European Union Association Agreement


European Union Association Agreement

A European Union Association Agreement (for short, Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU) and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them. Areas frequently covered by such agreements include the development of political, trade, social, cultural and security links.

Overview

The EU typically concludes Association Agreements in exchange for commitments to political, economic, trade, or human rights reform in a country. In exchange, the country may be offered tariff-free access to some or all EU markets (industrial goods, agricultural products, etc), and financial or technical assistance. Most recently signed AAs also include a Free Trade Agreement between the EU and the third country.

Association Agreements have to be ratified by all the EU member states.

In recent history, such agreements are signed as part of two EU policies: Stabilisation and Association process (SAp) and European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The countries of the western Balkans are covered by SAp and the EU signs with them "Stabilisation and Association Agreements" (SAA). The countries of the Mediterranean and the East European EU neighbours (including South Caucasus, but excluding Russia that insists on creating four EU-Russia Common Spaces) are covered by ENP. Both the SAA and ENP AP are based mostly on the EU's acquis communautaire and its promulgation in the cooperating states legislation. Of course the depth of the harmonisation is less than for full EU members and some policy areas may not be covered (depending on the particular state).

In addition to these two policies AAs with Free Trade Agreement provisions are signed with other states and trade blocs in the world like Chile, Mexico, South Africa and others.

Stabilisation and Association process

"Covers official candidates Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, and potential candidates Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, and Ukraine"

European Neighbourhood Policy

"Covers Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, and Russia (through the formation of EU-Russia Common Spaces)."

EU Agreements with third states


= Agreements with FTA provisions =

* Albania SAA (signed 2006, entry into force pending)
* Algeria AA (2005)
* Andorra CU (1991)
* Chile AA (2003)
* Croatia SAA (2005)
* Egypt AA (2004)
* Faroe Islands, autonomous entity of Denmark (1997)
* Israel AA (2000)
* Jordan AA (2002)
* Lebanon AA (2006)
* Mexico AA (2000)
* Montenegro SAA (signed 2007, entry into force pending)
* Morocco AA (2000)
* Palestinian Authority interim AA (1997)
* San Marino CU (2002)
* Serbia (2008) SAA
* South Africa AA (2000)
* Switzerland FTA (1973)
* Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia SAA (2004)
* Tunisia AA (1998)
* Turkey CU (1996)

Currently in negotiations

* Bosnia and Herzegovina SAA
* GCC FTA
* Saudi Arabia FTA
* South Korea FTA
* Syria AA
* Central American Common Market AA
* Ukraine SAA

Other Agreements

* Albania Trade and Cooperation Agreement (1992)
* Armenia PCA (1999)
* Azerbaijan PCA (1999)
* GCC Cooperation Agreement (1989)
* Georgia PCA (1999)
* Kazakhstan PCA (1999)
* Kyrgystan PCA (1999)
* Moldova PCA (1998)
* Mongolia Trade and Cooperation Agreement (1993)
* Russia PCA (1997)
* Serbia Framework Agreement FRY-EU (2000)
* Syria Cooperation Agreement (1977)
* Ukraine PCA (1998). To be replaced in 2008, when SAA with Ukraine will come into effect.
* USSR Trade and Cooperation Agreement of 1989, endorsed by Tajikistan in 1994 and by Turkmenistan
* Uzbekistan PCA (1999)

Currently in negotiations

* Belarus PCA, stalled in 1997
* Tajikistan PCA entered into force in 2006
* Turkmenistan PCA, last activity in 2004

Defunct Agreements

* Algeria AA (1976), superseded by new AA in 2005
* Bulgaria EA (1995), now EU member
* Cyprus AA (1973), now EU member
* Czech Republic EA (1995), now EU member
* Egypt Cooperation Agreement (1977), superseded by new AA in 2004
* Estonia EA (1998), now EU member
* Hungary EA (1994), now EU member
* Iceland FTA (1973), now a member of EEA
* Latvia EA (1998), now EU member
* Lithuania EA (1998), now EU member
* Malta AA (1971), now EU member
* Norway FTA (1973), now a member of EEA
* Poland EA (1994), now EU member
* Romania EA (1995), now EU member
* Slovakia EA (1995), now EU member
* Slovenia EA (1999), now EU member
* Switzerland and Liechtenstein FTA (1973), Liechtenstein is now member of EEA
* The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Trade and Cooperation Agreement (1998), superseded by SAA, and now a candidate state for EU.
* Turkey AA (1964), superseded by EU-Turkey Customs Union

See also

* European Union
* Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe
* Third country relationships with the EU

External links

* [http://www.consilium.europa.eu/cms3_applications/Applications/accords/search.asp?lang=EN EU Agreements database]

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