# Bifurcation diagram

In

mathematics , particularly indynamical systems , a**bifurcation diagram**shows the possible long-term values (equilibria/fixed points or periodic orbits) of a system as a function of a bifurcation parameter in the system. It is usual to represent stable solutions with a solid line and unstable solutions with a dotted line.**Bifurcations in the 1D discrete**dynamical systems ( maps )Logistic map An example is the bifurcation diagram of the

logistic map ::$x\_\{n+1\}=rx\_n(1-x\_n).\; ,$

The bifurcation parameter "r" is shown on the horizontal axis of the plot and the vertical axis shows the possible long-term population values of the logistic function. Only the stable solutions are shown here, there are many other unstable solutions which are not shown in this diagram.

The bifurcation diagram nicely shows the forking of the possible periods of stable orbits from 1 to 2 to 4 to 8 etc. Each of these bifurcation points is a

period-doubling bifurcation .The ratio of the lengths of successive intervals between values of "r" for which bifurcation occurs converges to thefirst Feigenbaum constant .

= Real quadraticFor $x\_\{n+1\}=x\_n^2-c$; the code in

Matlab can be written as:hold on while c < 4 for i=1:100; y = y.^2 -c; %converge the iteration end for i=1:20 y = y.^2 - c; plot(c,y,'.'); % plot the converged points end c=c+0.01;end

**ymmetry breaking in bifurcation sets**

thumb|right|300px|Symmetry_breaking_in_pitchfork bifurcation as the parameter epsilon is varied. epsilon = 0 is the case of symmetric pitchfork bifurcation.]In a dynamical system such as

:$ddot\; \{x\}\; +\; f(x;mu)\; +\; epsilon\; g(x)\; =\; 0$,

which is

structurally stable when $mu\; eq\; 0$, if a bifurcation diagram is plotted, treating $mu$ as the bifurcation parameter, but for different values of $epsilon$, the case $epsilon\; =\; 0$ is the symmetric pitchfork bifurcation. When $epsilon\; eq\; 0$, we say we have a pitchfork with "broken symmetry." This is illustrated in the animation on the right.**See also***

Bifurcation theory

*Phase portrait **References***Paul Glendinning, "Stability, Instability and Chaos", Cambridge University Press, 1994.

*Steven Strogatz, "Non-linear Dynamics and Chaos: With applications to Physics, Biology, Chemistry and Engineering", Perseus Books, 2000.**External links*** [

*http://www.egwald.com/nonlineardynamics/logisticsmapchaos.php The Logistic Map and Chaos*]

* [*http://home.scarlet.be/kpm/vb/winattract.html A small application for drawing the Logistic Map*]

*Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.*

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