- Anti-Narcotics Force
ANF's Charter of Duty
Anti Norcotics Force (ANF) is responsible to perform the following
Limiting the smuggling trafficking and distribution of NarcoticsCoordinating eradication of opium poppyEnsuring no heroin lab becomes functionalInquire/Investigate assets of drug baronsPursuing Legal cases relentlessly
Reducing the demand of illicit drugs through preventive education, treatment and rehabilitation as well as harm reduction programmes
Coordination Liaison at National and International Level
Enhancing international co-operation in the fight against drugs and liaison with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, International Narcotics Control Board, International Police, Narcotics Affairs Section (US Embassy), Drugs Enforcement Agency, Foreign Anti Narcotics Community, Drug Liaison Officers etc
National Drug Abuse Assessment Study of Pakistan 2000-01
The past three decades have witnessed massive proliferation of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in Pakistan. The government has instituted a series of measures to address the situation. However, the formulation of a comprehensive drug abuse control strategy demanded a realistic assessment of the scope of the problem.
The country s first National Survey on Drug Abuse (NSDA) was conducted in 1982. Its findings not only indicated a significant increase in the use of heroin in Pakistan but also predicted a similar trend for the future. Subsequent NSDAs were conducted in 1984, 1986, 1988 and 1993. All these surveys pointed towards a considerable increase in drug abuse.The government, held its last NSDAwith the assistance of the United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP), with the name of National Drug Abuse Assessment Study 2000-2001.
The assessment study consists of three data collection studies namely, Key Informant, Treatment Registry and Four-Cities Study. Each of the studies can be treated as independent research. At the same time, however, it allows a comparison of indicated patterns from across the entire country by virtue of the statistical assumption that what applies to known data (i.e., actual geographical locales studied in detail), would also apply to similar locales (not studied in detail).
The study is geared to estimate the total population of hardcore heroin users, including intravenous drug users. For other drug types, increasing and decreasing trends and patterns have been assessed. The study s scope was ascertained in keeping with budgetary allocations.
It is important to note that this is an assessment study and not a survey as the estimates do not include drug use by household women, workplace, skilled and unskilled workers, students, transporters and recreational users.
Findings of the Study-Highlights
PrevalenceAmong males in the age bracket of 15-45 years, there are 500,000 regular heroin users and drug injectors - an alarmingly high rate by international standards.
Major Drugs of AbuseCannabis, in one form or the other (marijuana, charas, etc), is the most commonly used drug in Pakistan in terms of lifetime use and prevalence, followed by heroin, alcohol and psychotropic substances.
Rural/UrbanCharas/hashish is equally popular in urban and rural areas. Heroin abuse, however, is conspicuous as more of an urban phenomenon.
Literacy and Employment RatesHeroin abusers, on the average, have six years of education. Of the total number of heroin users, 43% are unemployed and 26% are engaged in full-time employment.
Age GroupAn examination of social and demographic factors reveals that 40% of the heroin abusers fall in the age bracket of 25-34 years.
OccupationOccupational grouping indicates that the frequency of drug abuse is highest among people belonging to the skilled and unskilled labour categories (47%), followed by business persons (16%), agricultural workers (5%) and students (3%).
Means of Financial SupportAmong drug users, 22% sustain themselves through casual work, 18% enjoy family support, 16% are beggars, 13% are drug peddlers, and 11% resort to petty thefts and pick-pocketing.
GenderFor most drug types, abuse is not as common and pervasive among women as it is among the male population. Psychotropic substances are the most common drugs of abuse among women. It has also been found that women comprise only 3% of the total number of patients being reported, making it an important area for intensive research.
Problems Associated with Drug AbuseIn all provinces (both urban and rural locales), heroin has been identified as the drug predominantly responsible for creating unrest in the society. Alcohol has been rated at number two. Whilst cannabis is the most commonly used drug in all areas, respondents do not necessarily perceive it as a cause of social upheaval. However, in some areas, cannabis-related troubles have been reported.
Current Drug UseAmong heroin users, 77% report using the drug on a daily basis. As for hashish/charas, 41% use it on a daily basis and 34% occasionally. Alcohol consumption remains more varied. However, most of the respondents (76%) report consuming alcohol twice or thrice a week or less, with only 10% reporting consumption for five or more days a week. Other significant drugs include opium and tranquilizers, which are currently being used by a quarter of all respondents. A majority of the hardcore drug abusers consists of multiple drug consumers - a fairly common phenomenon throughout the world.
Methods of AdministrationAs many as 73% of the total heroin users either smoke the drug or inhale its fumes while 11% sniff it and 15% inject it. Injecting drug use is accompanied by high incidence of practices associated with the spread of blood-borne infections.
Treatment and RehabilitationAs for treatment and rehabilitation, 64% of the respondents report difficulties in getting treatment. For an overwhelming majority (80%), treatment is unaffordable. Lack of in-patient facilities in government hospitals is cited as the major deterrent for treatment by 23% of the respondents. Forty-four percent have received treatment for a drug problem at some stage in their lives. Ninety six percent have been treated for heroin addiction. Most of the addicts did not receive intensive or sustained therapy.
Prison ContactThirty-five percent of the respondents are reported to have spent some time in prison for their alleged involvement in a drug-related offence
Extradition of Drug Traffickers
As of 29th October 2005
International Obligations Pakistan has ratified the following United Nations (UN) Conventions and regional bilateral treaties:
Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs 1961 as amended by the 1972 Protocol.
United Nations (UN) Convention on Psychotropic Substances 1971.
United Nations(UN) Convention against Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 1988 and subsequent United Natrions (UN) resolutions, in particular the United Nations (UN) General Assembly s 20th Special Session Resolution S-20/4B.
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Convention on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances 1990.
Protocol on Drug Matters with Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) Countries.
Extradition treaties concluded by the British government with 19 countries were adopted by Pakistan. These countries are
Argentina, France, Portugal, Austria, Greece, San Marino, Belgium, Iraq, Switzerland, Colombia, Liberia, USA, Cuba, Luxembourg, Yugoslavia, Denmark, Monaco, Ecuadorand Netherlandsrespectively.
Pakistan has directly concluded Extradition Treaties with
Australia, Iran, Maldives, Turkey, Egypt, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Algeriaand Iran
Pakistan s International Initiatives
Pakistan hosted the Six Plus Two technical level meeting at Islamabad on September 13-14, 2001. The meeting was co-sponsored by Anti Norcotics Force (ANF), Narcotics Affairs Section (NAS) and United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP).
Gulf Cooperation meeting was held in Islamabad in April 2004 due to Pakistan s efforts
Paris Pact Expert Roudtable Conference was held in Islamabad in April 2005 again die to the devoted and untiring efforts of Pakistan
Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs)
In order to make joint efforts for the control of drug trafficking, the Government of Pakistan has signed Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs) with
China, Iran, Russia, Egypt, Nigeria, UAE, Kyrgyzstan, Romaniaand Uzbekistan.
Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs) with
Indonesia, Kuwait, Syria, Egypt, Moroccoand Thailandare in the pipeline.
* [http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=20061217story_17-12-2006_pg11_4 US gives $8m equipment to ANF to counter narcotics]
* [http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/divisions/index.jsp?DivID=11&cPath=101 ANF: Narcotics Control Division Official Website]
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