List of mammals of Great Britain
This is a list mammals of Great Britain. The Great Britain mammal fauna is somewhat impoverished compared to that of continental Europe due to the short period of time between the last ice age and the flooding of the land bridge between Great Britain and the rest of Europe. Only those land species which crossed before the creation of the English Channel and those introduced by humans exist in Great Britain.
Native (usually synonymous with "indigenous") species are considered to be species which are today present in the region in question, and have been continuously present in that region since a certain period of time. When applied to Great Britain, three possible definitions of this time constraint are:
- a species that colonised the islands during the glacial retreat at the end of the last ice age (c.9500 years ago);
- a species that was present when the English Channel was created (c.8000 years ago);
- or, a species that was present in Prehistory.
This list includes mammals from the small islands around Great Britain and the Channel Islands. There are no endemic mammal species in Great Britain, although four distinct subspecies of rodents arose on small islands.
Though most marsupials make up a great part of the fauna in the Australian Region, the Red-necked Wallaby has been introduced and a feral population is currently breeding on the island of Inchconnachan, Loch Lomond in Argyll and Bute, Scotland. A smaller group is present in the Isle of Man, and the species is locally extinct in Peak District, Cumbria, and Ashdown Forest in East Sussex.
Family: Macropodidae (kangaroos, wallabies, & kin)
- Red-necked Wallaby Macropus rufogriseus - Introduced
Rodents make up the largest order of mammals, with over 40 percent of mammalian species. They have two incisors in the upper and lower jaw which grow continually and must be kept short by gnawing. Most rodents are small though the capybara (once introduced to the Great Britain, but subsequently eradicated) can weigh up to 45 kg (100 lb).
Family: Castoridae (beavers)
- Eurasian Beaver Castor fiber
Family: Cricetidae (voles)
- Bank Vole Myodes glareolus
- Skomer Vole M. g. skomerensis
- Field Vole Microtus agrestis
- Common Vole M. arvalis
- Orkney Vole or Cuttick M. a. orcadensis
- Water Vole Arvicola terrestris
Family: Muridae (rats, mice and relatives)
- Harvest Mouse Micromys minutus
- Wood Mouse Apodemus sylvaticus
- St Kilda Field Mouse A. s. hirtensis
- Yellow-necked Mouse A. flavicollis
- House Mouse Mus musculus
- St Kilda House Mouse M. m. muralis
- Black Rat Rattus rattus - Introduced
- Brown Rat R. norvegicus - Introduced
Family: Gliridae (dormice)
Family: Sciuridae (squirrels)
The lagomorphs comprise two families, Leporidae (hares and rabbits), and Ochotonidae (pikas). Though they can resemble rodents, and were classified as a superfamily in that order until the early 20th century, they have since been considered a separate order. They differ from rodents in a number of physical characteristics, such as having four incisors in the upper jaw rather than two.
- Mountain Hare Lepus timidus
- European Hare L. europaeus - Probably introduced.
- European Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus -Introduced
Primates are five-fingered mammals with opposable thumbs. Humans are Great Britain's only primate, arriving in the 8th millennium BC.
- Human Homo sapiens
The order Erinaceomorpha contains a single family, Erinaceidae, which comprise the hedgehogs and gymnures. The hedgehogs are easily recognised by their spines while gymnures look more like large rats.
- West European Hedgehog Erinaceus europaeus
Shrews and moles
The "shrew-forms" are insectivorous mammals. The shrews and soledons closely resemble mice while the moles are stout bodied burrowers.
- Mole Talpa europaea
- Common Shrew Sorex araneus
- Pygmy Shrew S. minutus
- Water Shrew Neomys fodiens
- Greater White-toothed Shrew Crocidura russula – Likely introduced, Channel Islands only.
- Lesser White-toothed Shrew C. suaveolens – Likely introduced, Isles of Scilly and Channel Islands only.
Superorder: Laurasiatheria Order: Chiroptera
The bats' most distinguishing feature is that their forelimbs are developed as wings, making them the only mammals in the world naturally capable of flight. Bat species account for about 20% of all mammals.
- Greater Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum
- Lesser Horseshoe Bat R. hipposideros
- Greater Mouse-eared Bat Myotis myotis – Vagrant.
- Whiskered Bat M. mystacinus
- Brandt's Bat M. brandti
- Natterer's Bat M. nattereri
- Bechstein's Bat M. bechsteini
- Daubenton's Bat M. daubentoni
- Parti-coloured Bat Vespertilio murinus – Vagrant.
- Serotine Eptesicus serotinus
- Northern Bat E. nilssoni – Vagrant.
- Common Noctule Nyctalus noctula
- Leisler's Bat or Lesser Noctule N. leisleri
- Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus – Vagrant.
- Common Pipistrelle Pipistrellus pipistrellus
- Soprano Pipistrelle P. pygmaeus
- Nathusius Pipistrelle P. nathusii
- Barbastelle Barbastella barbastellus
- Brown Long-eared Bat Plecotus auritus
- Grey Long-eared Bat P. austriacus
Superorder: Laurasiatheria Order: Artiodactyla
The even-toed ungulates are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans.
- Wild Boar Sus scrofa
- Goat Capra aegagrus hircus
- Sheep Ovis orientalis aries - Soay sheep
- Cattle Bos primigenius taurus - Chillingham wild cattle
- Scottish red deer Cervus elaphus scoticus
- Moose Alces alces alces - reintroduced
- Reindeer Rangifer tarandus - reintroduced
- Sika Deer C. nippon – Introduced
- Fallow Deer Dama dama - Introduced
- Roe Deer Capreolus capreolus
- Reeves's Muntjac Muntiacus reevesi – Introduced
- Water Deer Hydropotes inermis – Introduced
Superorder: Laurasiatheria Order: Perissodactyla
The odd-toed ungulates are browsing and grazing mammals. They are usually large to very large, and have relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe.
There are over 260 species of carnivorans, the majority of which feed primarily on meat. They have a characteristic skull shape and dentition.
- Domesticated Dog Canis lupus familiaris
- Red Fox Vulpes vulpes
- Grey Seal Halichoerus grypus
- Common Seal Phoca vitulina
- Ringed Seal P. hispida – Vagrant.
- Bearded Seal Erignathus barbatus – Vagrant.
- Hooded Seal Cystophora cristatus – Vagrant.
- Harp Seal Pagophilus groenlandicus – Vagrant.
- Walrus Odobenus rosmarus – Vagrant.
- Pine Marten Martes martes
- Stoat (Ermine) Mustela erminea
- Least Weasel M. nivalis
- European Polecat M. putorius
- American Mink M. vison – Introduced
- European Otter Lutra lutra
- Eurasian Badger Meles meles
- European Wildcat Felis sylvestris silvestris
- Domesticated Cat Felis sylvestris catus
- List of mammals of Ireland
- List of extinct animals of Britain
- Biota of the Isle of Man
- List of endemic species of the British Isles
- A Review of British Mammals, 1995 (PDF format)
- The Mammal Society: Mammals of the British Isles
- Discuss UK wildlife
List of mammals of Europe Sovereign
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- San Marino
- United Kingdom
- Northern Ireland
States with limited
- Northern Cyprus
- South Ossetia
and other territories
- Faroe Islands
- Jan Mayen
- Isle of Man
Other entities Fauna of Great Britain InvertebratesMolluscsNon-marine molluscs Vertebrates See also
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