Laura Manuelidis is a
physicianand neuropathologist at Yale University. She earned her B.A. degree from Sarah Lawrence College, where she studied poetry, and her M.D. from Yale Medical School. She is head of the section of Neuropathologyin the department of Surgeryat Yale. She is also also on the faculty of Neurosciences and Virology. Her work centers around elucidating the mechanisms of infection in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies(TSEs).cite web | url=http://info.med.yale.edu/neurosci/faculty/manuelidis.html | title=Laura Manuelidis - Professor & Head of Neuropathology | work=Yale University | accessdate=2007-02-02]
She has challenged the conventionally accepted explanation for the cause of
bovine spongiform encephalopathy(better known as "Mad Cow Disease") and the human equivalent, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The generally accepted explanation was put forth by Stanley B. Prusinerwho won the 1997 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.cite web | url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1997/prusiner-autobio.html | title=Stanley B. Prusiner - Autobiography | publisher=NobelPrize.org | accessdate=2007-01-02] In his work, he coined the term prion(a portmanteaufor "proteinacious infectious agents") to refer to a previously undescribed form of infection due to malformed proteins. [cite news | url=http://blog.wired.com/wiredscience/2007/01/what_really_cau.html | title=What really causes mad cow disease? | publisher=Wired | date= January 31 2007| accessdate=2007-01-02] In January 2007 Manuelidis and her colleagues published an article in the " Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences" asserting that they found a virusthat could be responsible for the diseases.cite journal| author=Manuelidis L| coauthors=Yu ZX, Barquero N, Mullins B|date=February 6, 2007| title=Cells infected with scrapie and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agents produce intracellular 25-nm virus-like particles| journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Science| volume=104| issue=6| pages=1975–1970| pmid=17267596| url=http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/104/6/1965 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.0610999104] Manuelidis said, “Although much work remains to be done, there is a reasonable possibility these are the long sought viral particles that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, The [prion] is probably not infectious, but is a pathological result [of] an infectious virus binding to this host protein.”cite news | url=http://www.yale.edu/opa/newsr/07-01-30-02.all.html | title=Pathogenic Virus Found in Mad Cow Cells | publisher=Yale | date= February 2 2007| accessdate=2007-02-02]
In the 1970s, Dr. Manuelidis also first isolated and sequenced major repeated mammalian DNAs, such as human alpha satellite DNA and mammalian long interspersed repeats (also known as LINES). Repeated sequences are far more numerous than single copy coding genes, and are often referred to as "junk DNA" because their genetic function is not obvious. However, she showed that repeated DNAs are spatially grouped to define housekeeping, tissue specific, and inactive gene regions of chromosomes. In-situ high resolution hybridization also revealed that chromosomes are relatively compact and ordered in the interphase nucleus. Each differentiated neuronal cell type conserves its own distinctive pattern of nuclear chromosome organization. This suggested that repeated DNAs may act as organizing centers during differentiation.
* [http://info.med.yale.edu/neurosci/faculty/manuelidis_main.html Laura Manuelidis at Yale University]
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