List of California birds

This list of California birds is a comprehensive listing of all the bird species seen naturally in the U.S. state of California as determined by the California Birds Records Committee (CBRC).

There are, as of 2007, 634 species on this list. fifteen of these species are introduced (I) – species that are non-native to California but now have established populations. Two of these species are extirpated (E) – species that are native to California but no longer have established populations there (they still do in other places). Birds marked with an asterisk (*) are currently under review by the CBRC. The CBRC states the following about birds under review:

The California Bird Records Committee solicits information on all occurrences in California of the 180 species on this Review List, as well as species unrecorded in California. In general, review species average four or fewer occurrences per year in California, and have been recorded fewer than 100 times.

This list is presented in taxonomic order and follows The Check-list of North American Birds (7th ed., 1998), published by the American Ornithologists' Union. The table of contents is grouped into passerines (the largest order of birds) and non-passerines. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family accounts.

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Bird list header|dialect=US|family=Anatidae There are 131 species world wide, 61 North American species, and 49 California species.


*Black-bellied Whistling-Duck, "Dendrocygna autumnalis" *
*Fulvous Whistling-Duck, "Dendrocygna bicolor"
*Greater White-fronted Goose, "Anser albifrons"
*Emperor Goose, "Chen canagica" *
*Snow Goose, "Chen caerulescens"

*Ross's Goose, "Chen rossii"
*Cackling Goose, "Branta hutchinsii"
*Canada Goose, "Branta canadensis"
*Brant, "Branta bernicla"
*Trumpeter Swan, "Cygnus buccinator" *
*Tundra Swan, "Cygnus columbianus"
*Whooper Swan, "Cygnus cygnus" *
*Wood Duck, "Aix sponsa"
*Gadwall, "Anas strepera"
*Falcated Duck, "Anas falcata" *
*Eurasian Wigeon, "Anas penelope"
*American Wigeon, "Anas americana"
*American Black Duck, "Anas rubripes" *
*Mallard, "Anas platyrhynchos"
*Blue-winged Teal, "Anas discors"
*Cinnamon Teal, "Anas cyanoptera"
*Northern Shoveler, "Anas clypeata"
*Northern Pintail, "Anas acuta"
*Garganey, "Anas querquedula" *
*Baikal Teal, "Anas formosa" *
*Green-winged Teal, "Anas crecca"
*Canvasback, "Aythya valisineria"
*Redhead, "Aythya americana"
*Common Pochard, "Aythya ferina" *
*Ring-necked Duck, "Aythya collaris"
*Tufted Duck, "Aythya fuligula"
*Greater Scaup, "Aythya marila"
*Lesser Scaup, "Aythya affinis"
*Steller's Eider, "Polysticta stelleri" *
*King Eider, "Somateria spectabilis" *
*Common Eider, "Somateria mollissima" *
*Harlequin Duck, "Histrionicus histrionicus"
*Surf Scoter, "Melanitta perspicillata"
*White-winged Scoter, "Melanitta fusca"
*Black Scoter, "Melanitta nigra"
*Long-tailed Duck, "Clangula hyemalis"
*Bufflehead, "Bucephala albeola"
*Common Goldeneye, "Bucephala clangula"
*Barrow's Goldeneye, "Bucephala islandica"
*Smew, "Mergellus albellus" *
*Hooded Merganser, "Lophodytes cucullatus"
*Common Merganser, "Mergus merganser"
*Red-breasted Merganser, "Mergus serrator"
*Ruddy Duck, "Oxyura jamaicensis"

Bird list header|dialect=US|family=Phasianidae There are 180 species world wide, 16 North American species, and 8 Californian species.

*Chukar, "Alectoris chukar" (I)
*Ring-necked Pheasant, "Phasianus colchicus" (I)
*Ruffed Grouse, "Bonasa umbellus"
*Greater Sage-Grouse, "Centrocercus urophasianus"
*White-tailed Ptarmigan, "Lagopus leucurus" (I)
*Sooty Grouse, "Dendragapus fuliginosus"
*Sharp-tailed Grouse, "Tympanuchus phasianellus" (E)
*Wild Turkey, "Meleagris gallopavo" (I)

Bird list header|dialect=US|family=Odontophoridae There are 32 species, world-wide, all found only in the Americas, 6 North American species, and 3 Californian species.

*Mountain Quail, "Oreortyx pictus"
*California Quail, "Callipepla californica"
*Gambel's Quail, "Callipepla gambelii"

Bird list header|dialect=US|family=Gaviidae There are 5 species world-wide, 5 North American species, and 5 Californian species.

*Red-throated Loon, "Gavia stellata"
*Arctic Loon, "Gavia arctica" *
*Pacific Loon, "Gavia pacifica"
*Common Loon, "Gavia immer"
*Yellow-billed Loon, "Gavia adamsii" *

Grebes

Order: PodicipediformesFamily: Podicipedidae

Grebes are small to medium-large sized freshwater diving birds. They have lobed toes, and are excellent swimmers and divers. However, they have their feet placed far back on the body, making them quite ungainly on land. There are 20 species world-wide, 7 North American species, and 7 Californian species.

*Least Grebe, "Tachybaptus dominicus" *
*Pied-billed Grebe, "Podilymbus podiceps"
*Horned Grebe, "Podiceps auritus"
*Red-necked Grebe, "Podiceps grisegena"
*Eared Grebe, "Podiceps nigricollis"
*Western Grebe, "Aechmorphorus occidentalis"
*Clark's Grebe, "Aechmorphorus clarkii"


=Albatrosses=

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Diomedeidae

The albatrosses are amongst the largest of flying birds, and the great albatrosses from the genus Diomedea have the largest wingspans of any extant birds. There are 21 species world wide, 7 North American species, and 6 Californian species. Note that the Light-mantled Albatross does not appear on the North American list.

*Light-mantled Albatross, "Phoebetria palpebrata" *
*Shy Albatross, "Thalassarche cauta" *
*Wandering Albatross, "Diomedea exulans" *
*Laysan Albatross, "Phoebastria immutabilis"
*Black-footed Albatross, "Phoebastria nigripes"
*Short-tailed Albatross, "Phoebastria albatrus" *

Shearwaters and Petrels

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Procellariidae

The procellariids are the main group of medium-sized 'true petrels', characterised by united nostrils with medium septum, and a long outer functional primary. There are 75 species world wide, 24 North American species, and 21 Californian species. Note that Parkinson's Petrel does not occur on the North American list, but it does on the Californian list.

*Northern Fulmar, "Fulmarus glacialis"
*Great-winged Petrel, "Pterodroma macroptera" *
*Murphy's Petrel, "Pterodroma ultima"
*Mottled Petrel, "Pterodroma inexpectata" *
*Dark-rumped Petrel "Pterodroma phaeopygia/sandwichensis" *
*Cook's Petrel, "Pterodroma cookii"
*Stejneger's Petrel, "Pterodroma longirostris" *
*Bulwer's Petrel, "Bulweria bulwerii" *
*Parkinson's Petrel, "Procellaria parkinsoni" *
*Streaked Shearwater, "Calonectris leucomelas" *
*Cory's Shearwater, "Calonectris diomedea" *
*Pink-footed Shearwater, "Puffinus creatopus"
*Flesh-footed Shearwater, "Puffinus carneipes"
*Greater Shearwater, "Puffinus gravis" *
*Wedge-tailed Shearwater, "Puffinus pacificus" *
*Buller's Shearwater, "Puffinus bulleri"
*Sooty Shearwater, "Puffinus griseus"
*Short-tailed Shearwater, "Puffinus tenuirostris"
*Manx Shearwater, "Puffinus puffinus" *
*Black-vented Shearwater, "Puffinus opisthomelas"
*Little Shearwater, "Puffinus assimilis" *


=Storm-Petrels=

Order: ProcellariiformesFamily: Hydrobatidae

The storm-petrels are the smallest of seabirds, relatives of the petrels, feeding on planktonic crustaceans and small fish picked from the surface, typically while hovering. The flight is fluttering and sometimes bat-like. There are 21 species world wide, 12 North American species, and 8 Californian species.

*Wilson’s Storm-Petrel, "Oceanites oceanicus"
*Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma furcata"
*Ringed Storm-petrel, "Oceanodroma hornbyi" *
*Leach’s Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma leucorhoa"
*Ashy Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma homochroa"
*Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma tethys" *
*Black Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma melania"
*Least Storm-Petrel, "Oceanodroma microsoma"

Tropicbirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phaethontidae

Tropicbirds are slender white birds of tropical oceans, with exceptionally long central tail feathers. Their long wings have black markings, as does the head. There are 3 species world wide, 3 North American species, and 3 Californian species.

*White-tailed Tropicbird, "Phaethon lepturus" *
*Red-billed Tropicbird, "Phaethon aethereus"
*Red-tailed Tropicbird, "Phaethon rubricauda" *


=Boobies and Gannets=

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Sulidae

The sulids comprise the gannets and boobies. Both groups are medium-large coastal seabirds that plunge-dive for fish. There are 8 species world wide, 5 North American species, and 4 Californian species.

*Masked Booby, "Sula dactylatra" *
*Blue-footed Booby, "Sula nebouxii" *
*Brown Booby, "Sula leucogaster" *
*Red-footed Booby, "Sula sula" *

Pelicans

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Pelecanidae

Pelicans are very large water birds with a distinctive pouch under the beak. Like other birds in the order Pelecaniformes, they have four webbed toes. There are 8 species world wide, 2 North American species, and 2 Californian species.

*American White Pelican, "Pelecanus erythrorhynchos"
*Brown Pelican, "Pelecanus occidentalis"

Cormorants

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Phalacrocoracidae

Cormorants are medium-to-large aquatic birds, usually with mainly dark plumage and areas of coloured skin on the face. The bill is long, thin, and sharply hooked. Their feet are four-toed and webbed, a distinguishing feature among the Pelecaniformes order. There are 36 species world wide, 6 North American species, and 4 Californian species.

*Brandt's Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax penicillatus"
*Neotropic Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax brasilianus" *
*Double-crested Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax auritus"
*Pelagic Cormorant, "Phalacrocorax pelagicus"

Darters

Darters are cormorant-like water birds with very long necks and long, straight beaks. They often swim with only the neck above water, and are fish-eaters. There are 4 species world wide, 1 North American species, and 1 Californian species.

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Anhingidae

*Anhinga, "Anhinga anhinga" *

Frigatebirds

Order: PelecaniformesFamily: Fregatidae

Frigatebirds are large sea-birds usually found over tropical oceans. They are large, black or black and white, with long wings and deeply-forked tails. The males have inflatable coloured throat pouches. They do not swim or walk, and cannot take off from a flat surface. Having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird, they are essentially aerial, able to stay aloft for more than a week. There are 5 species world wide, 3 North American species, and 2 Californian species.

*Magnificent Frigatebird, "Fregata magnificens"
*Great Frigatebird, "Fregata minor" *

Bitterns, Herons, and Egrets

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ardeidae

The family Ardeidae contains the herons, egrets, and bitterns. Herons and Egrets are medium to large sized wadng birds with long necks and legs. Bitterns tend to be shorter necked and more secrative. Unlike other long necked birds suck as storks, ibises and spoonbills, members of Ardeidae fly with their necks retracted. There are 61 species world wide, 17 North American species, and 12 Californian species.

*American Bittern, "Botaurus lentiginosus"
*Least Bittern, "Ixobrychus exilis"
*Great Blue Heron, "Ardea herodias"
*Great Egret, "Ardea alba"
*Snowy Egret, "Egretta thula"
*Little Blue Heron, "Egretta caerulea"
*Tricolored Heron, "Egretta tricolor" *
*Reddish Egret, "Egretta rufescens"
*Cattle Egret, "Bubulcus ibis"
*Green Heron, "Butorides virescens"
*Black-crowned Night-Heron, "Nycticorax nycticorax"
*Yellow-crowned Night-Heron, "Nyctanassa violacea" *


=Ibises and Spoonbills=

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Threskiornithidae

*American White Ibis, "Eudocimus albus" *
*Glossy Ibis, "Plegadis falcinellus" *
*White-faced Ibis, "Plegadis chihi"
*Roseate Spoonbill, "Ajaia ajaja" *

Storks

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Ciconiidae

Storks are large, heavy, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long stout bills and wide wingspans. They lack the powder down that other wading birds such as herons, spoonbills and ibises use to clean off fish slime. Storks lack a pharynx and are mute. There are 19 species world wide, 2 North American species, and 1 Californian species.

*Wood Stork, "Mycteria americana"


=New World Vultures=

Order: CiconiiformesFamily: Cathartidae

The New World vultures are not closely related to Old World vultures, but superficially resemble them because of convergent evolution. Like the Old World vultures, they are scavengers. However, unlike Old World vultures, which find carcasses by sight, New World vultures have a good sense of smell with which they locate carcasses. There are 7 species world wide, all found only in the Americas, 3 North American species, and 3 Californian species.

*Black Vulture, "Coragyps atratus" *
*Turkey Vulture, "Cathartes aura"
*California Condor, "Gymnogyps californianus" (E)


=Hawks, Kites, and Eagles=

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Accipitridae

The family Accipitridae is a family of birds of prey and include hawks, eagles, kites, harriers and Old World vultures. These birds have very large powerful hooked beaks for tearing flesh from their prey, strong legs, powerful talons, and keen eyesight. There are 233 species world wide, 28 North American species, and 18 Californian species.

*Osprey, "Pandion haliaetus"
*White-tailed Kite, "Elanus leucurus"
*Mississippi Kite, "Ictinia mississippiensis" *
*Bald Eagle, "Haliaeetus leucocephalus"
*Northern Harrier, "Circus cyaneus"
*Sharp-shinned Hawk, "Accipiter striatus"
*Cooper's Hawk, "Accipiter cooperii"
*Northern Goshawk, "Accipiter gentilis"
*Common Black-Hawk, "Buteogallus anthracinus" *
*Harris's Hawk, "Parabuteo unicinctus" *
*Red-shouldered Hawk, "Buteo lineatus"
*Broad-winged Hawk, "Buteo platypterus"
*Swainson's Hawk, "Buteo swainsoni"
*Zone-tailed Hawk, "Buteo albonotatus"
*Red-tailed Hawk, "Buteo jamaicensis"
*Ferruginous Hawk, "Buteo regalis"
*Rough-legged Hawk, "Buteo lagopus"
*Golden Eagle, "Aquila chrysaetos"

Caracaras and Falcons

Order: FalconiformesFamily: Falconidae

Falconidae is a family of diurnal birds of prey, notably the falcons and caracaras. They differ from hawks, eagles, and kites in that they kill with their beaks instead of their feet. There are 62 species world wide, 11 North American species, and 6 Californian species.

*Crested Caracara, "Caracara cheriway" *
*American Kestrel, "Falco sparverius"
*Merlin, "Falco columbarius"
*Gyrfalcon, "Falco rusticolus" *
*Peregrine Falcon, "Falco peregrinus"
*Prairie Falcon, "Falco mexicanus"

Rails, Gallinules, and Coots

Order: GruiformesFamily: Rallidae

Rallidae is a large family of small to medium-sized birds which includes the rails, crakes, coots, and gallinules. The most typical family members occupy dense vegetation in damp environments near lakes, swamps, or rivers. In general they are shy and secretive birds, difficult to observe. Most species have strong legs, and have long toes which are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces. They tend to have short, rounded wings and be weak fliers. There are 143 species world wide, 13 North American species, and 8 Californian species.

*Yellow Rail, "Coturnicops noveboracensis"
*Black Rail, "Laterallus jamaicensis"
*Clapper Rail, "Rallus longirostris"
*Virginia Rail, "Rallus limicola"
*Sora, "Porzana carolina"
*Purple Gallinule, "Porphyrio martinica" *
*Common Moorhen, "Gallinula chloropus"
*American Coot, "Fulica americana"


=Cranes=

Order: GruiformesFamily: Gruidae

Cranes are large, long-legged and long-necked birds. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back. Most have elaborate and noisy courting displays or "dances". There are 15 species world wide, 3 North American species, and 1 Californian species.

*Sandhill Crane, "Grus canadensis"

Lapwings and Plovers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Charadriidae

The family Charadriidae includes the plovers, dotterels, and lapwings. They are small to medium-sized birds with compact bodies, short, thick necks and long, usually pointed, wings. They are found in open country worldwide, mostly in habitats near water, although there are some exceptions. There are 66 species world wide, 17 North American species, and 12 Californian species.

*Black-bellied Plover, "Pluvialis squatarola"
*American Golden-Plover, "Pluvialis dominica" *
*Pacific Golden-Plover, "Pluvialis fulva"
*Lesser Sand-Plover, "Charadrius mongolus" *
*Greater Sand-Plover, "Charadrius leschenaultii" *
*Snowy Plover, "Charadrius alexandrinus"
*Wilson's Plover, "Charadrius wilsonia" *
*Semipalmated Plover, "Charadrius semipalmatus"
*Piping Plover, "Charadrius melodus" *
*Killdeer, "Charadrius vociferus"
*Mountain Plover, "Charadrius montanus"
*Eurasian Dotterel, "Charadrius morinellus" *

Oystercatchers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Haematopodidae

The oystercatchers are large, obvious and noisy plover-like birds, with strong bills used for smashing or prising open molluscs. There are 11 species world-wide, 2 North American species, and 2 Californian species.

*American Oystercatcher, "Haematopus palliatus" *
*American Black Oystercatcher, "Haematopus bachmani"

Stilts and Avocets

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Recurvirostridae

Recurvirostridae is a family of large wading birds, which includes the avocets and the stilts. The avocets have long legs and long up-curved bills. The stilts have extremely long legs and long, thin, straight bills. There are 9 species world wide, 3 North American species, and 2 Californian species.

*Black-necked Stilt, "Himantopus mexicanus"
*American Avocet, "Recurvirostra americana"

Sandpipers, Curlews, Stints, Godwits, Snipes, and Phalaropes

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Scolopacidae

The Scolopacidae are a large diverse family of small to medium sized shorebirds including the Sandpipers, Curlews, Godwits, Shanks, Tattlers, Woodcocks, Snipes, Dowitchers and Phalaropes. The majority of species eat small invertebrates picked out of the mud or soil. Different lengths of legs and bills enable different species to feed in the same habitat, particularly on the coast, without direct competition for food. There are 86 species world wide, 65 North American species, and 47 Californian species.

*Common Greenshank, "Tringa nebularia" *
*Greater Yellowlegs, "Tringa melanoleuca"
*Lesser Yellowlegs, "Tringa flavipes"
*Spotted Redshank, "Tringa erythropus" *
*Solitary Sandpiper, "Tringa solitaria"
*Willet, "Catoptrophorus semipalmatus"
*Wandering Tattler, "Heteroscelus incanus"
*Gray-tailed Tattler, "Heteroscelus brevipes" *
*Spotted Sandpiper, "Actitis macularia"
*Terek Sandpiper, "Xenus cinereus" *
*Upland Sandpiper, "Bartramia longicauda" *
*Little Curlew, "Numenius minutus" *
*Whimbrel, "Numenius phaeopus"
*Bristle-thighed Curlew, "Numenius tahitiensis" *
*Long-billed Curlew, "Numenius americanus"
*Hudsonian Godwit, "Limosa haemastica" *
*Bar-tailed Godwit, "Limosa lapponica" *
*Marbled Godwit, "Limosa fedoa"
*Ruddy Turnstone, "Arenaria interpres"
*Black Turnstone, "Arenaria melanocephala"
*Surfbird, "Aphriza virgata"
*Red Knot, "Calidris canutus"
*Sanderling, "Calidris alba"
*Semipalmated Sandpiper, "Calidris pusilla"
*Western Sandpiper, "Calidris mauri"
*Red-necked Stint, "Calidris ruficollis" *
*Little Stint, "Calidris minuta" *
*Long-toed Stint, "Calidris subminuta" *
*Least Sandpiper, "Calidris minutilla"
*White-rumped Sandpiper, "Calidris fuscicollis" *
*Baird's Sandpiper, "Calidris bairdii"
*Pectoral Sandpiper, "Calidris melanotos"
*Sharp-tailed Sandpiper, "Calidris acuminata"
*Rock Sandpiper, "Calidris ptilocnemis"
*Dunlin, "Calidris alpina"
*Curlew Sandpiper, "Calidris ferruginea" *
*Stilt Sandpiper, "Calidris himantopus"
*Buff-breasted Sandpiper, "Tryngites subruficollis"
*Ruff, "Philomachus pugnax"
*Short-billed Dowitcher, "Limnodromus griseus"
*Long-billed Dowitcher, "Limnodromus scolopaceus"
*Jack Snipe, "Lymnocryptes minimus" *
*Wilson's Snipe, "Gallinago delicata"
*American Woodcock, "Scolopax minor" *
*Wilson's Phalarope, "Phalaropus tricolor"
*Red-necked Phalarope, "Phalaropus lobatus"
*Red Phalarope, "Phalaropus fulicarius"

Skuas, Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Laridae

Laridae is a family of medium to large birds seabirds and includes jaegers, skuas, gulls, terns, kittiwakes and skimmers. They are typically grey or white, often with black markings on the head or wings. They have stout, longish bills and webbed feet. There are 108 species world wide, 54 North American species, and 44 Californian species. Note that the Swallow-tailed Gull is not included in the North American list.

*South Polar Skua, "Stercorarius maccormicki"
*Pomarine Jaeger, "Stercorarius pomarinus"
*Parasitic Jaeger, "Stercorarius parasiticus"
*Long-tailed Jaeger, "Stercorarius longicaudus"
*Laughing Gull, "Larus atricilla"
*Franklin's Gull, "Larus pipixcan"
*Little Gull, "Larus minutus" *
*Black-headed Gull, "Larus ridibundus" *
*Bonaparte's Gull, "Larus philadelphia"
*Heermann's Gull, "Larus heermanni"
*Belcher's Gull, "Larus belcheri" *
*Black-tailed Gull, "Larus crassirostris" *
*Mew Gull, "Larus canus"
*Ring-billed Gull, "Larus delawarensis"
*California Gull, "Larus californicus"
*Herring Gull, "Larus argentatus"
*Thayer's Gull, "Larus thayeri"
*Iceland Gull, "Larus glaucoides" *
*Lesser Black-backed Gull, "Larus fuscus" *
*Slaty-backed Gull, "Larus schistisagus" *
*Yellow-footed Gull, "Larus livens"
*Western Gull, "Larus occidentalis"
*Glaucous-winged Gull, "Larus glaucescens"
*Glaucous Gull, "Larus hyperboreus"
*Sabine's Gull, "Xema sabini"
*Swallow-tailed Gull, "Creagrus furcatus" *
*Black-legged Kittiwake, "Rissa tridactyla"
*Red-legged Kittiwake, "Rissa brevirostris" *
*Ross's Gull, "Rhodostethia rosea" *
*Ivory Gull, "Pagophila eburnea" *
*Gull-billed Tern, "Gelochelidon nilotica"
*Caspian Tern, "Hydroprogne caspia"
*Royal Tern, "Sterna maxima"
*Elegant Tern, "Sterna elegans"
*Sandwich Tern, "Sterna sandvicensis" *
*Common Tern, "Sterna hirundo"
*Arctic Tern, "Sterna paradisaea"
*Forster's Tern, "Sterna forsteri"
*Least Tern, "Sternula antillarum"
*Bridled Tern, "Onychoprion anaethetus" *
*Sooty Tern, "Onychoprion fuscata" *
*White-winged Tern, "Chlidonias leucopterus" *
*Black Tern, "Chlidonias niger"
*Black Skimmer, "Rynchops niger"

Auks, Murres, and Puffins

Order: CharadriiformesFamily: Alcidae

Alcids are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits, however they are not related to the penguins at all, being able to fly. Auks live on the open sea, only deliberately coming ashore to nest. There are 24 species world wide, 22 North American species, and 16 Californian species.

*Common Murre, "Uria aalge"
*Thick-billed Murre, "Uria lomvia" *
*Pigeon Guillemot, "Cepphus columba"
*Long-billed Murrelet, "Brachyramphus perdix" *
*Marbled Murrelet, "Brachyramphus marmoratus"
*Kittlitz's Murrelet, "Brachyramphus brevirostris" *
*Xantus's Murrelet, "Synthliboramphus hypoleucus"
*Craveri's Murrelet, "Synthliboramphus craveri"
*Ancient Murrelet, "Synthliboramphus antiquus"
*Cassin's Auklet, "Ptychoramphus aleuticus"
*Parakeet Auklet, "Aethia psittacula" *
*Least Auklet, "Aethia pusilla" *
*Crested Auklet, "Aethia cristatella" *
*Rhinoceros Auklet, "Cerorhinca monocerata"
*Horned Puffin, "Fratercula corniculata"
*Tufted Puffin, "Fratercula cirrhata"

Pigeons and Doves

Order: ColumbiformesFamily: Columbidae

Pigeons and doves are stout-bodied birds with short necks and short slender bills with a fleshy cere. There are 308 species world wide, 18 North American species, and 10 Californian species.

*Rock Pigeon, "Columba livia" (I)
*Band-tailed Pigeon, "Patagioenas fasciata"
*Oriental Turtle-Dove, "Streptopelia orientalis" *
*Eurasian Collared-Dove, "Streptopelia decaocto" (I)
*Spotted Dove, "Streptopelia chinensis" (I)
*White-winged Dove, "Zenaida asiatica"
*Mourning Dove, "Zenaida macroura"
*Inca Dove, "Columbina inca"
*Common Ground-Dove, "Columbina passerina"
*Ruddy Ground-Dove, "Columbina talpacoti"

Lories, Parakeets, Macaws, and Parrots

Order: PsittaciformesFamily: Psittacidae

Parrots are small to large birds with a characteristic curved beak shape. Their upper mandibles have slight mobility in the joint with the skull and the have a generally erect stance. All parrots are zygodactyl, having the four toes on each foot placed two at the front and two back. There are 335 species world wide, 8 North American species, and 1 Californian species.

*Red-crowned Parrot, "Amazona viridigenalis" (I)


=Cuckoos, Roadrunners, and Anis=

Order: CuculiformesFamily: Cuculidae

The family Cuculidae includes cuckoos, roadrunners and anis. These birds are of variable size with slender bodies, long tails and strong legs. Unlike the cuckoo species of the Old World, North American cuckoos are not brood parasites. There are 138 species world wide, 8 North American species, and 4 Californian species.

*Yellow-billed Cuckoo, "Coccyzus americanus"
*Black-billed Cuckoo, "Coccyzus erythropthalmus" *
*Greater Roadrunner, "Geococcyx californianus"
*Groove-billed Ani, "Crotophaga sulcirostris" *

Barn owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Tytonidae

Barn owls are medium to large sized owls with large heads and characteristic heart-shaped faces. They have long strong legs with powerful talons. There are 16 species world wide, 1 North American species, and 1 Californian species.

*Barn Owl, "Tyto alba"

Typical owls

Order: StrigiformesFamily: Strigidae

Typical owls are small to large solitary nocturnal birds of prey. They have large forward-facing eyes and ears, a hawk-like beak, and a conspicuous circle of feathers around each eye called a facial disk. There are 195 species world wide, 21 North American species, and 13 Californian species.

*Flammulated Owl, "Otus flammeolus"
*Western Screech-Owl, "Megascops kennicottii"
*Great Horned Owl, "Bubo virginianus"
*Snowy Owl, "Bubo scandiacus" *
*Northern Pygmy Owl, "Glaucidium gnoma"
*Elf Owl, "Micrathene whitneyi"
*Burrowing Owl, "Athene cunicularia"
*Spotted Owl, "Strix occidentalis"
*Barred Owl, "Strix varia"
*Great Gray Owl, "Strix nebulosa"
*Long-eared Owl, "Asio otus"
*Short-eared Owl, "Asio flammeus"
*Northern Saw-whet Owl, "Aegolius acadicus"

Nightjars

Order: CaprimulgiformesFamily: Caprimulgidae

Nightjars are medium-sized nocturnal birds with long wings, short legs and very short bills that usually nest on the ground. Most have small feet, of little use for walking, and long pointed wings. Their soft plumage is crypically coloured to resemble bark or leaves. There are 86 species world wide, 9 North American species, and 6 Californian species.

*Lesser Nighthawk, " Chordeiles acutipennis"
*Common Nighthawk, " Chordeiles minor"
*Common Poorwill, " Phalaenoptilus nuttallii"
*Chuck-will's-widow, " Caprimulgus carolinensis" *
*Buff-collared Nightjar, " Caprimulgus ridgwayi" *
*Whip-poor-will, " Caprimulgus vociferus"

Swifts

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Apodidae

The swifts are small aerial birds, spending the majority of their lives flying. These birds have very short legs and never settle voluntarily on the ground, perching instead only on vertical surfaces. Many swifts have long swept-back wings that resemble a crescent or a boomerang. There are 98 species world wide, 9 North American species, and 5 Californian species.

*Black Swift, "Cypseloides niger"
*White-collared Swift, "Streptoprocne zonaris" *
*Chimney Swift, "Chaetura pelagica"
*Vaux's Swift, "Chaetura vauxi"
*White-throated Needletail "Hirundapus caudacutus"

Hummingbirds

Order: ApodiformesFamily: Trochilidae

Hummingbirds are small birds capable of hovering in mid-air due to the rapid flapping of their wings. They are the only birds that can fly backwards. There are 337 species world wide, 23 North American species, and 14 Californian species.

*Green Violet-ear, "Colibri thalassinus" *
*Broad-billed Hummingbird, "Cynanthus latirostris" *
*Xantus's Hummingbird, "Hylocharis xantusii" *
*Violet-crowned Hummingbird, "Amazilia violiceps" *
*Blue-throated Hummingbird, "Lampornis clemenciae" *
*Magnificent Hummingbird, "Eugenes fulgens" *
*Ruby-throated Hummingbird, "Archilochus colubris" *
*Black-chinned Hummingbird, "Archilochus alexandri"
*Anna's Hummingbird, "Calypte anna"
*Costa's Hummingbird, "Calypte costae"
*Calliope Hummingbird, "Stellula calliope"
*Broad-tailed Hummingbird, "Selasphorus platycercus"
*Rufous Hummingbird, "Selasphorus rufus"
*Allen's Hummingbird, "Selasphorus sasin"

Kingfishers

Order: CoraciiformesFamily: Cerylidae

Kingfishers are medium sized birds with large heads, long pointed bills, short legs, and stubby tails. There are 94 species world wide, 3 North American species, and 1 Californian species.

*Belted Kingfisher, "Megaceryle alcyon"

Woodpeckers, Sapsuckers, and Flickers

Order: PiciformesFamily: Picidae

Woodpeckers are small to medium sized birds with chisel like beaks, short legs, stiff tails and long tongues used for capturing insects. Some species have feet with two toes pointing forward, and two backward, while several species have only three toes. Many woodpeckers have the habit of tapping noisily on tree trunks with their beaks. There are 218 species world wide, 26 North American species, and 17 Californian species.

*Lewis's Woodpecker, "Melanerpes lewis"
*Red-headed Woodpecker, "Melanerpes erythrocephalus" *
*Acorn Woodpecker, "Melanerpes formicivorus"
*Gila Woodpecker, "Melanerpes uropygialis"
*Williamson's Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus thyroideus"
*Yellow-bellied Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus varius"
*Red-naped Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus nuchalis"
*Red-breasted Sapsucker, "Sphyrapicus ruber"
*Ladder-backed Woodpecker, "Picoides scalaris"
*Nuttall's Woodpecker, "Picoides nuttallii"
*Downy Woodpecker, "Picoides pubescens"
*Hairy Woodpecker, "Picoides villosus"
*White-headed Woodpecker, "Picoides albolarvatus"
*Black-backed Woodpecker, "Picoides arcticus"
*Northern Flicker, "Colaptes auratus"
*Gilded Flicker, "Colaptes chrysoides"
*Pileated Woodpecker, "Dryocopus pileatus"

Tyrant flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Tyrannidae

Tyrant flycatchers are Passerine birds which occur throughout North and South America. They superficially resemble the Old World flycatchers, but are more robust with stronger bills. They do not have the sophisticated vocal capabilities of the songbirds. Most, but not all, are rather plain. As the name implies, most are insectivorous. There are 429 species world wide (all in America), 45 North American species, and 31 Californian species.

*Olive-sided Flycatcher, "Contopus cooperi"
*Greater Pewee, "Contopus pertinax" *
*Western Wood-Pewee, "Contopus sordidulus"
*Eastern Wood-Pewee, "Contopus virens" *
*Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, "Empidonax flaviventris" *
*Alder Flycatcher, "Empidonax alnorum" *
*Willow Flycatcher, "Empidonax traillii"
*Least Flycatcher, "Empidonax minimus"
*Hammond's Flycatcher, "Empidonax hammondii"
*Gray Flycatcher, "Empidonax wrightii"
*Dusky Flycatcher, "Empidonax oberholseri"
*Pacific-slope Flycatcher, "Empidonax difficilis"
*Cordilleran Flycatcher, "Empidonax occidentalis"
*Black Phoebe, "Sayornis nigricans"
*Eastern Phoebe, "Sayornis phoebe"
*Say's Phoebe, "Sayornis saya"
*Vermilion Flycatcher, "Pyrocephalus rubinus"
*Dusky-capped Flycatcher, "Myiarchus tuberculifer" *
*Ash-throated Flycatcher, "Myiarchus cinerascens"
*Nutting's Flycatcher, "Myiarchus nuttingi" *
*Great Crested Flycatcher, "Myiarchus crinitus" *
*Brown-crested Flycatcher, "Myiarchus tyrannulus"
*Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher, "Myiodynastes luteiventris" *
*Tropical Kingbird, "Tyrannus melancholicus"
*Couch's Kingbird, "Tyrannus couchii" *
*Cassin's Kingbird, "Tyrannus vociferans"
*Thick-billed Kingbird, "Tyrannus crassirostris" *
*Western Kingbird, "Tyrannus verticalis"
*Eastern Kingbird, "Tyrannus tyrannus"
*Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, "Tyrannus forficatus"
*Fork-tailed Flycatcher, "Tyrannus savana" *

Shrikes

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Laniidae

Shrikes are passerine birds known for their habit of catching other birds and small animals and impaling the uneaten portions of their bodies on thorns. A typical shrike's beak is hooked, like a bird of prey. There are 31 species world wide, 3 North American species, and 3 Californian species.

*Brown Shrike, "Lanius cristatus" *
*Loggerhead Shrike, "Lanius ludovicianus"
*Northern Shrike, "Lanius excubitor"

Vireos

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Vireonidae

The vireos are a group of small to medium sized passerine birds restricted to the New World. They are typically greenish in colour and resemble wood warblers apart from their heavier bills. There are 52 species world wide, 16 North American species, and 12 Californian species.

*White-eyed Vireo, "Vireo griseus" *
*Bell's Vireo, "Vireo bellii"
*Gray Vireo, "Vireo vicinior"
*Yellow-throated Vireo, "Vireo flavifrons" *
*Plumbeous Vireo, "Vireo plumbeus"
*Cassin's Vireo, "Vireo cassinii"
*Blue-headed Vireo, "Vireo solitarius" *
*Hutton's Vireo, "Vireo huttoni"
*Warbling Vireo, "Vireo gilvus"
*Philadelphia Vireo, "Vireo philadelphicus"
*Red-eyed Vireo, "Vireo olivaceus"
*Yellow-green Vireo, "Vireo flavoviridis" *

Jays, Crows, Magpies, and Ravens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Corvidae

The Corvidae family includes crows, ravens, jays, choughs, magpies, treepies, nutcrackers, and ground jays. Corvids are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes. Some of the larger species show levels of learned behavior of a high degree. There are 120 species world wide, 21 North American species, and 11 Californian species.

*Gray Jay, "Perisoreus canadensis"
*Steller's Jay, "Cyanocitta stelleri"
*Blue Jay, "Cyanocitta cristata" *
*Island Scrub Jay, "Aphelocoma insularis"
*Western Scrub Jay, "Aphelocoma californica"
*Pinyon Jay, "Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus"
*Clark's Nutcracker, "Nucifraga columbiana"
*Black-billed Magpie, "Pica hudsonia"
*Yellow-billed Magpie, "Pica nuttalli"
*American Crow, "Corvus brachyrhynchos"
*Common Raven, "Corvus corax"

Larks

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Alaudidae

Larks are small terrestrial birds with often extravagant songs and display flights. Most larks are fairly dull in appearance. Their food is insects and seeds. There are 91 species world wide, 2 North American species, and 2 Californian species.

*Sky Lark, "Alauda arvensis" *
*Horned Lark, "Eremophila alpestris"

Swallows and Martins

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Hirundinidae

The Hirundinidae family is a group of passerines characterised by their adaptation to aerial feeding. Their adaptations include a slender streamlined body, long pointed wings and short bills with wide gape. The feet are designed for perching rather than walking, and the front toes are partially joined at the base. There are 75 species world wide, 14 North American species, and 8 Californian species.

*Purple Martin, "Progne subis"
*Tree Swallow, "Tachycineta bicolor"
*Violet-green Swallow, "Tachycineta thalassina"
*Northern Rough-winged Swallow, "Stelgidopteryx serripennis"
*Bank Swallow, "Riparia riparia"
*Cliff Swallow, "Petrochelidon pyrrhonota"
*Cave Swallow, "Petrochelidon fulva" *
*Barn Swallow, "Hirundo rustica"

Chickadees and Titmice

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Paridae The Paridae are mainly small stocky woodland species with short stout bills. Some have crests. They are adaptable birds, with a mixed diet including seeds and insects. There are species 59 world wide, 12 North American species, and 5 Californian species.

*Black-capped Chickadee, "Poecile atricapilla"
*Mountain Chickadee, "Poecile gambeli"
*Chestnut-backed Chickadee, "Poecile rufescens"
*Oak Titmouse, "Baeolophus inornatus"
*Juniper Titmouse, "Baeolophus ridgwayi"


=Verdin=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Remizidae

*Verdin, "Auriparus flaviceps"

Bushtits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Aegithalidae

*Bushtit, "Psaltriparus minimus"

Nuthatches

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sittidae

Nuthatches are small woodland birds. They have the unusual ability to climb down trees head first, unlike other birds which can only go upwards. Nuthatches have big heads, short tails and powerful bills and feet. There are 24 species world wide, 4 North American species, and 3 Californian species.

*Red-breasted Nuthatch, "Sitta canadensis"
*White-breasted Nuthatch, "Sitta carolinensis"
*Pygmy Nuthatch, "Sitta pygmaea"

Treecreepers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Certhiidae

Treecreepers are small woodland birds, brown above and white below. They have thin pointed down-curved bills, which they use to extricate insects from bark. They have stiff tail feathers, like woodpeckers, which they use to support themselves on vertical trees. There are 6 species world wide, 1 North American species, and 1 Californian species.

*Brown Creeper, "Certhia americana"

Wrens

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Troglodytidae

Wrens are small and inconspicuous birds, except for their loud songs. They have short wings and a thin down-turned bill. Several species often hold their tails upright. All are insectivorous. There are 79 species world wide and 9 North American species, and 8 Californian species.

*Cactus Wren, "Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus"
*Rock Wren, "Salpinctes obsoletus"
*Canyon Wren, "Catherpes mexicanus"
*Bewick's Wren, "Thryomanes bewickii"
*House Wren, "Troglodytes aedon"
*Winter Wren, "Troglodytes troglodytes"
*Sedge Wren, "Cistothorus platensis" *
*Marsh Wren, "Cistothorus palustris"

Dippers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cinclidae

*American Dipper, "Cinclus mexicanus"

Kinglets

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Regulidae

The kinglets are a small family of birds which resemble the titmice. They are very small insectivorous birds in the genus Regulus. The adults have coloured crowns, giving rise to their name. There are 5 species world wide, 2 North American species, and 2 Californian species.

*Golden-crowned Kinglet, "Regulus satrapa"
*Ruby-crowned Kinglet, "Regulus calendula"

Old World warblers and Gnatcatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sylviidae

The family Sylviidae is a group of small insectivorous passerine birds. The Sylviidae mainly occur as breeding species, as the common name implies, in Europe, Asia and, to a lesser extent Africa. Most are of generally undistinguished appearance, but many have distinctive songs. There are about 300 species world wide, 12 North American Species, and 6 Californian species.

*Lanceolated Warbler, "Locustella lanceolata" *
*Dusky Warbler, "Phylloscopus fuscatus" *
*Arctic Warbler, "Phylloscopus borealis" *
*Blue-gray Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila caerulea"
*California Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila californica"
*Black-tailed Gnatcatcher, "Polioptila melanura"

Old World flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Muscicapidae

*Taiga Flycatcher, "Ficedula albicilla" *


=Thrushes=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Turdidae

The Thrushes are a group of passerine birds that occur mainly but not exclusively in the Old World. They are plump, soft plumaged, small to medium sized insectivores or sometimes omnivores, often feeding on the ground. Many have attractive songs. There are 335 species world wide, 28 North American species, and 15 Californian species.

*Red-flanked Bluetail, "Tarsiger cyanurus" *
*Northern Wheatear, "Oenanthe oenanthe" *
*Stonechat, "Saxicola torquata" *
*Western Bluebird, "Sialia mexicana"
*Mountain Bluebird, "Sialia currucoides"
*Townsend's Solitaire, "Myadestes townsendi"
*Veery, "Catharus fuscescens" *
*Gray-cheeked Thrush, "Catharus minimus" *
*Swainson's Thrush, "Catharus ustulatus"
*Hermit Thrush, "Catharus guttatus"
*Wood Thrush, "Hylocichla mustelina" *
*Eyebrowed Thrush, "Turdus obscurus" *
*Rufous-backed Robin, "Turdus rufopalliatus" *
*American Robin, "Turdus migratorius"
*Varied Thrush, "Ixoreus naevius"

Babblers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Timaliidae

*Wrentit, "Chamaea fasciata"

Mockingbirds and Thrashers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Mimidae

The Mimids are a family of passerine birds that includes thrashers, mockingbirds, tremblers, and the New World catbirds. These birds are notable for their vocalization, especially their remarkable ability to mimic a wide variety of birds and other sounds heard outdoors. The species tend towards dull grays and browns in their appearance. There are 35 species world wide, 13 North American species, and 9 Californian species.

*Gray Catbird, "Dumetella carolinensis"
*Northern Mockingbird, "Mimus polyglottos"
*Sage Thrasher, "Oreoscoptes montanus"
*Brown Thrasher, "Toxostoma rufum"
*Bendire's Thrasher, "Toxostoma bendirei"
*Curve-billed Thrasher, "Toxostoma curvirostre" *
*California Thrasher, "Toxostoma redivivum"
*Crissal Thrasher, "Toxostoma crissale"
*Le Conte's Thrasher, "Toxostoma lecontei"

Starlings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Sturnidae

Starlings are small to medium-sized Old World passerine birds with strong feet. Their flight is strong and direct, and most are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. The plumage of several species is dark with a metallic sheen. There are 125 species, of which one has been introduced to North America and California.

*European Starling, "Sturnus vulgaris" (I)

Wagtails and Pipits

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Motacillidae

The Motacillidae are a family of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. They include the wagtails, longclaws and pipits. They are slender, ground feeding insectivores of open country. There are 54 species world wide, 11 North American species, and 7 Californian species.

*Eastern Yellow Wagtail, "Motacilla tschutschensis" *
*Grey Wagtail, "Motacilla cinerea" *
*White Wagtail, "Motacilla alba" *
*Olive-backed Pipit, "Anthus hodgsoni" *
*Red-throated Pipit, "Anthus cervinus"
*American Pipit, "Anthus rubescens"
*Sprague's Pipit, "Anthus spragueii" *

Waxwings

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Bombycillidae

The waxwings are a group of passerine birds characterised by soft silky plumage and unique red tips to some of the wing feathers. In the Bohemian and Cedar Waxwings, these tips look like sealing wax, and give the group its name. These are arboreal birds of northern forests. They live on insects in summer and berries in winter. There are three species world wide, 2 North American species, and 2 Californian species.

*Bohemian Waxwing, "Bombycilla garrulus"
*Cedar Waxwing, "Bombycilla cedrorum"

Silky-flycatchers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Ptilogonatidae

*Phainopepla, "Phainopepla nitens"


=Wood-warblers=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Parulidae

The Wood Warblers are a group of small often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World. Most are arboreal, but some like are more terrestrial. Most members of this family are insectivores. There are 119 species world wide, 57 North American species, and 46 Californian species.

*Blue-winged Warbler, "Vermivora pinus" *
*Golden-winged Warbler, "Vermivora chrysoptera" *
*Tennessee Warbler, "Vermivora peregrina"
*Orange-crowned Warbler, "Vermivora celata"
*Nashville Warbler, "Vermivora ruficapilla"
*Virginia's Warbler, "Vermivora virginiae"
*Lucy's Warbler, "Vermivora luciae"
*Northern Parula, "Parula americana"
*Yellow Warbler, "Dendroica petechia"
*Chestnut-sided Warbler, "Dendroica pensylvanica"
*Magnolia Warbler, "Dendroica magnolia"
*Cape May Warbler, "Dendroica tigrina"
*Black-throated Blue Warbler, "Dendroica caerulescens"
*Yellow-rumped Warbler, "Dendroica coronata"
*Black-throated Gray Warbler, "Dendroica nigrescens"
*Golden-cheeked Warbler, "Dendroica chrysoparia" *
*Black-throated Green Warbler, "Dendroica virens"
*Townsend's Warbler, "Dendroica townsendi"
*Hermit Warbler, "Dendroica occidentalis"
*Blackburnian Warbler, "Dendroica fusca"
*Yellow-throated Warbler, "Dendroica dominica" *
*Grace's Warbler, "Dendroica graciae" *
*Pine Warbler, "Dendroica pinus" *
*Prairie Warbler, "Dendroica discolor"
*Palm Warbler, "Dendroica palmarum"
*Bay-breasted Warbler, "Dendroica castanea"
*Blackpoll Warbler, "Dendroica striata"
*Cerulean Warbler, "Dendroica cerulea" *
*Black-and-white Warbler, "Mniotilta varia"
*American Redstart, "Setophaga ruticilla"
*Prothonotary Warbler, "Protonotaria citrea"
*Worm-eating Warbler, "Helmitheros vermivorus" *
*Ovenbird, "Seiurus aurocapilla"
*Northern Waterthrush, "Seiurus noveboracensis"
*Louisiana Waterthrush, "Seiurus motacilla" *
*Kentucky Warbler, "Oporornis formosus"
*Connecticut Warbler, "Oporornis agilis" *
*Mourning Warbler, "Oporornis philadelphia" *
*MacGillivray's Warbler, "Oporornis tolmiei"
*Common Yellowthroat, "Geothlypis trichas"
*Hooded Warbler, "Wilsonia citrina"
*Wilson's Warbler, "Wilsonia pusilla"
*Canada Warbler, "Wilsonia canadensis"
*Red-faced Warbler, "Cardellina rubrifrons" *
*Painted Redstart, "Myioborus pictus"
*Yellow-breasted Chat, "Icteria virens"

Tanagers

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Thraupidae

The tanagers are a large group of small to medium-sized passerine birds restricted to the New World, mainly in the tropics. Many species are brightly coloured. They are seedeaters, but their preference tends towards fruit and nectar. Most have short, rounded wings. There are 256 species world wide, 6 North American species, and 4 Californian species.

*Hepatic Tanager, "Piranga flava"
*Summer Tanager, "Piranga rubra"
*Scarlet Tanager, "Piranga olivacea" *
*Western Tanager, "Piranga ludoviciana"

American sparrows, Towhees, Juncos, and Longspurs

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Emberizidae

The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill. In Europe, most species are named as buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as Sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the Old World sparrows which are in the family Passeridae. Many emberizid species have distinctive head patterns. There are species 275 world wide, 60 North American species, and 38 Californian species.

*Green-tailed Towhee, "Pipilo chlorurus"
*Spotted Towhee, "Pipilo maculatus"
*California Towhee, "Pipilo crissalis"
*Abert's Towhee, "Pipilo aberti"
*Cassin's Sparrow, "Aimophila cassinii" *
*Rufous-crowned Sparrow, "Aimophila ruficeps"
*American Tree Sparrow, "Spizella arborea"
*Chipping Sparrow, "Spizella passerina"
*Clay-colored Sparrow, "Spizella pallida"
*Brewer's Sparrow, "Spizella breweri"
*Field Sparrow, "Spizella pusilla" *
*Black-chinned Sparrow, "Spizella atrogularis"
*Vesper Sparrow, "Pooecetes gramineus"
*Lark Sparrow, "Chondestes grammacus"
*Black-throated Sparrow, "Amphispiza bilineata"
*Sage Sparrow, "Amphispiza belli"
*Lark Bunting, "Calamospiza melanocorys"
*Savannah Sparrow, "Passerculus sandwichensis"
*Grasshopper Sparrow, "Ammodramus savannarum"
*Baird's Sparrow, "Ammodramus bairdii" *
*Le Conte's Sparrow, "Ammodramus leconteii" *
*Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow, "Ammodramus nelsoni"
*Fox Sparrow, "Passerella iliaca"
*Song Sparrow, "Melospiza melodia"
*Lincoln's Sparrow, "Melospiza lincolnii"
*Swamp Sparrow, "Melospiza georgiana"
*White-throated Sparrow, "Zonotrichia albicollis"
*Harris's Sparrow, "Zonotrichia querula"
*White-crowned Sparrow, "Zonotrichia leucophrys"
*Golden-crowned Sparrow, "Zonotrichia atricapilla"
*Dark-eyed Junco, "Junco hyemalis"
*McCown's Longspur, "Calcarius mccownii"
*Lapland Longspur, "Calcarius lapponicus"
*Smith's Longspur, "Calcarius pictus" *
*Chestnut-collared Longspur, "Calcarius ornatus"
*Little Bunting, "Emberiza pusilla" *
*Rustic Bunting, "Emberiza rustica" *
*Snow Bunting, "Plectrophenax nivalis" *


=Cardinals, Saltators, and Grosbeaks=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Cardinalidae

The Cardinals are a family of passerine birds that are robust, seed-eating birds, with strong bills. They are typically associated with open woodland. The sexes usually have distinct plumages. There are 43 species world wide, 13 North American species, and 10 Californian species.

*Northern Cardinal, "Cardinalis cardinalis"
*Pyrrhuloxia, "Cardinalis sinuatus" *
*Rose-breasted Grosbeak, "Pheucticus ludovicianus"
*Black-headed Grosbeak, "Pheucticus melanocephalus"
*Blue Grosbeak, "Passerina caerulea"
*Lazuli Bunting, "Passerina amoena"
*Indigo Bunting, "Passerina cyanea"
*Varied Bunting, "Passerina versicolor" *
*Painted Bunting, "Passerina ciris"
*Dickcissel, "Spiza americana"


=Blackbirds, Meadowlarks, Cowbirds, Grackles, and Orioles=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Icteridae

The Icterids are a group of small to medium, often colourful passerine birds restricted to the New World and include the grackles, New World blackbirds, and New World orioles. Most species have black as a predominant plumage colour, often enlivened by yellow, orange or red. There are 98 species world wide, 25 North American Species, and 17 Californian species.

*Bobolink, "Dolichonyx oryzivorus"
*Red-winged Blackbird, "Agelaius phoeniceus"
*Tricolored Blackbird, "Agelaius tricolor"
*Western Meadowlark, "Sturnella neglecta"
*Yellow-headed Blackbird, "Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus"
*Rusty Blackbird, "Euphagus carolinus" *
*Brewer's Blackbird, "Euphagus cyanocephalus"
*Common Grackle, "Quiscalus quiscula" *
*Great-tailed Grackle, "Quiscalus mexicanus"
*Bronzed Cowbird, "Molothrus aeneus"
*Brown-headed Cowbird, "Molothrus ater"
*Orchard Oriole, "Icterus spurius"
*Hooded Oriole, "Icterus cucullatus"
*Streak-backed Oriole, "Icterus pustulatus" *
*Bullock's Oriole, "Icterus bullockii"
*Baltimore Oriole, "Icterus galbula"
*Scott's Oriole, "Icterus parisorum"

Finches

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Fringillidae

Finches are seed-eating passerine birds, that are small to moderately large and have a strong beak, usually conical and in some species very large. All have 12 tail feathers and 9 primaries. These birds have a bouncing flight with alternating bouts of flapping and gliding on closed wings, and most sing well. There are 137 species world wide, 23 North American species, and 15 Californian species.

*Brambling, "Fringilla montifringilla" *
*Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch, "Leucosticte tephrocotis"
*Black Rosy-Finch, "Leucosticte atrata" *
*Pine Grosbeak, "Pinicola enucleator"
*Purple Finch, "Carpodacus purpureus"
*Cassin's Finch, "Carpodacus cassinii"
*House Finch, "Carpodacus mexicanus"
*Red Crossbill, "Loxia curvirostra"
*White-winged Crossbill, "Loxia leucoptera" *
*Common Redpoll, "Carduelis flammea" *
*Pine Siskin, "Carduelis pinus"
*Lesser Goldfinch, "Carduelis psaltria"
*Lawrence's Goldfinch, "Carduelis lawrencei"
*American Goldfinch, "Carduelis tristis"
*Evening Grosbeak, "Coccothraustes vespertinus"


=Old World sparrows=

Order: PasseriformesFamily: Passeridae

Old World sparrows are small passerine birds. In general, sparrows tend to be small plump brownish or greyish birds with short tails and short powerful beaks. Sparrows are seed-eaters, and they also consume small insects. There are 35 species world wide, 2 North American species, and 1 Californian species.

*House Sparrow, "Passer domesticus" (I)

ee also

*List of birds
*Lists of birds by region

References

* [http://www.wfo-cbrc.org/cbrc/ca_list.html California Bird List of the Western Field Ornithologists’ California Bird Records Committee]
* [http://www.aou.org/checklist/index.php3 The Check-list of North American Birds] , 7th edition, 1998, published by the American Ornithologists' Union (the official source on the taxonomy of birds found in North America)


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