Portuguese people

Portuguese people

Infobox Ethnic group

1st row: Afonso I • Saint Anthony • Pope John XXINuno Álvares PereiraAfonso de AlbuquerqueVasco da Gama
2nd row: Álvares CabralDamião de GóisFernão Mendes PintoCamõesAntónio VieiraEça de Queiroz
3rd row: Fernando PessoaAmália RodriguesJosé SaramagoMário SoaresJosé BarrosoNelly Furtado

poptime="c. " 15 million [According to official data from the Portuguese Government. The following figures are also from that same source. Direcção Geral dos Assuntos Consulares e Comunidades Portuguesas do Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros (1999), "Dados Estatísticos sobre as Comunidades Portuguesas", IC/CP - DGACCP/DAX/DID - Maio 1999.]
popplace=flagcountry|Portugal: 10,000,000
(Portuguese descent only)
region1 = Rest of Europe
pop1 = 1,386,292
region2 = Americas
pop2 = 3,281,853
region3 = Africa
pop3 = 731,228
region4 = Asia
pop4 = 30,000
region5 = Oceania
pop5 = 56,000
rels=Predominantly Roman Catholic
related=Galicians and other Spaniards; Italians, and French.
The Portuguese people ( _pt. os Portugueses; literally "the Portuguese") are the ethnic group or nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Portuguese is their native language and Roman Catholicism is their predominant nominal religion.

General traits

Modern Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group and their ancestry is very similar to other western and southern European peoples, particularly from the Iberian Peninsula, with whom it shares ancestry and has cultural proximity. It is largely consistent with the geographic position of the western part of the Iberian peninsula, located on the extreme southwest of continental Europe. There are clear connections with the Mediterranean peoples as well as with those of Atlantic and Western Europe. Dark brown hair and dark hazel and brown eyes predominate in a majority of Portuguese people; however, blond hair and blue or green eyes are also found with some frequency.


Historical origins

The Portuguese are a southwestern European population, predominantly Mediterranean and Atlantic European.

The earliest modern humans inhabiting Portugal are believed to have been Paleolithic peoples that may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000-40,000 years ago. Current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that modern-day Portuguese traces largely a significant amount of these lineages to the paleolithic peoples which began arriving to the European continent between the end of the last glaciation around 45,000 years ago.

Northern Iberia is believed to have been a major Ice-age refuge from which Paleolithic humans later colonized Europe. Migrations from what is now Northern Iberia during the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, links modern Iberians to the populations of much of Western Europe and particularly the British Isles and Atlantic Europe. Recent books published by geneticists Bryan Sykes, Stephen Oppenheimer and Spencer Wells have argued the large Paleolithic and Mesolithic Iberian influence in the modern day Irish, Welsh and Scottish gene-pool as well as parts of the English. Indeed, Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b (of Paleolithic origin) is the most common haplogroup in practically all of the Iberian peninsula and western Europe [cite web |url=http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/22/10/1964/TBL1 |title=Summarized Percent Frequencies of R1b, R1a, I1b* (xM26), E3b1 and J2e |accessdate=2007-04-25 |format= |work=Oxford Journals ] . Within the R1b haplogroup there are modal haplotypes. One of the best-characterized of these haplotypes is the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH). This haplotype reaches the highest frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula and in the British Isles. In Iberia it reaches 33% in Portugal.

The Neolithic colonization of Europe from Western Asia and the Middle East beginning around 10,000 years ago reached Iberia, as most of the rest of the continent although, according to the demic diffusion model, its impact was most in the southern and eastern regions of the European continent. [cite web |url=http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/21/7/1361/T03 |title=Estimating the impact of Prehistoric Admixture of the Genome of Europeans|accessdate=2007-04-25 |format= |work=Oxford Juornals ] [cite web |url=http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/21/7/1361#F04 |title=Testing the Choice of Hybrid and Parental Populations |accessdate=2007-04-25 |format= |work=Oxford Journals ]

Starting in the 3rd millennium BC as well as in the Bronze Age, the first wave of migrations into Iberia of speakers of Indo-European languages occurred. These were later (7th and 5th Centuries BC) followed by others that can be identified as Celts.

Eventually urban cultures developed in southern Iberia, such as Tartessos, influenced by the Phoenician colonization of coastal Mediterranean Iberia, with strong competition from the Greek colonization.

These two processes defined Iberia's, and Portugal's, cultural landscape - Mediterranean towards the southeast and a Continental in the northwest, as historian José Mattoso describes it. [Mattoso, José (dir.), História de Portugal. Primeiro Volume: Antes de Portugal, Lisboa, Círculo de Leitores, 1992. (in Portuguese).] Given the origins from Paleolithic and Neolithic settlers as well as Indo-European migrations, one can say that the Portuguese ethnic origin is mainly a mixture of pre-Roman Pre-Indo-Europeans (such as, in other parts of Iberia, the Iberians, Tartessians and Aquitanians), Pre-Celtic, Proto-Celtic and Celtic peoples, producing peoples such as the Lusitanians of Lusitania, the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Gallaecia, the Celtici and the Cynetes of the Alentejo and the Algarve.

The Romans were an important influence on Portuguese culture, considering the Portuguese language itself derives from Latin.

Other influences included the Phoenicians/Carthaginians (small semi-permanent commercial coastal establishments in the south before 200 BC), the Vandals (Silingi and Hasdingi) and the Sarmatian Alans (both migrated to North Africa, while some were partially integrated by the Visigoths and Suevi), and the Visigoths and Suevi (including the Buri, permanently established in the early 5th century), along with, in the period of the Al-Andalus, minor numbers of Arabs, Berbers, Saqaliba and Jews who also settled in what is today Portuguese territory.

For the Y-chromosome and MtDNA lineages of the Portuguese and other peoples see [http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogroupsMaps.pdf this map] and [https://www5.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html this one] .

The legacy of Muslim rule

There exists a number of studies which focus on the genetic impact of the eight centuries of Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula (al-Andalus) on the genetic make up of the Iberian population. Recent studies agree that there is some genetic relationship between Iberia (mainly far southern regions) and some North African Populations as a result of this period of history, Iberia is the only region in Europe with a significant presence of the typically North West African Y-chromosome haplotypes E-M81 [cite web |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1181965&rendertype=figure&id=FG1
title=Phylogeny and frequency distributions of Hg E and its main subclades |format= |journal=Am. J. Hum. Genet. |volume=74 |issue=5 |year=2004 |month=May
] , [cite journal |author=Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, "et al" |title=Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area |journal=Am. J. Hum. Genet. |volume=74 |issue=5 |pages=1023–34 |year=2004 |month=May |pmid=15069642 |pmc=1181965 |doi=10.1086/386295 |url=] and Haplotype Va [cite journal |author=Gérard N, Berriche S, Aouizérate A, Diéterlen F, Lucotte G |title=North African Berber and Arab influences in the western Mediterranean revealed by Y-chromosome DNA haplotypes |journal=Hum. Biol. |volume=78 |issue=3 |pages=307–16 |year=2006 |month=Jun |pmid=17216803 |doi= |url=] , although this influence may be the result of ancient demic processes that predate the Islamic presence [A recent and thorough study about Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal revealed "The mtDNA and Y data indicate that the Berber presence in that region dates prior to the Moorish expansion in 711 AD [...] Our data indicates that male Berbers, unlike sub-Saharan immigrants, constituted a long-lasting and continuous community in the country" - [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/action/showFullText?submitFullText=Full+Text+HTML&doi=10.1111%2Fj.1529-8817.2005.00161.x Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Açores Record Elements of Sephardim and Berber Ancestry] ] , and may constitute the result of some common western Mediterranean population background.

Iberia is also the region in Europe with the highest frequency of the female mediated mtDNA haplogroup L of Sub-Saharan origin, as a result of Berber colonization and, particularly on specific locations in the south, modern African slavery. [ According to a summary study by Pereira et al. 2005, sub-Saharan mtDNA L haplogroups were found at rates of 0.62% in a German-Danish sample, 1% in the British, 3.83% in Iberians (Portuguese and Spanish), 2.38% in Albanians, 2.86% in Sardinians and 0.94% in Sicilians
Sub-Saharan DNA admixture in Europe
] [cite journal |author=Pereira L, Cunha C, Alves C, Amorim A |title=African female heritage in Iberia: a reassessment of mtDNA lineage distribution in present times |journal=Hum. Biol. |volume=77 |issue=2 |pages=213–29 |year=2005 |month=Apr |pmid=16201138 |doi= |url=]

Nevertheless, the North African or just African element in modern day Iberians' ancestry is quite trivial when compared to the pre-Islamic ancestral basis, and the Gibraltar Strait seems to have functioned more as a genetic barrier than a bridge. [ [http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/21/7/1361#F04 Dupanloup, I et al., "Estimating the Impact of Prehistoric Admixture on the Genome of Europeans", Mol. Biol. Evol. 21(7):1361-1372. 2004.] ] [cite journal |author=Bosch E, Calafell F, Comas D, Oefner PJ, Underhill PA, Bertranpetit J |title=High-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome variation shows a sharp discontinuity and limited gene flow between northwestern Africa and the Iberian Peninsula |journal=Am. J. Hum. Genet. |volume=68 |issue=4 |pages=1019–29 |year=2001 |month=Apr |pmid=11254456 |pmc=1275654 |doi=10.1086/319521 |url=] [cite journal |author=Comas D, Calafell F, Benchemsi N, "et al" |title=Alu insertion polymorphisms in NW Africa and the Iberian Peninsula: evidence for a strong genetic boundary through the Gibraltar Straits |journal=Hum. Genet. |volume=107 |issue=4 |pages=312–9 |year=2000 |month=Oct |pmid=11129330 |doi= |url=http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00439/bibs/0107004/01070312.htm]

Historical groups and influences

The ancestry of modern Portuguese has been influenced by the many peoples which have passed on its territory throughout history. These peoples include the Pre-Indo-European peoples of Iberia, Proto-Celts and Celts (such as the Lusitanians, Calaicians, Celtici, Cynetes and other Pre-Roman Peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, such as other minor local tribes as the Bracari, Coelerni, Equaesi, Grovii, Interamici, Leuni, Luanqui, Limici, Narbasi, Nemetati, Paesuri, Quaquerni, Seurbi, Tamagani, Tapoli, Turduli, Turduli Veteres, Turdulorum Oppida, Turodi and Zoelae), Phoenicians (Punics), Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Suebi, Visigoths, Alans, Buri, Byzantines, Saqaliba (Slavs), Berbers and Arabs (Moors), Jews (Sephardim or Marranos).


Demographics of Portugal

There are around 10 to 10.2 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a total population of 10.75 million (estimate).

Native minority languages in Portugal

A small minority of about 15,000 speak the Mirandese language, close to Leonese [http://www.unesco.org] in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Vimioso and Mogadouro - even if all of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese.

An even smaller minority of no more than 2,000 people speak Barranquenho, a dialect of Portuguese heavily influenced by Extremaduran, spoken in the Portuguese town of Barrancos (in the border between Extremadura and Andalusia, in Spain, and Portugal).

Ethnic minorities in Portugal

People from the former colonies (namely Brazil, Africa - Afro-Portuguese, and parts of India) have, in the last two to three decades, migrated to Portugal. [Charis Dunn-Chan , [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4436276.stm Portugal sees integration progress] , BBC] More recently, a great number of Slavs, especially Ukrainians (now the biggest ethnic minority), are also migrating to Portugal. There is also a small Chinese minority.

There is also a small minority of Gypsies ("Ciganos") of about 40,000 people [ [http://www.errc.org/cikk.php?cikk=398 European Roma Rights Centre] ] and an even smaller minority of Jews of about 5,000 persons (some Ashkenazi, the majority Sephardi, such as the Belmonte Jews).

Minorities of Portuguese descent

In the whole world there are easily more than one hundred million people with recognizable Portuguese ancestors, due to the colonial expansion and world-wide immigration of Portuguese from the 16th century onwards to India, the Americas, Macau and East-Timor, Malaysia, Indonesia and Africa. Between 1886 and 1966, Portugal lost to emigration more than any West European country except Ireland. [ [http://countrystudies.us/portugal/48.htm Portugal - Emigration] ] From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, nearly two million Portuguese left Europe to live in Brazil and the United States. [ [http://www.migrationinformation.org/Profiles/display.cfm?ID=77 Portugal Seeks Balance of Emigration, Immigration] ] About 40 million Brazilians have relatively recent Portuguese background, due to massive immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.Fact|date=September 2008 About 1.2 million Brazilian citizens are native Portuguese. [ [http://www.memorialdoimigrante.sp.gov.br/historico/e4.htm Recently Portuguese Immigrants in Brazil] ] Significant verified Portuguese minorities exist in [Direcção Geral dos Assuntos Consulares e Comunidades Portuguesas do Ministério dos Negócios Estrangeiros (1999), Dados Estatísticos sobre as Comunidades Portuguesas, IC/CP - DGACCP/DAX/DID - Maio 1999.] : (see table)

Portuguese Sephardic Jews (mostly descendants) are also important in Israel, the Netherlands, the United States, France, Venezuela, Brazil [ [http://www.ibge.gov.br/ibgeteen/povoamento/judeus/cristaos_novos.html Portuguese Jews in Brazil - in Portuguese] ] and Turkey.

In the United States, there are Portuguese communities in New Jersey, the New England states, and California. In the Pacific, Hawaii has a sizable Portuguese element that goes back 150 years (see Portuguese Americans and Luso Americans). Canada, particularly Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia, has developed a significant Portuguese community since 1940 (see Portuguese Canadians). Argentina and Uruguay had Portuguese immigration in the early 20th century. Portuguese fishermen, farmers and laborers dispersed across the Caribbean, especially Bermuda (10% of the population) [ [http://www.solarnavigator.net/geography/bermuda.htm BERMUDA] ] , Guyana (4.3% of the population in 1891) [ [http://www.guyana.org/special/portuguese.html Portuguese emigration from Madeira to British Guiana] ] , Trinidad [ [http://www.nalis.gov.tt/Communities/communities_Portuguese.html The Portuguese in Trinidad and Tobago] ] and the island of Barbados where there is high influence from the Portuguese community. [ [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~portwestind/diaspora/waves_of_migration.htm The Portuguese of the West Indies] ]

In the early twentieth century the Portuguese government encouraged European emigration to Angola and Mozambique, and by the 1970s there were up to 1 million Portuguese settlers living in their overseas African provinces. [ [http://countrystudies.us/portugal/48.htm Portugal - Emigration] , Eric Solsten, ed. Portugal: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1993.] An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in 1975, while others moved to Brazil and south to South Africa.

As of 1989, some 4,000,000 Portuguese were living abroad, mainly in France, Germany, Brazil, South Africa, Canada, Venezuela, and the United States. [ [http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Europe/Portugal-MIGRATION.html Portugal Migration] , The Encyclopedia of the Nations]

Portuguese constitute 13% of the population of Luxembourg. There are more than 5,000 people with Portuguese ancestry living in the Jersey island (UK). [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/jersey/4080780.stm Island celebrating Portugal day] , BBC News]

As a result of interracial marriage and cultural influence, there are Portuguese influenced people with their own culture and Portuguese based dialects in parts of the world other than former Portuguese colonies, most notably in Malaysia and Singapore (see Kristang people), Barbados, Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana (see Portuguese immigrants in Guyana), Equatorial Guinea and Sri Lanka (see Burgher people and Portuguese Burghers).

How many Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry?

There are no exact figures about the number of Brazilians of Portuguese descent, as the Portuguese immigration to Brazil is as old a phenomenon as the country's colonization and happened in different immigration waves during the last centuries (see Portuguese-Brazilian and White Latin American).

Portuguese immigration to Brazil from the beginning of colonization, in 1500, until present day in 1990
Source: Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE)

Nationality 1500-1700 1701-1760 1808-1817 1827-1829 1837-1841 1856-1857 1881-1900 1901-1930 1931-1950 1951-1960 1961-1967 1981-1991
Portuguese 100,000 600,000 24,000 2,004 629 16,108 316,204 754,147 148,699 235,635 54,767 4,605

Even with Portuguese heritage, many Portuguese-Brazilians identify themselves as being simply Brazilians, since Portuguese culture was a dominant cultural influence in the formation of Brazil (like many British Americans in the United States who will never describe themselves as of British extraction, but only as "Americans").

In 1872, there were 3.7 million Whites in Brazil (the vast majority of them of Portuguese ancestry), 4.1 million mixed-race people (mostly of Portuguese-African-Native American ancestry) and 1.9 million Blacks. These numbers give the percentage of 80% of people with total or partial Portuguese ancestry in Brazil in the 1870s. [ [http://www.ibge.gov.br/ibgeteen/povoamento/tabelas/populacao_cor.htm Evolution of Brazilian population according to "colour" (Evolução da população brasileira segundo a cor), in Reis, J.J., "Presença Negra: conflitos e encontros", in "Brasil: 500 anos de povoamento", 2000, Rio de Janeiro, IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística] , from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, p. 94.]

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a new large wave of immigrants from Portugal arrived. From 1881 to 1991, over 1.5 million Portuguese immigrated to Brazil. In 1906, for example, there were 133,393 Portuguese-born people living in Rio de Janeiro, comprising 16% of the city's population. Rio is, still today, considered the largest "Portuguese city" outside of Portugal itself. [ [http://www1.ibge.gov.br/brasil500/portugueses.html Venâncio, R.P., "Presença portuguesa: de colonizadores a imigrantes", in "Brasil 500 anos", 2000, Rio de Janeiro, IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística] , from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.] [ [http://observatorio.ultimosegundo.ig.com.br/artigos/da020420033.htm Carvalho, R., "Pelos mesmos direitos do imigrante", 2003] , [http://www.observatoriodaimprensa.com.br/ Observatório da Imprensa] from the State University of Campinas (Brazil).]

Genetic studies also confirm the strong Portuguese racial influence in Brazilians. According to a study, at least half of the Brazilian population's Y Chromosome comes from Portugal. Black Brazilians have an average of 48% non-African genes, most of them may come from Portuguese ancestors. [cite journal |author=Parra FC, Amado RC, Lambertucci JR, Rocha J, Antunes CM, Pena SD |title=Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=100 |issue=1 |pages=177–82 |year=2003 |month=Jan |pmid=12509516 |pmc=140919 |doi=10.1073/pnas.0126614100 |url=]


ee also

*Genetic history of Europe
*European ethnic groups
*Romance languages
*Portuguese Africans
**Portuguese Angolans
**Portuguese Mozambicans
**Portuguese-South Africans
*Portuguese Luxembourger
*Portuguese British
*Portuguese Americans
*Portuguese Canadians

External links

* [http://www.arqueotavira.com/Mapas/Iberia/Populi.htm Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia (around 200 BC)]
* [http://countrystudies.us/portugal/48.htm Portugal (Emigration) from CIA Country Studies Series]

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