx) text: Geonimfrom:1050 till:1500 color:TeaGreen shift:(-20,$hx) text: Rishonimfrom:1500 till:2000 color:treaty shift:(-20,$hx) text: Acharonim
LineData = layer:front # all lines in front of bars unless stated otherwise from:220 till:500 atpos:65 color:red width:2
Colors = id:aaa value:red
"Amora" (Aramaic: אמורא; plural אמוראים, "Amora'im"; "those who say" or "those who tell over"), were renowned
Jewish scholars who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral law, from about 200 to 500 CE in Babyloniaand the Land of Israel. Their legal discussions and debates were eventually codified in the Gemara. The "Amoraim" followed the " Tannaim" in the sequence of ancient Jewish scholars. The "Tannaim" were direct transmitters of uncodified oral tradition; the "Amoraim" expounded upon and clarified the oral law after its initial codification.
The Amoraic era
The first Babylonian "Amoraim" were
Abba Arika, respectfully referred to as Rav, and his contemporary and frequent debate partner, Shmuel. Among the earliest "Amoraim" in Israel were Rabbi Yochanan and Shimon ben Lakish. Traditionally, the Amoraic period is reckoned as seven or eight generations (depending on where one begins and ends). The last "Amoraim" are generally considered to be Ravina Iand Rav Ashi, and Ravina II, nephew of Ravina I, who codified the Babylonian Talmud around 500 CE.
In the Talmud itself, the singular "amora" generally refers to a lecturer's assistant; the lecturer would state his points briefly, and the "amora" would then repeat them aloud for the public's benefit, adding translation and clarification where needed.
The following is an abbreviated listing of the most prominent of the (hundreds of) "Amoraim" mentioned in the Talmud. More complete listings may be provided by some of the external links below. "See also ."
First generation (approx. 230–250 CE)
Abba Arika(d. 247), known as Rav, last "Tanna", first "Amora". Disciple of Judah haNasi. Moved from Israel to Babylonia ( 219). Founder and Dean of the Yeshivaat Sura.
* Shmuel (d.
254), disciple of Judah haNasi and others. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita.
Joshua ben Levi(early 3rd century), headed the school of Lydda.
Abba the Surgeon
econd generation (approx. 250–290 CE)
Rav Huna(d. 297), disciple of Rav and Shmuel. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura.
* Rav Yehudah (d.
299), disciple of Rav and Shmuel. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita.
Adda bar Ahavah, (3rd and 4th centuries), disciple of Rav.
Hillel, son of Gamaliel III(fl. early 3rd century), disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, and younger brother of Judah II(Judah Nesiah).
Judah II(fl. early 3rd century), disciple and grandson of Judah haNasi, and son and successor of Gamaliel III as Nasi. Sometimes called "Rabbi Judah Nesi'ah", and occasionally "Rebbi" like his grandfather.
* Resh Lakish (d. late
3rd century), disciple of Rabbi Yannaiand others, and colleague of Rabbi Yochanan.
* Rabbi Yochanan (d.
279or 289), disciple of Judah haNasi and Rabbi Yannai. Dean of the Yeshiva at Tiberias. Primary author of the Jerusalem Talmud.
Samuel ben Nahman
Shila of Kefar Tamarta
* Isaac Nappaḥa
Third generation (approx. 290–320 CE)
* Rabbah (d.
320, disciple of Rav Hunaand Rav Yehudah. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita.
Rav Yosef(d. 323), disciple of Rav Huna and Rav Yehudah. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita.
Rav Chisda(d. 309), disciple of Rav, Shmuel, and Rav Huna. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura.
Simon (Shimeon) ben Pazzi
Rav Nachman(d. 320), disciple of Rav, Shmuel, and Rabbah bar Avuha. Did not head his own yeshiva, but was a regular participant in the discussions at the Yeshivot of Sura and Mahuza.
* Rabbi Abbahu (d. early
4th century), disciple of Rabbi Yochanan. Dean of the Yeshiva in Caesarea.
Hamnuna— Several rabbis in the Talmud bore this name, the most well-known being a disciple of Shmuel (fl. late 3rd century).
Judah III(d. early 4th century), disciple of Rabbi Johanan bar Nappaha. Son and successor of Gamaliel IV as Nasi, and grandson of Judah II.
Hanina ben Pappa
* Rabbah bar Rav Huna
* Rami bar Hama
Fourth generation (approx. 320–350 CE)
Abaye(d. 339), disciple of Rabbah, Rav Yosef, and Rav Nachman. Dean of the Yeshiva in Pumbedita.
* Rava (d.
352), disciple of Rabbah, Rav Yosef, and Rav Nachman, and possibly Rabbi Yochanan. Dean of the Yeshiva at Mahuza.
Hillel II(fl. c. 360). Creator of the present-day Hebrew calendar. Son and successor as Nasi of Judah Nesiah, grandson of Gamaliel IV.
Fifth generation (approx. 350–371 CE)
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak(d. 356), disciple of Abayeand Rava. Dean of the Yeshiva at Pumbedita.
Rav Papa(d. 371or 375), disciple of Abaye and Rava. Dean of the Yeshiva at Naresh.
Rav Kahana, teacher of Rav Ashi
* Rav Hama
* Rav Huna berai d'Rav Yehoshua
Sixth generation (approx. 371–427 CE)
Rav Ashi(d. 427, disciple of Abaye, Rava, and Rav Kahana. Dean of the Yeshiva in Mata Mehasia. Primary redactor of the Babylonian Talmud.
Ravina I(d. 421), disciple of Abaye and Rava. Colleague of Rav Ashi in the Yeshiva at Mata Mehasia, where he assisted in the redaction of the Babylonian Talmud.
Seventh generation (approx. 425–460 CE)
Eighth generation (approx. 460–500 CE)
Ravina II(d. 475or 500), disciple of Ravina I and Rav Ashi. Dean of the Yeshiva at Sura. Completed the redaction of the Babylonian Talmud.
The "Stammaim" is a term that has been coined by some modern scholars for the rabbis who submitted anonymous comments on the Talmud, some of whom contributed during the period of the "Amoraim", but most who made their contributions after the amoraic period. [http://yediah.blogspot.com/2006/03/professor-halivni-and-sealing-of.html]
* [http://www.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/TalmudMap/Gemara.html Gemara in the Talmud Map] – University of Calgary
* [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=1421&letter=A&search=amora Jewish Encyclopedia article for AMORA]
* [http://www.chabad.org/article.asp?AID=115261 Biographies of the Amoraim]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
AMORA — (Aram. אָמוֹרָא; sayer, spokesman ), a term which designates the interpreter, who communicated audibly to the assembled pupils the lessons of the rabbinic teacher. It is also used as a generic term for the rabbis of the post mishnaic period,… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Amora FC — Amora Football Club Amora FC Club fondé en 1921 … Wikipédia en Français
Amora — ist im Plural Amoraim eine Bezeichnung für talmudische Gelehrte zwischen dem 3. und 5. Jahrhundert eine Gemeinde in Portugal, siehe Amora (Seixal) eine französische Marke für Lebensmittel, siehe Amora (Marke) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Amora F.C. — Amora Futebol Clube is a Portuguese sports club from Amora (Seixal).The club was founded in 1921. The senior football section currently plays in the Portuguese Third Division (fourth level), F series.League HistoryThe club has three presence at… … Wikipedia
amora — |ó| s. f. 1. Fruto da amoreira. 2. Fruto da silva … Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa
Amora — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : « Amora », sur le Wiktionnaire (dictionnaire universel) Un Amora était un érudit du judaïsme qui… … Wikipédia en Français
amora — /euh mawr euh, euh mohr euh/, n., pl. amoraim /ah maw rah im, ah moh /. (often cap.) Judaism. one of a group of Jewish scholars, active in the rabbinical academies of Palestine and Babylonia from the 3rd to the 6th centuries A.D., whose… … Universalium
Amora — Original name in latin Amora Name in other language Amora State code PT Continent/City Europe/Lisbon longitude 38.62961 latitude 9.11557 altitude 12 Population 52577 Date 2012 02 01 … Cities with a population over 1000 database
Amora — Sp Amorà Ap Amora L Portugalija … Pasaulio vietovardžiai. Internetinė duomenų bazė
amora — noun one of a group of rabbis (active AD 250 500) who discussed the Mishnaic law in the law schools of Palestine and Mesopotamia where they explained and applied earlier teachings and whose discussions are recorded in the Talmud; they emphasized… … Useful english dictionary