Nahshon ben Zadok
Nahshon ben Zadok Gaon (Hebrew: נחשון בן צדוק or sometimes: Nahshon b. Zadok) was head of the Academy of Sura from 874 to 882, in succession to Mar Amram ben Sheshna. He wrote explanations to difficult words in the Talmud, not in alphabetical order, as did his contemporary Gaon Ẓemaḥ ben Paltoi of Pumbedita, but in the order of the tractates. The Re'umah, on ritual slaughtering (Constantinople, 1566), is ascribed to him, but his authorship is doubtful.
He devoted much attention to the study of the Jewish calendar. He found that the order of the week-days on which any particular festival occurs in successive years repeats itself after a cycle of 247 years, and that the years with regard to their characteristic dates can be arranged in 14 tables. This discovery is known as, and is contained in, the Iggul [Cycle] di R. Nahshon, which work was printed with the She'erit Yosef of Joseph b. Shem-Ṭob b. Joshua (1521). Nahshon and his son Hai Gaon did not approve of saying the "Kol Nidre" on the eve of Yom Kippur.
Most of his responsa, contained in the collection Sha'are Ẓedeḳ, are written in Aramaic in a curt, difficult style; but the responsa ascribed to him in Teshubot Ge'onim Ḳadmonim are written in mixed Hebrew in a plain, easy diction. Some of his decisions conflict with the Talmud, and in his haggadic interpretations he did not always agree with the older haggadists. He was greatly respected by his contemporaries.
Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography
- Grätz, Gesch. v. 280;
- Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, i. 181, Warsaw, 1883;
- Weiss, Dor, iv. 109, 122-124;
- Zacuto, Yuḥasin, ed. Filipowski, p. 206, London, 1857.
- Jewish Encyclopedia article for Nahshon ben Zadok, by S. Mannheimer et al.
Geonim Deans of Pumbedita AcademyHanan of Iskiya • Mari ben R. Dimi • Rav Hana (Huna) • Rav Rabbah (Rava, Ravah) • Rav Bosai (Bostanai) • Huna Mari ben Mar R. Joseph • Hiyya of Meshan • Rav Rabya ben R. Abaye (Moronai) • Natronai b. Mar Nehemiah • Judah Gaon • Joseph Gaon ben Kitnai • Samuel ben Mar R. Mari • Natroi Kahana b. Emuna • Abraham Kahana • Dodai ben R. Nahman (Rav Dorai) • R. Hananya ben R. Mesharsheya • Malka ben R. Aha • Rabba ben R. Dodai (Abba) • Rav Shinwai • Haninai Kahana ben Abraham • Haninai Kahana ben Abraham • Huna ben ha-Levi ben Isaac • Manasseh ben R. Joseph • Isaiah ha-Levi ben R. Abba • Joseph ben R. Shila of Shilhe • Kahana ben Haninai Gaon • Abumai Kahana ben Abraham • Joseph ben R. Abba • Abraham ben R. Sherira • Joseph ben Mar R. Hiyya • Isaac ben R. Hananiah • Joseph ben R. Abba • Paltoi ben R. Abaye • Aha Kahana ben Mar Rav • Menahem ben R. Joseph ben Hiyya • Mattithiah ha-Kohen b. Ravrevay b. Hanina • Abba ben R. Ammi • Zemah ben Paltoi • Hai ben R. David • Kimoi ben R. Ahhai • Mebasser Kahana ben R. Kimoi • Kohen Tzedek Kahana ben R. Joseph • R. Zemah ben R. Kafnai • Hananiah ben R. Yehudai • Aaron ben R. Joseph Ha-Kohen • Nehemiah ben Kohen Tzedek • Sherira Gaon • Hai Gaon • Hezekiah ben David (Hezekiah Gaon) Deans of Sura AcademyMar ben R. Huna • R. Hanina (Hinenai) • Rav Hunai (Huna) • Rav Sheshna (Mesharsheya b. Tahlifa) • Hanina of Nehar Pekkod (Hinenai) • Hillai of Naresh • Jacob of nehar Pekod • Rav Samuel Gaon • Mari ha-Kohen of Nehar Pekod • Rav Aha • Yehudai ben Nahman (Yehudai Gaon) • Ahhunai Kahana ben Papa • Haninai Kahana ben R. Huna • Mari ha-Levi ben R. Mesharsheya • Bebai ha-Levi ben R. Abba of Nehar Pekod • Hilai ben R. Mari • Jacob ha-Kohen ben Mordecai • Rav Abimai • Zadok ben R. Ashi (Issac ben Jesse) • Hilai ben R. Hananiah • Kimoi ben R. Ashi • Mesharsheya Kahana ben Jacob • Kohen Tzedek ben Abimai • Sar Shalom ben R. Boaz • Natronai ben R. Hilai ben R. Mari (Natronai Gaon) • Amram bar Sheshna (Amram Gaon)• Nahshon ben R. Zadok • Zemah ben R. Hayyim • Rav Malka • Hai ben R. Nahshon • Hilai ben Natronai ben Hilai • Shalom ben R. Mishael • Jacob ben R. Natronai • Yom-Tob Kahana ben R. Jacob • Saadia ben Joseph (Saadia Gaon) • Joseph ben R. Jacob • Zemah Tzedek ben Paltoi ben Issac • Samuel ben Hofni • Dosa ben Saadia • Israel ha-Kohen ben Samuel ben Hofni Others
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