List of historical autonomist and secessionist movements

This is a list of historical autonomist and secessionist movements around the world. They may or may not have succeeded in their goal.

For currently active movements, please see: List of active autonomist and secessionist movements.

Africa

Algeria

("gained independence from France on July 5, 1962")
* Political party: Algerian National Movement (MNA)
* Rebel organization: Front de Libération Nationale (FLN)
* Parallel government: Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA)

Angola

* Political party: Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA)
* Parallel government: Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile (GRAE)

Botswana

* Political party: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Botswana People's Party (BPP)

Burundi

* Political party: Union for National Progress (UPRONA)

Cameroon

* Political party: Rassemblement camerounais (RACAM), Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (UPC)
* Rebel organizations: National Liberation Army of Kamerun (ALNK)

Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau

* Political party: African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC), Struggle Front for the National Independence of Guinea (FLING)

Central African Republic

* Political party: Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa (MÉSAN)

Democratic Republic of the Congo

* Political party: Mouvement National Congolais (MNC), ABAKO

Côte d'Ivoire

*Rebel organization: Patriotic Movement of Côte d'Ivoire (MPCI)

Egypt

*Political party: Wafd Party

Eritrea

* Rebel organization: Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF), Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF)

Ghana

* Political party: Convention People's Party (CPP), United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC)
* Self-government experiment: Fante Confederation

Katanga

* Political party: Confederation of the Tribal Associations of Katanga (CONAKAT)

Kenya

* Political party: East Africa Association, Kenya African National Union (KANU), Kikuyu Central Association, Young Kikuyu Association
* Rebel organization: Mau Mau

Mali

* Political party: Sudanese Union (US)

Mauritius

* Political party: Mauritius Labour Party (MLP), Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM)

Morocco

* Political party: Istiqlal Party, National Action Bloc
* Secessionist entity: Rif Republic

Mozambique

* Political party: Mozambican Liberation Front (FRELIMO)

Namibia

* Political party: South-West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO), South West Africa National Union (SWANU)
* Rebel organizations: People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN)

Niger

* Political party: Nigerien Progressive Party, Sawaba Party

Nigeria

* Political party: Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP), National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC), Action Group, Egbe Omo Oduduwa, Northern People's Congress
* Secessionist entity: Republic of Biafra

São Tomé and Príncipe

* Political party: Committee for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe (CLSTP), Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe (MLSTP)

Seychelles

* Political party: Seychelles Democratic Party (SDP), Seychelles People's United Party (SPUP)

Sierra Leone

* Political party: Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), West African Youth League (WAYL)

Somalia

* Political party: Somali Youth League (SYL)

Sudan

* Political party: Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), Sudanese Communist Party, Umma Party

Tanganyika

* Political party: Tanganyika African Association, Tanganyika African National Union

Tunisia

* Political party: Destour Party, Young Tunisians, Neo-Destour Party (ND)

Uganda

* Political party: Rwenzururu Secessionist Movement, Uganda People's Congress (UPC)

Zambia

* Political party: Northern Rhodesian African National Congress, United National Independence Party (UNIP), Zambian African National Congress (ZANC)

Zanzibar

* Political party: Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP)

Zimbabwe

* Political party: Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU)
* Rebel organizations: Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA), Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA)

Asia

Bangladesh

* Political party: Bangladesh Awami League
* Rebel organization: Mukti Bahini
**Status: Resulted in independence of Bangladesh in 1971.

* Chakma, Chittagong Hill Tracts
** Political party: Parbattya Chattagram Jana Sanghati Samiti, or Chittagong Hill Tribal People's Coordination Association
** Proposed state: Confederacy of Chittagong
** Status: Inactive following the 1996 peace treaty between the Government of Bangladesh and the tribal leaders.

* Hindu people, south-western Bangladesh
** Political party: Swadhin Bangabhumi Andolan
** Proposed State: Bangabhumi

Burma

* Political party: Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League, Dobama Asiayone, Communist Party of Burma
* Rebel organization: Burma Independence Army

Cambodia

* Khmer Issarak
* Khmer Serei

India

* Political party: All India Forward Bloc, Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, Indian National Congress, Communist Party of India, Swaraj Party, Ghadar Party
* Parallel government: Provisional Government of Free India
* Rebel organization: Indian National Army

Indonesia

* Political party: Communist Party of Indonesia, Nationalist Party of Indonesia
* Rebel organization: Free Aceh Movement
* Secessionist entity: Republic of West Papua

Japan

*

Kazakhstan

* Alash Orda

Korea

* Protest movement: March 1st Movement
* Parallel government: Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea

Laos

* Rebel organization: Lao Issara, Pathet Lao

Malaysia

* Political party: Alliance Party(United Malays National Organisation, Malayan Chinese Association & Malayan Indian Congress)

Maldives

*Suvadives
** Proposed state: United Suvadiva Republic

Mongolia

* Political party: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party

North Korea

* Political party: Workers' Party of Korea

Oman

* Rebel organizations: Dhofar Liberation Front (DLF), Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (PFLO), Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arab Gulf/Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Arab Gulf (PFLOAG)

Pakistan

* Political party: Muslim League

Philippines

* Political party: Nacionalista Party
* Society: Katipunan, La Liga Filipina
* Secessionist entities: Katagalugan, First Philippine Republic, Cantonal Republic of Negros

Singapore

* Political party: Labour Front, People's Action Party

Sri Lanka

* Political party: Sinhala Maha Sabha, United National Party

Syria

* National Bloc

Vietnam

* Duy Tân Hội
* Indochinese Communist Party
* National Liberation Front of South Vietnam
* Việt Minh
* Việt Nam Cách Mệnh Đồng Minh Hội
* Việt Nam Quang Phục Hội
* Việt Nam Quốc Dân Dảng

Yemen

* Rebel organization: Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen, National Liberation Front of South Yemen

Europe

Albania

* League of Prizren

Armenia

* Political party: Armenian Revolutionary Federation, Social Democrat Hunchakian Party, Ramgavar Party, Pan-Armenian National Movement
* Rebel organization: Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia

Azerbaijan

* Political party: Musavat, Azerbaijan Popular Front Party

Belarus

* Political party: Belarusian People's Front

Belgium

* Political party: Vlaams Belang, N-VA

Bulgaria

* Political party: Bulgarian Revolutionary Central Committee, Internal Revolutionary Organisation

Croatia

* Political party: Croatian Democratic Union, Croatian Party of Rights, Croatian Peasant Party
* Croatian Spring

Cyprus

* Rebel organizations: EOKA, Turkish Resistance Organization

Czech Republic

* Political party: Young Czech Party, Czech National Social Party

Estonia

* Popular Front of Estonia

Finland

* Political movement: Fennoman
* Political party: Finnish Party, Young Finnish Party
* Political movement: Åland movement

France

* (also in Spain)
** Political parties: Basque Nationalist Party, Basque Unity
** Rebel organization: Basque homeland and Freedom (ETA)
*
** Political Parties: Corsica Nazione, Partitu di a Nazione Corsa
*
*

Germany

* Short-lived Republic: Rhenish Republic
* Lower Saxony
* Alemannic Separatism


= Georgia =

* Ajaria
* Azeris
** Proposed autonomous region: Borchalo autonomy
*Political Party: Mingrelian Nationalist Party
** Proposed independent state: Mingrelia

Greece

* Society: Filiki Eteria

Ireland

(See also under UK, for pre-division Ireland)
*Home Rule League
*Irish National League
*Irish Parliamentary Party
*Irish Republican Brotherhood
*Provisional Government of the Irish Republic
*Sinn Féin
*Society of United Irishmen
*United Irish League
*Young Ireland

Latvia

* Political party: Popular Front of Latvia, Latvian National Independence Movement

Lithuania

* Sąjūdis

Republic of Macedonia

* Political party: Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organisation

Moldova

* Moldovan Popular Front

Poland

* Narodowa Demokracja
* Towarzystwo Demokratyczne Polskie (Polish Democratic Society)

Yugoslavia

* Political parties: Democratic League of Kosovo, Alliance for the Future of Kosovo, Democratic Party of Kosovo, National Movement for the Liberation of Kosovo, The People's Movement for Kosovo
* Rebel organization: Kosovo Liberation Army (became Kosovo Protection Corps)

Slovakia

* Political party: Slovak National Party

Spain

* (also in France)
** Political parties: Basque Nationalist Party, Basque Solidarity, Nafarroa Bai, Aralar, Basque National Action, Basque Unity
** Rebel organizations: Basque homeland and Freedom (ETA), Segi
*
** Political parties: Convergence and Union (Democratic Convergence of Catalonia + Democratic Union of Catalonia), Republican Left of Catalonia, Catalonian State
** Rebel organization: Terra Lliure ("disbanded")
*
** Political Parties: Galician Nationalist Bloc, Nós-Unidade Popular
*
** Political Party: Canarian Coalition
*
** Political Party: Leonese People's Union

Ukraine

* People's Movement of Ukraine ("Rukh")
* Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
* Ukrainian Insurgent Army


=United Kingdom (and Associated Territories)=
*
* Ireland (including pre-split Northern Ireland): Irish Republican Brotherhood, Clan na Gael, Young Ireland, Home Rule League, Irish Socialist Republican Party, Irish Parliamentary Party, All-for-Ireland League, Nationalist Party (Northern Ireland), Irish Independence Party
*
*
*
*
** Political party: Vectis National Party

North America

Canada

Secessionist

* Nova Scotia
** Political: Nova Scotia

* Ontario
** Political: Ontario Independence League

* Quebec
** Pressure group: Alliance Laurentienne, Chevaliers de l'Indépendance
** Political party: Mouvement Souveraineté-Association, Option citoyenne, Parti de la démocratie socialiste, Parti indépendantiste, Parti Nationaliste du Quebec, Parti Patriote, Ralliement National, Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale, Union des forces progressistes, Union Nationale (Johnson era), Union Populaire
** Rebel organization: Fils de la liberté, Frères Chasseurs, Front de libération du Québec

* Western Canada
** Political: Unionest Party

Autonomist

* Acadia
** Political party: Parti Acadien

* Cape Breton Island
** Political party: Cape Breton Labour Party

* the Maritimes
** Political party: the Maritimes

* Ontario
** Political party: Northern Ontario Heritage Party

Haiti

* Cacos (anti-US occupation)

Mexico

Secessionist

*California Republic
*Chan Santa Cruz
*Republic of Fredonia
*Republic of the Rio Grande
*Republic of Texas
*Republic of Yucatán

Nicaragua

* Ejército Defensor de la Soberanía Nacional (anti-US occupation)

Panama

* Kuna Revolution (Republic of Tule)

United States

*Thirteen United States
**Sons of Liberty
*Republic of Texas
*Confederate States of America
*New England's Secession Conventions of 1803, 1808, 1814, and 1843

Puerto Rico

*Autonomist Party:Popular Democratic Party (PPD)
*Anti-Colonial National Liberation Movement:Puerto Rican Independence Movement:Partido Independentista Puertorriqueño (PIP)

South & Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and Barbuda

* Political party: Antigua Labour Party

Belize

* Political party: People's United Party

Bahamas

* Abaco (defunct)
* Progressive Liberal Party (PLP)

Brazil

*
** Political party: Movimento da Republica Rio-Grandense ( [http://www.riograndelivre.net] )
** Proposed state: Republica Rio-Grandense

*
** Political party: Movimento da República Paulista ( [http://www.nacaopaulista.com.br] )

British West Indies

* Political party: Caribbean League, Representative Government Associations

Dominica

* Political party: Dominica Labour Party

Guyana

* Political party: People's Progressive Party
* Political party: People's National Congress

Jamaica

* Political party: Jamaican Labour Party, People's National Party

Peru

* Political party: Liga Loretana

Spanish America

* Logia Lautaro

Trinidad and Tobago

* Political party: People's National Movement

Oceania

Australia

*")

Fiji

* Political party: Fijian Alliance

Papua New Guinea

* Political party: Papua Besena

Samoa

* Protest movement: Mau movement

Solomon Islands

* Protest movement: Maasina Ruru

Vanuatu

* Political party: Nagriamel, New Hebrides Cultural Association, New Hebrides National Party, Vanua'aku Party
* Religious movement: John Frum
* Parallel government: People's Provisional Government (PPG)

References

See also

*List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
*Decolonization


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