Michael Douglas


Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas

Douglas in April 2011
Born Michael Kirk Douglas
September 25, 1944 (1944-09-25) (age 67)
New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
Occupation Actor, producer
Years active 1966–present
Spouse Diandra Luker (1977–2000)
Catherine Zeta-Jones
(2000–present)
Children Cameron Douglas
Dylan Michael Douglas
Carys Zeta Douglas
Parents Kirk Douglas, Diana Dill
Relatives Joel (brother)
Peter (half-brother)
Eric (half-brother, deceased)

Michael Kirk Douglas (born September 25, 1944) is an American actor and producer, primarily in movies and television. He has won three Golden Globes and two Academy Awards; first as producer of 1975's Best Picture, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and as Best Actor in 1987 for his role in Wall Street. Douglas received the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2009.[1] He is the eldest of actor Kirk Douglas's four sons.

Contents

Early life

Douglas was born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the first child of actor Kirk Douglas and Bermudian actress Diana Dill. His paternal grandparents, Harry Demsky (born Herschel Danielovitch) and Bryna Demsky (née Sanglel), were Jewish immigrants from Gomel in Belarus (at that time a part of the Russian Empire).[2] His mother and maternal grandparents, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Melville Dill and Ruth Rapalje Neilson, were natives of Devonshire Parish, Bermuda.[3] Thomas Dill served as Attorney General of Bermuda and was commanding officer of the Bermuda Militia Artillery. Douglas has a younger brother, Joel Douglas (born 1947), and two paternal half-brothers, Peter Douglas (born 1955) and Eric Douglas (1958–2004).

Education

Douglas attended The Choate Preparatory School (now Choate Rosemary Hall) in Wallingford, Connecticut. He received his B.A. in drama from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1968, where he was also the Honorary President of the UCSB Alumni Association. He studied acting with Wynn Handman at The American Place Theater in New York City.[4]

Career

Early years

Douglas started his film career in the late 1960s and early 1970s, appearing in little known films like Hail, Hero! and Summertree. His first significant role came in the TV series The Streets of San Francisco from 1972 to 1976, where he starred alongside Karl Malden. Douglas later said that Malden became a "mentor" and someone he "admired and loved deeply".[5] After Douglas left the show, he had a long association with his mentor until Malden's death on July 1, 2009. In 2004, Douglas presented Malden with the Monte Cristo Award of the Eugene O'Neill Theater Center in Waterford, Connecticut, for the Lifetime Achievement Award.

In 1975, Douglas received from his father, Kirk Douglas, the rights to the novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. Michael went on to produce the film of the same name with Saul Zaentz.[6] Kirk Douglas considered playing the starring role himself, having starred in an earlier stage version, but chose against it, considering himself too old. The lead role went instead to a young Jack Nicholson, who would go on to win the Academy Award for Best Actor. Douglas won the Award for Best Picture for producing the film.

After leaving Streets of San Francisco in 1976, Douglas played a hospital doctor in the medical thriller Coma (1978), and in 1979 he played the role of a troubled marathon runner in Running. In 1979, he both produced and starred in The China Syndrome, a dramatic film co-starring Jane Fonda and Jack Lemmon about a nuclear power plant accident (the Three Mile Island accident took place 12 days after the film's release). The film was considered "one of the most intelligent Hollywood films of the 1970s."[4]

Success in Hollywood

Douglas at the 1987 Cannes Film Festival.

Douglas' acting career was propelled to fame when he produced and starred in the 1984 romantic adventure comedy Romancing the Stone. It also helped launch Kathleen Turner to stardom, reintroduced Douglas as a capable leading man, and gave director Bob Zemeckis his first box-office success. It was followed a year later by a sequel, The Jewel of the Nile, which he also produced.

The year 1987 saw Douglas star in the horror thriller Fatal Attraction with Glenn Close. That same year he played tycoon Gordon Gekko in Oliver Stone's Wall Street for which he received an Academy Award as Best Actor. He reprised his role as Gekko in the sequel Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps in 2010, also directed by Stone.[7]

Douglas again paired with Kathleen Turner for the 1989 film The War of the Roses, which also starred Danny DeVito. In 1989, he starred in Ridley Scott's international police crime drama Black Rain opposite Andy García and Kate Capshaw. The film was shot in Osaka, Japan.[8]

In 1992, Douglas had another successful starring role when he appeared alongside Sharon Stone in the film Basic Instinct. The movie was a box office hit, and sparked controversy over its depictions of bisexuality and lesbianism. In 1994, Douglas and Demi Moore starred in the hit movie Disclosure focusing on the topic of sexual harassment with Douglas playing a man harassed by his new female boss. Other popular films he starred during these decade were Falling Down, The American President, The Ghost and the Darkness, The Game (directed by David Fincher), and a remake of Alfred Hitchcock's classic - Dial M for Murder - titled A Perfect Murder. In 1998, Douglas received the Crystal Globe award for outstanding artistic contribution to world cinema at the Karlovy Vary International Film Festival.[9]

In 2000, Douglas starred in Steven Soderbergh's critically acclaimed film Traffic, opposite Benicio del Toro and future wife Catherine Zeta-Jones. That same year, he also received critical acclaim for his role in Wonder Boys as a professor and novelist suffering from writer's block. He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Drama as well as several other awards from critics.

Types of roles

According to film historian and critic David Thomson, Douglas was capable of playing characters who were "weak, culpable, morally indolent, compromised, and greedy for illicit sensation without losing that basic probity or potential for ethical character that we require of a hero."[10] Critic and author Rob Edelman points out similarities in many of Douglas's roles, writing that in some of his leading films, he personified the "contemporary, Caucasian middle-to-upper-class American male who finds himself the brunt of female anger because of real or imagined sexual slights."[4]

These themes of male victimization are seen in films such as Fatal Attraction (1987), with Glenn Close, War of the Roses (1989), with Kathleen Turner, Basic Instinct (1992), Sharon Stone, Falling Down (1993), and Disclosure (1994), with Demi Moore. For his characters in films such as these, "any kind of sexual contact with someone other than his mate and the mother of his children is destined to come at a costly price."[4] Edelman describes his characters as the "Everyman who must contend with, and be victimized by, these women and their raging, psychotic sexuality."[4]

Conversely, Douglas also played powerful characters with dominating personalities equally well: as Gordon Gekko, in both versions of Wall Street, he acted the role of a "greedy yuppie personification of the Me generation," convinced that "greed is good;" in Romancing the Stone and The Jewel of the Nile, he played an idealistic soldier of fortune; in The Star Chamber (1983), he was a court judge fed up with an inadequate legal system, leading him to become involved with a vigilante group; and in Black Rain (1989), he proved he could also play a Stallone-like action hero as a New York City cop.[4]

Actor and producer

Having become recognized as both a successful producer and actor, he describes himself as "an actor first and a producer second." He has explained why he enjoys both functions:

"I love the fact that on one side, with acting, you can be a child — acting is wonderful for its innocence and the fun. . . On the other side, producing is fun for all the adult kinds of things you do. You deal in business, you deal with the creative forces. As an adult who continues to get older, you like the adult risks. It's flying without a net, taking chances and learning. I was never good in economics or business — had no business background, you know, and I like it."[11]

He has also offered reasons why he has become successful in both acting and producing:

"I think I'm a chameleon. I think it's something that I possibly inherited early on as a child going back and forth between two families. I know that whether it's right or wrong, I have an ability to sort of fit into a lot of different situations and make people feel relatively comfortable in a wide range without giving up all my moral values. I think that same chameleonlike quality can transfer into films. I think if you can remember the reason you got involved with it in the first place and try to keep that impulsive, instinctive feeling even when you're being beaten down or exhausted or waylaid, you'll be successful."[11]

Recent years

Douglas in June 2004

In 2003, Douglas starred in It Runs in the Family, which featured three generations of his family (his parents, Kirk and Diana, as well as his own son, Cameron). The film, although a labor of love, was not successful, critically or at the box office. Douglas starred in the solid commercial action flick Don't Say a Word, then the poorly received action-thriller The Sentinel in 2006. During that time, he also guest-appeared on the episode, "Fagel Attraction", of the popular television sitcom Will and Grace, as a gay cop attracted to Will Truman (Eric McCormack); the performance earned Douglas an Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Show.

Douglas was approached for Basic Instinct 2, but he declined to participate in the project. He said:

"Yes, they asked me to do it a while ago, I thought we had done it very effectively; [Paul] Verhoeven is a pretty good director. I haven't seen the sequel. I've only done one sequel in my life, The Jewel of the Nile, from Romancing The Stone. Besides, there were age issues, you know? Sharon still looks fabulous. The script was pretty good. Good for her, she's in her late-40s, and there are not a lot of parts around. The first one was probably the best picture of her career—it certainly made her career and she was great in it".[12]

Future engagements

Douglas was set to star in Tragic Indifference, a courtroom thriller based on a landmark liability case against Ford Motor Company, according to Variety. Douglas will play the attorney who took Ford to court on behalf of a single mother from Texas who was paralyzed and nearly died after an accident. The trial exposed the automaker's indifference to flaws in its Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV). The movie will be based on Adam Penenberg's 2003 book of the same name. Douglas will play Attorney Tab Turner, who represented Donna Bailey after the Ford Explorer SUV she was riding in rolled over following a Firestone tire failure.[13]

On December 17, 2007 it was announced that Douglas would announce the introduction to NBC Nightly News, some two years after Howard Reig, the previous announcer, retired.[14]

Personal life

Family

After filming Summertree (1971), he began dating Brenda Vaccaro. The relationship lasted for about six years.[15]

In March 1977,[16] 33 year old Douglas married 19 year old Diandra Luker, the daughter of an Austrian diplomat.[17] They had one son, Cameron, born in 1978. In 1997 Diandra filed for divorce[17] and was awarded $45 million as her settlement.[18]

Dating since March 1999, Douglas married Welsh actress Catherine Zeta-Jones on November 18, 2000. They were both born on September 25, though 25 years apart. Zeta-Jones says that when they met in Deauville, France, Douglas used the line "I want to father your children."[19] They have two children, Dylan Michael (born August 8, 2000) and Carys Zeta (born April 20, 2003).[20]

They planned on renewing their wedding vows in 2010 as part of their 10th wedding anniversary. The idea was hers, and came after Douglas was found to have advanced stages of cancer. One report notes that "Michael was in tears when she suggested it to him," and he sees it as a “wonderful expression of love.”[21]

Douglas, the son of a Jewish father and an Anglican mother, has declared no religious affiliation.[22]

Citizenship

Douglas is a U.S. citizen by birth in the United States and has Bermudian Status[23] through his mother's birth in Bermuda.

Skiing accident and rehab

In 1980, Douglas was involved in a serious skiing accident which sidelined his acting career for three years. In September 1992, the same year Basic Instinct came out, he underwent treatment for alcoholism and drug addiction at Sierra Tucson Center.

Legal problems

In 1997, New York caddy James Parker sued Douglas for $25 million.[24] Parker accused Douglas of hitting him in the groin with an errant golf ball, causing Parker to lose a testicle and his job. The case was later settled out of court.[25]

Stalking

In 2004, Douglas and Zeta-Jones took legal action against stalker Dawnette Knight, who was accused of sending violent letters to the couple that contained graphic threats on Zeta-Jones' life. Testifying, Zeta-Jones said the threats left her so shaken she feared a nervous breakdown.[26] Knight claimed she had been in love with Douglas and admitted to the offences, which took place between October 2003 and May 2004. She was sentenced to three years in prison.

Health problems

It was announced on August 16, 2010, that Douglas was suffering from throat cancer and will undergo chemotherapy and radiation treatment.[27] On August 31, 2010 Douglas appeared on Late Show with David Letterman [28] and confirmed that the cancer was at an advanced stage IV.[29] Douglas attributed the cancer to a combination of stress, his previous alcohol abuse, and years of heavy smoking.[30]

In November 2010, Douglas was put on a special weight gain diet by his doctors due to the excessive weight loss leaving him weak.[31] On January 11, 2011, he said in an interview that the tumor was gone. He admitted that the illness and aggressive treatment had caused him to lose 32 lbs in weight.[32] He will have to have monthly screenings because there is a very high chance that the cancer could return over the course of the next two to three years.[33] Although Douglas has described the cancer as throat cancer, many doctors believe he was actually diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer.[34][35]

Activism

Opening of an exhibition by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization entitled "Putting an End to Nuclear Explosions". From left to right: Michael Douglas, Marty Natalegawa, Ban Ki-moon, Taib Fassi Fihri and Sergio de Queiroz Duarte.

Political activities

Douglas and Zeta-Jones hosted the annual Nobel Peace Prize concert in Oslo, Norway, on December 11, 2003. They acted as co-masters of ceremony in the concert celebrating the award given to Iranian human rights activist Shirin Ebadi. In 2006, Douglas was awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters (D.Litt.) from the University of St. Andrews in Scotland.

He is an advocate of nuclear disarmament, a supporter of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, and sits on the Board of Directors of the anti-war grantmaking foundation Ploughshares Fund. In 1998, he was appointed UN Messenger of Peace by Secretary-General Kofi Annan.[36] He is a notable Democrat and has donated money to Barack Obama, Christopher Dodd, and Al Franken[37] He has been a major supporter of gun control since John Lennon was murdered in 1980.[38]

In 2006 he was a featured speaker in a public service campaign sponsored by a UN conference to focus attention on trade of illicit arms, especially of small arms and light weapons. Douglas made several appearances and offered his opinions:

"The conference is an opportunity for UN member states to build on the Program of Action and to encourage countries to strengthen their laws on the illicit trade, . . . an issue that affects us all . . .[and] while owning guns is a legal right in most countries, the illegal trade in guns continues to fuel conflict, crime and violence."[39]

A few years earlier, in 2003, Douglas hosted a "powerful film" on child soldiers and the impact of combat on children in countries such as Sierra Leone. During the documentary film, Douglas interviewed children, and estimated that they were among 300,000 other children worldwide who have been conscripted or kidnapped and forced to fight. Of one such child he interviewed, Douglas stated, "After being kidnapped by a rebel group, he was tortured, drugged, and forced to commit atrocities."[39] Douglas discussed his role as a Messenger Peace for the UN:

"I'm in an enviable position . . . When I talk about movies I can talk about messages of peace, and infuse them into the entertainment pages."[39]

Humanitarian initiatives

In 2009 Douglas joined the project Soldiers of Peace, a movie against all wars and for global peace.[40][41]

Douglas lent his support for the campaign to release Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani, the Iranian woman, who after having been convicted of committing adultery, was given a sentence of death by stoning.[42]

Filmography

Filmography
Year Title Role Notes
1966 Cast a Giant Shadow Jeep driver
1969 Hail, Hero! Carl Dixon Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Male Newcomer
1970 Adam at Six A.M. Adam Gaines
1971 Summertree Jerry
1972 Napoleon and Samantha Danny
1975 One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Won As Producer
Academy Award for Best Picture
BAFTA Award for Best Film
Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Drama
1978 Coma Dr. Mark Bellows
1979 Running Michael Andropolis Nominated — Genie Award for Best Performance by a Foreign Actor
1979 China Syndrome, TheThe China Syndrome Richard Adams Also Producer
Nominated - BAFTA Award for Best Film
Nominated - Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Drama
1980 It's My Turn Ben Lewin
1983 Star Chamber, TheThe Star Chamber Superior Court Judge Steven R. Hardin
1984 Romancing the Stone Jack Colton Also Producer
Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy
1985 Chorus Line, AA Chorus Line Zach
1985 Jewel of the Nile, TheThe Jewel of the Nile Jack Colton Also Producer
1987 Fatal Attraction Dan Gallagher Nominated — BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
1987 Wall Street Gordon Gekko Academy Award for Best Actor
David di Donatello for Best Actor
Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Drama
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
Nastro d'Argento best Foreign Actor
National Board of Review Award for Best Actor
1989 War of the Roses, TheThe War of the Roses Oliver Rose Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
1989 Black Rain Det. Sgt. Nick Conklin
1992 Basic Instinct Nick Curran Nominated — MTV Movie Award for Best Performance
Nominated — MTV Movie Award for Best On-Screen Duo shared with Sharon Stone
1992 Shining Through Ed Leland
1992 Oliver Stone: Inside Out Himself Documentary
1993 Falling Down William "D-Fens" Foster
1994 Disclosure Tom Sanders
1995 American President, TheThe American President President Andrew Shepherd Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
1996 Ghost and the Darkness, TheThe Ghost and the Darkness Charles Remington Also Executive Producer
1997 Game, TheThe Game Nicholas Van Orton
1998 Perfect Murder, AA Perfect Murder Steven Taylor
1999 One Day in September Narrator Documentary
1999 Get Bruce Himself Documentary
2000 Wonder Boys Professor Grady Tripp Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
Satellite Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
SEFCA Award for Best Actor
Nominated — BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role
Nominated — Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Drama
Nominated — LVFCS Award for Best Actor (also for Traffic)
Nominated — London Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor
Nominated — Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor
Nominated — Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor
2000 Traffic Robert Wakefield Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
Nominated — Las Vegas Film Critics Society Award for Best Actor (also for Wonder Boys)
2001 Don't Say a Word Dr. Nathan R. Conrad
2001 In Search of Peace Narrator Documentary
2001 One Night at McCool's Mr. Burmeister Also Producer
2003 In-Laws, TheThe In-Laws Steve Tobias
2003 It Runs in the Family Alex Gromberg
2003 Direct Order Narrator Documentary
2003 Tell Them Who You Are Himself Documentary
2006 You, Me and Dupree Mr. Thompson
2006 Sentinel, TheThe Sentinel Pete Garrison Also Producer
2007 King of California Charlie
2009 Ghosts of Girlfriends Past Uncle Wayne
2009 Beyond a Reasonable Doubt Mark Hunter
2009 Solitary Man Ben Kalmen Nominated — Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association Award for Best Actor
2010 Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps Gordon Gekko Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture
2012 Haywire Oliver Post-production

References

  1. ^ Kilday, Gregg (2009-06-15). "AFI Life award all in Douglas family". The Hollywood Reporter: pp. 9, 14. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/news/e3i45a4bf33efc17917cf3ca441cd402d4f. Retrieved 2009-09-04. [dead link]
  2. ^ Tugend, Tom (December 12, 2006). "Lucky number 90". The Jerusalem Post. http://fr.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1164881875567&pagename=JPost/JPArticle/ShowFull. Retrieved December 12, 2006. 
  3. ^ "Ancestors of Michael Kirk Douglas". Conovergenealogy.com. http://www.conovergenealogy.com/Pages/douglas.html. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Edelman, Rob; Unterburger, Amy L. (Ed.) International Dictionary of Films and Filmmakers-3: Actors and Actresses (3rd Ed.), St. James Press (1997) pp. 347-348
  5. ^ McLellan, Dennis (July 2, 2009). "Oscar-winning actor Karl Malden dies at 97". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jul/02/local/me-karl-malden2. Retrieved September 15, 2010. 
  6. ^ "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest". Filmsite.org. http://www.filmsite.org/onef.html. Retrieved September 15, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Michael Douglas to Star in Wall Street 2". TVGuide.com. http://movies.tvguide.com/Movie-News/Michael-Douglas-Wall-1005553.aspx. Retrieved April 29, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Filming locations for "Black Rain" (1989)". IMDB.com. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0096933/locations. 
  9. ^ "33rd Karlovy Vary IFF Awards". http://www.iffkv.cz/?m=32&sub=2&year=1998. Retrieved September 25, 2006. 
  10. ^ Thomson, David. The New Biographical Dictionary of Film, Alfred A. Knopf (2002) pp. 247-249
  11. ^ a b Hirschberg, Lynn. Rolling Stone magazine, Jan. 16, 1986 pp. 28-32, 41
  12. ^ "In conversation with Michael Douglas". Empire (August 2006). 
  13. ^ "Michael Douglas to Star in Tragic Indifference". Movieweb.com. 2007-04-24. http://www.movieweb.com/news/20/19320.php. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  14. ^ "Michael Douglas Does the News". Zap2it.com. December 19, 2007. http://www.zap2it.com/tv/news/zap-michaeldouglasnbcnewsvoiceover,0,5417160.story?coll=zap-tv-headlines. 
  15. ^ http://www.people.com/people/archive/article/0,,20064433,00.html
  16. ^ "Ten Most Expensive Divorce Settlements in Hollywood", 6 May 2009
  17. ^ a b People Magazine
  18. ^ http://www.forbes.com/2007/04/12/most-expensive-divorces-biz-cz_lg_0412celebdivorce_slide_4.html?thisSpeed=undefined 10 Most Expensive Celebrity Divorces, Forbers.com, 12 April 20007
  19. ^ "Cheesy chat up line that snagged Catherine Zeta-Jones". The Sydney Morning Herald. July 12, 2007. http://www.smh.com.au/news/people/how-cheesy-can-you-get/2007/07/12/1183833634622.html. 
  20. ^ "Carys — a name rooted in love". BBC News. April 22, 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/2966821.stm. Retrieved September 25, 2006. 
  21. ^ "Michael Douglas to Renew Wedding Vows with Catherine Zeta-Jones", World Correspondents, Sept. 10, 2010
  22. ^ Galloway, Stephen (2010-11-29). "Michael Douglas: One Hell of a Year". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/michael-douglas-hell-year-49839. Retrieved 2010-12-17. 
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ "The Smoking Gun Archive". The Smoking Gun. http://www.thesmokinggun.com/archive/mdouglas1.html. Retrieved December 23, 2006. 
  25. ^ . http://www.salon.com/2000/12/22/npfri_30/. 
  26. ^ Three-year term for Zeta stalker from BBC News Wales
  27. ^ "Michael Douglas to Undergo Throat Cancer Treatment". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/michael-douglas-undergo-throat-cancer-treatment/story?id=11413860&page=2. Retrieved August 16, 2010. 
  28. ^ YouTube video of Douglas on the Letterman Show
  29. ^ Brooks, Xan (September 1, 2010). "Michael Douglas reveals his cancer has spread". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2010/sep/01/michael-douglas-cancer-spread. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  30. ^ http://www.starpulse.com/news/index.php/2010/09/01/michael_douglas_cigarettes_and_alcohol
  31. ^ "Michael Douglas' recent weight loss worries doctors", November 14, 2010
  32. ^ "Michael Douglas says tumour is gone", BBC News, 11 January 2011
  33. ^ Carroll, Linda, "With throat tumor gone, Michael Douglas begins 3-year waiting game", MSNBC, 1/10/2011
  34. ^ Exact type of cancer Douglas has per www.medscape.com
  35. ^ Doctors believe Douglas has oropharyngeal cancer, not throat cancer
  36. ^ "Messengers of Peace". United Nations. http://www.un.org/News/ossg/messengers.htm#douglas. Retrieved December 23, 2006. 
  37. ^ "Donor search — Michael Douglas". newsmeat.com. http://www.newsmeat.com/celebrity_political_donations/Michael_Douglas.php. 
  38. ^ Michael Douglas - Douglas Pushes For Tighter Gun Control
  39. ^ a b c Firsing, Scott T. Disturbing Times: The State of the Planet and Its Possible Future, South Publishers (2007) pp. 92-93
  40. ^ "Michael Douglas — The Cast — Soldiers of Peace". Soldiersofpeacemovie.com. http://www.soldiersofpeacemovie.com/about/the-cast/25/michael-douglas. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  41. ^ "Soldati di Pace (Soldiers of Peace)". Soldatidipace.blogspot.com. 2004-02-26. http://www.soldatidipace.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  42. ^ "Iran stoning case woman ordered to name campaigners". The Guardian (London). July 22, 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jul/22/iran-stoning-woman-campaigners. 

External links


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