Elektronika (Russian: Электроника) is the brand name used for many different electronic products such as calculators, electronic watches, portable games and radios in the Soviet Union and, nowadays, in Russia. Many Elektronika designs were the result of dedicated reverse engineering efforts by Soviet engineers, who were working for the Soviet military-industrial complex but were challenged with producing consumer goods which were in great shortage in the Soviet Union.


Most notable is a line of calculators, which started production in 1968. The Elektronika calculators were produced in a variety of sizes and function sets, ranging from large, bulky four-function calculators to smaller models designed for use in schools operating on a special, safer 42V standard (like the MK-SCH-2). As time progressed, Elektronika calculators were produced that supported more advanced calculations, with some of the most recent models even offering full programmability and functionality similar to today's American-designed graphing calculators.

These designs were based directly on Japanese or American calculators, and often many of the bugs from the original calculator would be found in the Elektronika version as well. Sometimes, significant errors were introduced during the design process, resulting in strange behavior during certain calculations. Elektronika calculators nevertheless had distinctive designs, legible displays, and were commonly available throughout the Soviet Union. Today, these relics can often be found on online auction sites directly from dealers in Ukraine that are willing to export them worldwide as souvenirs.


* BK-0010 and BK-0011M (PDP11 clone)
* MS 1502 (XT clone)
* KR-series (01/02/03/04) (RK-86 clones)
* Electronika 60

Electronic toys

Model names for Elektronika-branded Nintendo Game & Watch clones start with IM (Russian acronym for "microprocessor game").

The known models include:

* IM-02 Just you wait! (1986) - Nintendo EG-26 "Egg"
* IM-03 Mysteries of the Ocean (1989) - Nintendo OC-22 "Octopus"
* IM-04 Merry Cook (1989) - Nintendo FP-24 "Chef"
* MG-09 Space Bridge (1989) - Nintendo FR-27 Fire
* MG-13 Explorers of Space (1989)
* IM-18 Fowling (1989)
* IM-?? Amusing Arithmetics (1989)
* IM-23 Car Slalom (1991)
* IM-50 Space Flight (1992)

Post-1992 versions:
* I-01 Car Slalom
* I-02 Merry Cook
* I-03 Space Bridge
* I-04 Fisher Tom-Cat
* I-05 Naval Combat
* I-06 Just you wait!
* I-07 Frog boaster
* I-08 Fowling
* I-09 Explorers of Space
* I-10 Biathlon
* I-11 Circus
* I-12 Hockey
* I-13 Merry Fotballers
* I-14 Night Thiefes
* I-15 Mysteries of the Ocean

Original series:
* IM-29 Chess Partner

IM-11 Lunokhod was a clone of Bigtrak toy tank, a programmable battery-powered toy vehicle made by Milton Bradley Company.

External links

* [http://www.taswegian.com/MOSCOW/soviet.html Museum of Soviet Calculators On the Web (MOSCOW)]
* [http://digihry.ic.cz/ Digital games Elektronika IM]
* [http://www.emulator3000.emuita.it/hq.htm Electronika IM Emulator]
* [http://www.netgrafik.ch/elektronika-watches.htm Collection of Elektronika watches]
* [http://www.netgrafik.ch/elektronika.htm Article on Elektronika watches]
* [http://www.rk86.com/frolov Soviet Calculators Collection]

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