Comparison of operating systems

Usage share of web client operating systems. (Source: Median values from Usage share of operating systems for August 2011.)
  Windows XP (35.21%)
  Windows 7 (31.21%)
  Windows Vista (11.27%)
  Mac OS X (7.31%)
  iOS (3.38%)
  Android (1.30%)
  Linux (1.11%)

These tables compare general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available operating systems.

Because of the large number and variety of available Linux distributions, they are all grouped under a single entry; see comparison of Linux distributions for a detailed comparison. There are also a variety of BSD operating systems, covered in comparison of BSD operating systems. For information on views of each operating system, see operating system advocacy.


Contents

General information

Name Creator First public release Predecessor Latest stable version Latest release date Cost/Availability Preferred license[g 1] Target system type
AIX IBM 1986 UNIX System V Release 3 7.1 2010 Bundled with hardware Proprietary Server, NAS, Workstation
Android Android, Inc./Google 2008 Linux Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich 2011 Free Open source Consumer, enterprise, military, education
AmigaOS Classic Commodore International, Haage & Partner, Hyperion Entertainment 1985 TRIPOS (as the disk operating component of AmigaOS) 4.1 Update 2 2011 Bundled with hardware up to version 2.0. Versions 2.1, 3.0, 3.1, 3.5, 3.9, 4.1 Update 2 also available as separate packages. Proprietary, Open source clone available under AROS Public License Workstation, Personal computer
AmigaOS 4 Hyperion Entertainment 2004 AmigaOS Classic 4.1 Update 2 2010 4.0 bundled with hardware. 4.0 for classic and 4.1 available as standalone package at € 99. Proprietary Workstation, Personal computer
eComStation Serenity Systems, Mensys BV 2001 OS/2 2.1 2011 Home & Student Edition (max. 5 per site) - $149.00
Business Edition - $259.00
Proprietary Server, Workstation, Personal computer
EPOC32 Psion PLC 1996 ER5 1999 Commercial Proprietary PDA
FreeBSD The FreeBSD Project 1993 386BSD 8.2 2011 Free BSD Server, Workstation, NAS, Embedded system
DragonFly BSD Matthew Dillon 2003 FreeBSD 2.10 2011 Free BSD Server, Workstation, NAS, Embedded system
Haiku Haiku Inc. 2009 BeOS R5 R1/Alpha3 2011 Free MIT License Personal computer
HP-UX Hewlett-Packard 1983 UNIX System V 11.31 "11i v3" 2007 $400 Proprietary Server, Workstation
IBM i IBM 1988 OS/400 7.1 2010 Bundled with hardware Proprietary Server
IRIX SGI 1988 UNIX System V 6.5.30 2006 Bundled with hardware Proprietary Server, Workstation
Inferno Bell Labs 1997 Plan 9 Fourth Edition 2007 Free MIT/GNU GPL/GNU LGPL/LPL NAS, Server, Embedded system
GNU/Linux Richard Stallman, Linus Torvalds, et al. GNU: 1983, Linux: 1992 Unix,[g 2] MINIX[g 3] Linux kernel 3.0; GNU C Library 2.13 2011 Free GNU GPL, GNU LGPL and other licenses See: Comparison of Linux distributions
Mac OS Apple Inc. 1984 None[g 4][g 5] 9.2.2 2002 Bundled with 68K and PowerPC Macs;

versions 7-9 sold as retail upgrades[g 6]

Proprietary Workstation, Personal computer
Mac OS X Apple Inc. 2001 NeXTStep 10.7.2 2011 Bundled with hardware; upgrades sold separately:
Desktop $169 (Single User Mac Box Set), $29 (Single User Mac OS X v10.6 Upgrade)
Family Pack $229 (5 User Mac Box Set), $49 (5 User Mac OS X v10.6 Upgrade)
Proprietary higher level API layers with Open source core system (Both Intel and PowerPC versions) (APSL, GNU GPL, others) Workstation, Personal computer, Embedded system
Mac OS X Server Apple Inc. 2001 BSD 10.7 2011 Bundled with hardware; also sold separately:
$499 (unlimited clients)
Proprietary higher level API layers with Open source core system (Both Intel and PowerPC versions) (APSL, GNU GPL, others) Server
Minix3 Andrew S. Tanenbaum 2005 Minix2 3.1.8 2010 Free BSD Workstation
NetBSD The NetBSD Project 1993 386BSD 5.1 2010 Free BSD NAS, Server, Workstation, Embedded system
NeXTStep NeXT 1989 Unix 3.3 1995 Bundled with hardware, then sold separately Proprietary Workstation
NetWare Novell 1985 S-Net 6.5 SP8 2008 $184 (single-user) Proprietary Server
OpenBSD The OpenBSD Project 1995 NetBSD 1.0 4.9 2011, May 1 Free ISC Server, NAS, Workstation, Embedded system
OpenIndiana Various, based on software developed by Sun Microsystems and many others 2010 OpenSolaris 2010, December 17 Free Mostly CDDL, with other licenses Server, Workstation
OpenVMS DEC (now HP) 1977 RSX-11M 8.4 2010 only free for non-commercial use Proprietary Server, Workstation
OS/2 IBM and Microsoft 1987 UNIX, Windows 3.x 4.52 2001 $300 Proprietary Personal computer, Server
PC-BSD PC-BSD Software 2006 FreeBSD[g 7] 8.2 2011 Free BSD Personal computer, Workstation, Server
Plan 9 Bell Labs 1993 Unix Fourth Edition (Daily snapshots) Free LPL Workstation, Server, Embedded system, HPC
QNX QNX Software Systems 1982 DOS, Unix 6.5.0 2010 Commercial; a free testing version exists that requires authorization code prior to installation. Proprietary Workstation, Server, Embedded system
Solaris Sun 1992 SunOS 11 11/11 2011 Commercial; a free 90 days evaluation version exists. CDDL Server, Workstation
Symbian OS Symbian Ltd 1998 EPOC32 9.5 2009 Commercial Proprietary Phones
Symbian platform Symbian Foundation 2010 Symbian OS 3.0.4 2010 Free EPL Embedded system
Windows Server (NT family) Microsoft 1993 MS-DOS, OS/2, Windows 3.x Windows Server 2008 R2 (NT 6.1.7600) 2009 $469 Web Server; other editions dependent on number of CALs purchased Proprietary Server, NAS, Embedded system, HPC
Microsoft Windows (NT family) Microsoft 1993 MS-DOS, OS/2, Windows 3.x Windows 7 (NT 6.1.7600) 2009[g 8] Home Basic (Retail) $99.95, Home Premium (Retail) $119.95, Business (Retail) $299.95, Ultimate (Retail) $300.95[1] Proprietary Workstation, Personal computer, Media center, Tablet PC, Embedded system
Microsoft Windows (Classic family) Microsoft 1985 MS-DOS, Windows 1 and later Windows ME (Win 4.90.3000) 2000[g 8] Outdated product. No longer for sale. Proprietary Personal computer, Media center
RISC iX Acorn Computers 1988 BSD 4.3 1.21c 1993 Bundled with hardware Proprietary Workstation
RISC OS Acorn Computers 1987 Arthur, also the BBC Master OS 3.71 1997 Bundled with hardware Proprietary Educational software, Personal computer
RISC OS RISCOS Ltd, Pace plc 1999 RISC OS 3 4.39 2004 Bundled with hardware, then sold separately at $127 (£70) Proprietary Educational software, Personal computer
RISC OS Castle Technology, RISC OS Open 2002 RISC OS 4 5.17 2010 Free for non-commercial use (recent releases); Previously bundled with hardware Shared Source Educational software, Personal computer
RISC OS RISCOS Ltd 2006 RISC OS 4 6.20 2010 Bundled with hardware, then sold separately at $127 (£70) Proprietary Educational software, Personal computer
ZETA yellowTAB 2005 BeOS R5 1.2 2006 Discontinued Proprietary Personal computer, Media center, Workstation
STOP 6 / XTS-400 BAE Systems 2003 STOP 5 / XTS-300 6.4.U1 2007 Unknown; supplied to customers on-demand by BAE Systems Proprietary Server, Workstation
ReactOS ReactOS development team 1996 Windows NT 0.3.13 2011 Free GNU GPL, GNU LGPL Workstation, Personal computer
z/OS IBM 2000 OS/390 1.12 2010 Monthly License Charge (about $130 and up) Proprietary IBM mainframe
z/VSE IBM 2007 VSE/ESA 4.3 2010, July Monthly License Charge Proprietary IBM mainframe
z/VM IBM 2000 VM (operating system) 6.1 2010 Monthly License Charge Proprietary IBM mainframe
Name Creator First public release Predecessor Latest stable version Latest release date Cost/Availability Preferred license[g 1] Target system type
  1. ^ a b Most OS distributions include bundled software with various other licenses.
  2. ^ GNU is a recursive acronym for GNU's Not Unix, which was chosen because its design is Unix-like, but differs from Unix by being Free software and by not containing any Unix code.
  3. ^ Minix inspired the Linux kernel. No code from Minix was used to create the Linux kernel.
  4. ^ Although Lisa OS ran on the same (albeit a slower version) microprocessor and was developed by Apple Computer at the same time as Mac OS, they were developed as different projects, sharing only a similar GUI between them. http://folklore.org/StoryView.py?story=Hungarian.txt
  5. ^ Mac OS 7.6 was the first Mac OS operating system to be labeled Mac OS. Operating systems prior to this were named System Software 0.1 (available only to developers) through System Software 7.5, and known as System #.# for short.
  6. ^ Mac OS versions up to 7.5.5 are available free of charge at http://www.info.apple.com/support/oldersoftwarelist.html
  7. ^ PC-BSD uses FreeBSD as a base system with custom configuration and several desktop oriented tools to create an easy to use FreeBSD system for Desktops and Workstations.
  8. ^ a b Windows Vista was released to manufacturing on November 8, 2006, and was subsequently made available to software developers and businesses in November 2006, with retail availability following on January 30, 2007

Technical information

Name Computer architectures supported File systems supported Kernel type Source lines of code GUI default is on[t 1] Package management Update management Native APIs[t 2] Non-native APIs supported through subsystems
AIX POWER JFS, JFS2, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, SMBFS, GPFS Monolithic No installp, RPM Service Update Management Assistant (SUMA) SysV/POSIX
AmigaOS Classic 68k, PowerPC Proprietary (OFS, FFS, SFS, PFS), FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, many others via 3rd party drivers, such as SMBFS, etc. Microkernel Yes Installer[t 3] (almost not needed)[t 4] Proprietary BSD subset (available through 3rd party ixemul.library)
AmigaOS 4 PowerPC Proprietary (OFS, FFS, SFS, PFS), JXFS, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, many others via 3rd party drivers, such as SMBFS, etc. Microkernel Yes Installer[t 3] (almost not needed)[t 4] AmiUpdate (almost not needed)[t 5] Proprietary BSD subset (available through 3rd party ixemul.library)
eComStation x86 HPFS (default), FAT, JFS, UDF, FAT32, NTFS (read only) Hybrid Yes WarpIN, Feature Install, others Maintenance Tool Proprietary, DOS API, Win16 POSIX, Java, others
FreeBSD x86, x86-64, PC98, SPARC, others UFS2, ext2, ext3, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, ReiserFS (read only), XFS (experimental), ZFS, others Monolithic with modules 6.25 million[10] No Ports collection, packages by source, network binary update (freebsdupdate) BSD/POSIX Mono, Java, Win16,[t 6] Win32,[t 6] Linux
Haiku x86, 68k BFS (default), FAT, ISO 9660, ext3, NTFS Hybrid Yes Ports collection (haikuport) None POSIX, BeOS API
HP-UX PA-RISC, IA-64 VxFS, HFS, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, SMBFS Monolithic with modules No swinstall swa (HP-UX Software Assistant) SysV/POSIX
Inferno x86, PowerPC, SPARC, Alpha, MIPS, others Styx/9P2000, kfs, FAT, ISO 9660 Monolithic with modules, user space file systems Yes ? ? Proprietary
Linux x86, x86-64, PowerPC, SPARC, Alpha, others ext2, ext3, ext4, ReiserFS, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, and others Monolithic with modules ~ 9 million (kernel)[11]

lines of code for userland applications vary depending on the distribution

See: Comparison of Linux distributions Linux/POSIX Mono, Java, Win16,[t 6] Win32[t 6]
Mac OS Classic 68k, PowerPC HFS+, HFS, MFS (Mac OS 8.0 and before), AFP, ISO 9660, FAT(System 7 and later), UDF Monolithic with modules Yes None Software Update (only in Mac OS 9) Toolbox, Carbon (from version 8.1)
Mac OS X PowerPC, x86, x86-64, ARM HFS+ (default), HFS, UFS, AFP, ISO 9660, FAT, UDF, NFS, SMBFS, NTFS (read only), FTP, WebDAV, ZFS (experimental) Hybrid ~86 million[12] Yes Mac OS X Installer Software Update Carbon, Cocoa, Java, BSD/POSIX Toolbox (only in versions up to Mac OS X 10.4, not supported on x86 architecture), Win16,[t 6] Win32[t 6]
MINIX 3 x86 Microkernel 4000 No POSIX
NetBSD x86, x86-64, ARM, MIPS, PowerPC, SPARC64, others UFS, UFS2, ext2, FAT, ISO 9660, NFS, LFS, and others Monolithic with modules No[t 7] pkgsrc by source or binary (using sysinst) BSD/POSIX Linux, others
NetWare x86 NSS, NWFS, FAT, NFS, AFP, UDF, CIFS, ISO 9660 Hybrid Yes NWCONFIG.NLM, RPM, X11-based GUI installer binary updates, ZENWorks for Servers, Red Carpet Proprietary
OpenBSD x86, x86-64, SPARC, 68k, Alpha, VAX, others ffs, ext2, FAT, ISO 9660, NFS, some others Monolithic with modules No[t 7] Ports collection, packages by source or binary (packages via pkg_add) BSD/POSIX
OpenVMS VAX, Alpha, IA-64 Files-11 (ODS), ISO 9660, NFS, CIFS Monolithic with modules No PCSI, VMSINSTAL ? Proprietary POSIX
OS/2 x86 HPFS, JFS, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS Monolithic with modules Yes Feature Install and others ? Proprietary, DOS API, Win16 Win32
PC-BSD x86[t 8] UFS2, ext2, ext3, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, ReiserFS (read only), XFS (experimental) and others Monolithic with modules Yes Ports collection, packages, PBI Graphical Installers by PBI updates, source, network binary update (freebsdupdate) BSD/POSIX Win16,[t 6] Win32[t 6]
Plan 9 x86, Alpha, MIPS, PowerPC, SPARC, others fossil/venti, 9P2000, kfs, ext2, FAT, ISO 9660 Monolithic, user space file systems Yes None replica Proprietary (Unix-like) POSIX compatibility layer
QNX x86, SH-4, PowerPC, ARM, MIPS QNX4FS, QNX6, ext2, FAT, ISO 9660, Joliet, NFS, CIFS, ETFS, UDF, HFS, HFS+, NTFS, others Microkernel POSIX, Java
ReactOS x86, PowerPC, ARM FAT Hybrid 1-2 million Yes None None Win32, NT API
RISC OS ARM (both 26 and 32-bit addressing modes) Acorn ADFS, Econet ANFS, FAT, ISO 9660, many others as loadable filesystems Monolithic with modules. Unprotected monotasking. Yes Applications self-contained; hardware drivers often in ROM  !IyoUpWtch Huge number of SWI calls; extensive C libraries
Solaris x86, x86-64, SPARC UFS, ZFS, ext2, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, QFS, some others Monolithic with modules Yes SysV packages (pkgadd) Sun Connection SysV/POSIX, GTK, Java Win16,[t 6] Win32,[t 6] Mono, Linux[t 9]
OpenSolaris x86, x86-64, SPARC(AI) UFS, ZFS, ext2, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, NFS, QFS, some others Monolithic with modules ~10 million Yes Image Packaging System (pkg), SysV packages (pkgadd) Image Packaging System SysV/POSIX, GTK, Java Win16,[t 6] Win32,[t 6] Mono, Linux[t 9]
STOP 6, XTS-400 x86 Proprietary Monolithic No RPM for some untrusted applications Binary updates via postal mail and proprietary tools Some: SysV, POSIX, Linux, proprietary
Symbian ARM FAT Microkernel Yes SIS files FOTA Proprietary POSIX compatibility layer
Windows Server (NT family) x86, x86-64, IA-64 NTFS, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF; 3rd-party drivers support ext2, ext3, ReiserFS,[t 10] and HFS Hybrid ~45 million[13] Yes MSI, custom installers Windows Update Win32, NT API DOS API, Win16 (only in 32-bit versions), POSIX, .NET
Windows (NT family) x86, x86-64 NTFS, FAT exFAT ISO 9660, UDF; 3rd-party drivers support ext2, ext3, ReiserFS,[t 10] HFS+, FATX, and HFS Hybrid ~ 40(XP)/64(Vista) million[citation needed] Yes MSI, custom installers Windows Update Win32, NT API DOS API, Win16 (only in 32-bit versions), POSIX, .NET
ZETA x86 BFS (default), FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, HFS, AFP, ext2, CIFS, NTFS (read only), ReiserFS (read only, up to v3.6) Hybrid Yes SoftwareValet, script-based installers None POSIX, BeOS API
z/OS z/Architecture VSAM, BDAM, QSAM, BPAM, HFS, zFS, etc. Protected, multithreading, multitasking nucleus with programmable/user replaceable extensions. Not kernel-based. No None, SMP/E SMP/E Filesystem access methods, Systems Services, etc. POSIX, many others.
Name Computer architectures supported File systems supported Kernel type Source lines of code GUI default is on[t 1] Package management Update management Native APIs[t 2] Non-native APIs supported through subsystems
  1. ^ a b Operating systems where the GUI is not installed and turned on by default are often bundled with an implementation of the X Window System, installation of which is usually optional.
  2. ^ a b Most operating systems use proprietary APIs in addition to any supported standards.
  3. ^ a b Amiga OS features since OS 2.0 version a standard centralized Install utility called Installer, which could be used by any software house to install programs. It works as a Lisp language interpreter, and install procedures could be listed as simple text. AmigaOS can also benefit of a 3rd party copyrighted library called XAD that is available for all POSIX (Unix, Linux, BSD, and for AmigaOS, MorphOS, etc.). This library is freely distributable and publicly available on Aminet Amiga centralized repository of all Open Source or Free programs and utilities. XAD.Library, complete with GUI Voodoo-X, is based on modules and capable to manage over 300 compression methods and package systems (Voodoo-X GUI supports 80 package systems), including those widely accepted as standards such as .ZIP, .CAB, .LHA, .LZX, .RPM, etc.
  4. ^ a b A standard AmigaOS installation requires usually only few files (typically 3 to 10 files) to be copied in their appropriate directory, and libraries and language files for national localization to be put in their standard OS directories. Any Amiga user with some minimal experience knows where these files should be copied and could perform programs installations by hand.
  5. ^ AmiUpdate is capable to update AmigaOS files and also all Amiga programs which are registered to use the same update program that is standard for Amiga. Updating AmigaOS requires only few libraries to be put in standard OS location (for example all libraries are stored in "Libs:" standard virtual device and absolute path finder for "Libs" directory, Fonts are all in "Fonts:" absolute locator, the files for language localization are all stored in "Locale:" and so on). This leaves Amiga users with a minimal knowledge of the system almost free to perform by hand the update of the system files.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l using Wine
  7. ^ a b NetBSD and OpenBSD include the X Window System as base install sets, managed in their respective main source repository, including local modifications. Packages are also provided for more up-to-date versions which may be less tested.
  8. ^ only i686 CPU
  9. ^ a b http://opensolaris.org/os/community/brandz/
  10. ^ a b Windows can read and write with Ext2 and Ext3 file systems only when a driver from FS-driver or ext2fsd is installed. However, using Explore2fs, Windows can read from, but not write to, Ext2 and Ext3 file systems. Windows can also access ReiserFS through rfstool and related programs.

Security

Resource
access
control
Subsystem
isolation
mechanisms
Integrated
firewall
Encrypted
file
systems
No execute (NX)
page flag
Known unpatched vulnerabilities (severity is accounted for)[s 1]
Secunia SecurityFocus
Hardware Emulation Extremely critical
(number / oldest)
Highly critical
(number / oldest)
Moderately critical
(number / oldest)
Less critical
(number / oldest)
Not critical
(number / oldest)
Total
(number / oldest)
AIX 7.1 Unix, ACLs, MAC, Trusted AIX - MLS, RBAC chroot IP Filter, IPsec VPNs, basic IDS Yes Yes[s 2] N/A Unknown 0
FreeBSD 8.1 Unix, ACLs, MAC chroot, jail, MAC Partitions, BSD file "flags" set using chflags IPFW2, IPFilter, PF Yes Yes Yes[s 3] 0 0 0 0 0 >0
HP-UX 11.31 Unix, ACLs chroot IPFilter No ? 0 0 3
June 30, 2004;
7 years ago
 (2004-06-30)
2
December 12, 2002;
8 years ago
 (2002-12-12)
0 >0
Inferno Unix Namespaces, Capability-based security, no superuser or setuid bit ? ? No No Unknown >0
Linux 2.6.39 Unix, ACLs,[s 4] MAC chroot, Capability-based security,[s 5] seccomp, SELinux Netfilter / Varied by distribution Yes Yes Yes 0 0 0 6
June 24, 2004;
7 years ago
 (2004-06-24)
11
April 4, 2005;
6 years ago
 (2005-04-04)
>0
Mac OS 9.2.2 No No No No No No 0 0 0 0 0 >0
Mac OS X 10.6.4 Unix, ACLs[s 6] chroot, BSD file "flags" set using chflags ipfw Yes Yes (as of 10.5, X64 Only) Yes (Intel Only) 0 0 1
April 14, 2009;
2 years ago
 (2009-04-14)
2
January 8, 2007;
4 years ago
 (2007-01-08)
5
November 22, 2006;
4 years ago
 (2006-11-22)
>0
NetBSD 5.0.2 Unix, Veriexec, PaX, kauth chroot, systrace, kauth, BSD file "flags" set using chflags IPFilter, PF Yes Yes No Unknown >0
NetWare 6.5 SP8 Directory-enabled ACLs Protected Address Spaces IPFLT.NLM Yes Yes No 0 0 1
August 31, 2010;
14 months ago
 (2010-08-31)
2
October 30, 2003;
8 years ago
 (2003-10-30)
0 0
OES-Linux Directory-enabled ACLs chroot IPFilter Yes Yes No Unknown >0
OpenBSD 4.8 Unix chroot, systrace, BSD file "flags" set using chflags PF Yes Yes Yes Unknown >0
OpenVMS 8.4 ACLs, Privileges logical name tables ? ? Yes ? 0 0 0 0 0 Unknown
OS/2 / eComStation ACLs[s 7] No IP Filter No ? 0 0 0 0 0 0
PC-BSD 8.1 Unix, ACLs, MAC chroot, jail, MAC Partitions IPFW2, IPFilter, PF Yes[s 8] ? 0 0 0 0 0 >0
Plan 9 Unix (?) Namespaces, Capability-based security, no superuser or setuid bit ipmux Yes No No Unknown >0
QNX 6.5.0 Unix ? PF, imported from NetBSD. ? ? 0 0 0 5
November 20, 2002;
9 years ago
 (2002-11-20)
1
November 7, 2002;
9 years ago
 (2002-11-07)
Unknown
RISC OS No No No No No No Unknown
Solaris 10 Unix, RBAC, ACLs, Least privilege, Trusted Extensions chroot, Containers,[s 9] Logical Domains IPFilter Yes[s 10] Yes No 0 2
October 31, 2007;
4 years ago
 (2007-10-31)
5
October 23, 2007;
4 years ago
 (2007-10-23)
3
September 10, 2009;
2 years ago
 (2009-09-10)
2
November 6, 2006;
5 years ago
 (2006-11-06)
>0
OpenSolaris 2009.06 Unix, RBAC, ACLs, Least privilege, Trusted Extensions chroot, Containers,[s 9] Logical Domains IPFilter Yes[s 10] Yes No 0 0 0 0 0 >0
Windows Server 2008 R2 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall Yes Yes Yes 0 1
October 18, 2010;
12 months ago
 (2010-10-18)
1
October 28, 2010;
12 months ago
 (2010-10-28)
1
August 11, 2010;
15 months ago
 (2010-08-11)
1
August 23, 2010;
14 months ago
 (2010-08-23)
>0
Windows 7 SP1 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall Yes Yes[s 11] Yes[s 12] 0 1
October 29, 2010;
12 months ago
 (2010-10-29)
1
October 28, 2010;
12 months ago
 (2010-10-28)
1
August 11, 2010;
15 months ago
 (2010-08-11)
2
August 18, 2010;
14 months ago
 (2010-08-18)
>0
Windows Vista SP2 ACLs, Privileges, RBAC Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall Yes Yes[s 11] Yes[s 12] 0 1
October 29, 2010;
12 months ago
 (2010-10-29)
1
October 28, 2010;
12 months ago
 (2010-10-28)
2
September 10, 2008;
3 years ago
 (2008-09-10)
4
February 23, 2007;
4 years ago
 (2007-02-23)
>0
Windows XP Pro SP3 ACLs Win32 WindowStation, Desktop, Job objects Windows Firewall Yes (With NTFS) Yes[s 11] Yes[s 12] 0 5
December 8, 2009;
23 months ago
 (2009-12-08)
6
December 30, 2002;
8 years ago
 (2002-12-30)
17
January 7, 2003;
8 years ago
 (2003-01-07)
14
September 18, 2002;
9 years ago
 (2002-09-18)
>0
ZETA Unix[s 13] No No No No No Unknown
STOP 6 / XTS-400[s 14] Unix, Multilevel security, Biba mandatory integrity, ACLs, Privileges, subtype mechanism Multilevel security, Biba Integrity Model, subtype mechanism No No No No Unknown
z/OS 1.11 RACF RACF, low storage protection, page protection, storage protect key, execution key, subspace group facility, APF, ACR (alternate CPU recovery), more z/OS IPSecurity Optional Yes (storage protect key, execution key, APF, more) Yes 0 0 0 0 0 Unknown
Resource
access
control
Subsystem
isolation
mechanisms
Integrated
firewall
Encrypted
file
systems
Hardware Emulation Extremely critical
(number / oldest)
Highly critical
(number / oldest)
Moderately critical
(number / oldest)
Less critical
(number / oldest)
Not critical
(number / oldest)
Total
(number / oldest)
No execute (NX)
page flag
Secunia SecurityFocus
Known unpatched vulnerabilities (severity is accounted for)[s 1]
  1. ^ a b Comparison of known unpatched vulnerabilities based on Secunia & SecurityFocus reports with severity of Not critical & above. Update lists manually with oldest published date(s).
  2. ^ AIX use the PowerPC architecture which offer page-level protection mechanism. Since AIX version 5300-03 (5.3), this feature can be activated using the sedmgr command.
  3. ^ The GCC stack protection (a.k.a. ProPolice Stack-Smashing Protector) has been enabled in base system since FreeBSD 8.0-RELEASE.
  4. ^ POSIX ACL support is included in Linux 2.6, but requires a file system capable of storing them (such as ext3, XFS or ReiserFS).
  5. ^ A jail mechanism is available separately in the Linux-VServer project, but is not integrated into any mainline Linux kernel.
  6. ^ ACLs were added to Mac OS X beginning with version 10.4.
  7. ^ ACLs are available only in OS/2 Server versions with HPFS386 filesystem.
  8. ^ Additionally swap space may be encrypted during installation, uses memory based tmp file storage by default.
  9. ^ a b "Solaris Containers" (including "Zones") are a jail-type mechanism introduced with Solaris 10.
  10. ^ a b Through ZFS
  11. ^ a b c Available on XP sp2, 2003 sp1 and newer.
  12. ^ a b c By default, software-enforced DEP helps protect only limited system binaries.
  13. ^ Zeta has full Unix file permissions, but the OS is single user, and users always run as superuser.
  14. ^ STOP 6 is certified under Common Criteria at EAL5+.

Commands

For POSIX compliant (or partly compliant) systems like FreeBSD, Linux, Mac OS X or Solaris, the basic commands are the same because they are standardized.

description FreeBSD Linux Mac OS X Solaris Windows (cmd) Windows (powershell) Windows (cygwin, SFU or MKS)
list directory ls ls ls ls dir dir & ls & Get-ChildItem ls
clear console clear clear clear clear cls clear clear
copy file(s) cp cp cp cp copy cp & Copy-Item cp
move file(s) mv mv mv mv move mv & Move-Item mv
rename file(s) mv mv, rename mv mv ren, rename ren, mv mv
delete file(s) rm rm rm rm del (erase) rm & Remove-Item rm
delete directory rmdir rmdir rmdir rmdir rd (rmdir) rmdir rmdir
create directory mkdir mkdir mkdir mkdir md (mkdir) mkdir mkdir
change current directory cd cd cd cd cd (chdir) cd & Set-Location cd
run shell script with new shell sh file.sh sh file.sh sh file.sh sh file.sh cmd /c file.cmd ? sh file.sh
kill processes kill, killall killall, pkill, kill, skill kill, killall kill, pkill taskkill taskkill kill
change process priority nice nice, chrt nice nice start /low, start /normal, start /high, start /realtime ? nice
change io priority ? ionice nice[c 1] ? ? ? ?
create file system newfs mkfs mkfs newfs format ? ?
file system check and recovery fsck fsck fsck fsck chkdsk ? ?
create software raid atacontrol, gmirror, zfs create (mdadm—create) diskutil appleRAID metainit, zfs create diskpart (mirror only) diskpart (mirror only) ?
mount device mount mount mount, diskutil mount mount mountvol mount & New-PSDrive ?
unmount device umount umount umount, diskutil unmount(disk) umount mountvol /d Remove-PSDrive ?
mount file as block device mdconfig + mount mount -o loop hdid lofiadm + mount ? ? ?
show network configuration ifconfig ip addr, ifconfig ifconfig ifconfig ipconfig ipconfig ?
show network route route ip route route route route ? ?
trace network route traceroute traceroute traceroute traceroute tracert tracert ?
trace network route with pings traceroute -I traceroute -I & mtr traceroute -I traceroute -I pathping pathping ?
description FreeBSD Linux Mac OS X Solaris Windows (cmd) Windows (powershell) Windows (cygwin, SFU or MKS)

NOTE: Linux systems may vary by distribution which specific program, or even 'command' is called, via the POSIX alias function. For example, if you wanted to use the DOS dir to give you a directory listing with one detailed file listing per line you could use alias dir='ls -lahF' (e.g. in a session configuration file).

  1. ^ The nice command utilizes the setpriority() system call, which affects I/O priority, see OS X man page .

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.microsoft.com/windows/windows-vista/compare-editions/default.aspx
  2. ^ ethz.ch - (S)LOC Count Evolution for Selected OSS Projects data for 2009, fig 1
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Jobs, Steve (7 August 2006). "Live from WWDC 2006: Steve Jobs Keynote". http://www.engadget.com/2006/08/07/live-from-wwdc-2006-steve-jobs-keynote/. Retrieved 2007-02-16. "86 million lines of source code that was ported to run on an entirely new architecture with zero hiccups." 
  5. ^ Ben Liblit, Andrew Begel, and Eve Sweetser. "Cognitive Perspectives on the Role of Naming in Computer Programs". http://research.microsoft.com/~abegel/papers/ppig-naming.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 

External links


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