- Caudron G.3
caption= Caudron G.3 replica, displayed in "Museo del Aire", Cuatro Vientos, Madrid, Spain
first flight=Late avyear|1913
introduced=avyear|1914Holmes, 2005. p 26.]
primary user="Aéronautique Militaire"
US Army Air Service Finnish Air Force Polish Air Force
variants with their own articles=The Caudron G.3 was a single-engined French
biplanebuilt by Caudron, widely used in World War Ias a reconnaissanceaircraft and trainer. In comparison to its competitors, it had a better rate of climb and it was considered especially suitable in mountainous terrainFact|date=February 2007.
The Caudron G.3 was designed by René and Gaston
Caudronas a development of their earlier Caudron G.2for military use. It first flew in May 1914 at their Le Crotoyaerodromecite book |author=Donald, David (Editor)
|title=The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft
id= ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
The aircraft had a short crew
nacelle, with a single engine in the nose of the nacelle, and twin open tailbooms. It was of sesquiplanelayout, and used wing warpingfor lateral control, although this was replaced by conventional aileronsfitted on the upper wing in late production aircraft.
Following the outbreak of the First World War, it was ordered in large quantities. The Caudron factories built 1423 aircraft (2450 total were built in France) and it was built under licence in several other countries (233 were built in England and 166 were built in Italy). The Caudron brothers did not charge a licencing fee for the design, as an act of patriotism.
Usually, the G.3 was not equipped with any weapons, although sometimes light, small calibre machine guns and some hand-released small bombs were fitted to it.
It was followed in production by the
Caudron G.4, which was a twin engined development.
The G.3 equipped Escadrille C.11 of the French Aéronautique Militaire at the outbreak of war, and was well-suited for reconnaissance use, proving tough and reliable. As the war went on however, its low performance and the fact that it was unarmed made it vulnerable in front line service, and so the French withdrew it from front line operations in mid-1916. The Italians also used the G.3 for reconnaissance on a wide scale until 1917, as did the English
RFC(continuing operations until October 1917),who also fitted some with light bombs and machine guns for ground attack. It continued in use as a trainer after ceasing combat operations until after the end of the war. Caudron G.3 in Chinese hands, namely the air force of Fengtian cliquewarlords remained in service in training roles until the Mukden Incident, when most of them were captured by Japanese, and their eventual fate is unknown.
Most G.3s were the A.2 model, used by various airforces for fire spotting on the West front, in Russia and in the Middle East. G.3 D.2 was a two-seated trainer aircraft, equipped with dual controls and the E.2 was a basic trainer. The R.1 version, which had been developed from the basic version was used by France and by the
USAfor taxi training, with fabric removed from large areas of the wing to prevent its becoming airborne. The last version, the G.3.12, was equipped with a more powerful 100 hp Anzani 10 radial engine.
In Germany, Gotha built copies of the G.3 as the LD.3 and LD.4 ("Land Doppeldecker" - "Land Monoplane").
Caudron G.3s are displayed in several museums, including at the
RAF Museum Hendon, the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace, Paris, the Royal Army and Military History Museum, Brusselsand the Airspace Museum (Musal), Rio de Janeiro. One aircraft (1E.18) is currently being repaired at the Hallinportti Aviation Museum.
Mesopotamian Half Flight
*Central Flying School AFC at
Point Cook, Victoria.;BEL:;China as ROC:;COL: Three aircraft only. The first military aircraft in the history of this country, flown by José Ignacio Forero.;DEN:;ESA: Three aircraft only. ;FIN: The Finnish Air Forcepurchased twelve aircraft from France in 1920. Six of these were built in Finland by "Santahaminan ilmailutelakka" (today a part of Patria Aviation) between 1921 - 1923. Two aircraft and spares were purchased from Flyg Aktiebolaget on April 26, 1923 (production numbers 6 and 4396) together with a Caudron G.4 for 100,000 Finnish markka. The aircraft was easy to fly and repair and thus very suitable as a trainer. The Finnish-constructed aircraft had worse flying characteristics than the French machines due to a bad wing profile. The FAF used a total of 19 Caudron G.3 aircraft, which carried the designation codes 2A.490 - 2A.495, later 1B.1 - 1B.7 and 1D.8 - 1D.12. Aircraft constructed in Finland carried designation codes 1D.12 and 1E.14 - 1E.18, and the one purchased from Flyg Aktiebolaget carried designation code 1B.19. The aircraft was called Tutankhamon in Finland. The G.3 was used by the FAF between 1920-1924.;FRA: operated by 38 "escadrilles.;GRE:;flag|Italy|1861-state:;JPN:;PER: One aircraft only.;POL:;flag|Romania|1867:;RUS:;SRB:;flagicon|Spain|1785 Kingdom of Spain: Spain purchased eighteen Caudron G.3 in June 1919. They were posted in flight schools in Getafe, Sevilleand Los Alcázares. These planes remained in service until they were replaced by Avro 504K in 1924.;UK:
Royal Flying Corps
**No. 1 Squadron RFC
**No. 4 Squadron RFC
**No. 5 Squadron RFC
**No. 19 Squadron RFC
**No. 23 Squadron RFC
**No. 25 Squadron RFC
**No. 29 Squadron RFC;USA:
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=Suomen ilmavoimien lentokoneet
length main=6.40 m
length alt= 21 ft 0 in
span main=13.40 m
span alt= 44 ft 0 in
height main=2.50 m
height alt= 8 ft 3 in
area main=27.00 m²
area alt= 290 ft²
empty weight main= 420 kg
empty weight alt= 933 lb
loaded weight main= kg
loaded weight alt= lb
useful load main= kg
useful load alt= kg
max takeoff weight main=710 kg
max takeoff weight alt= 1577 lb
engine (prop)=Le Rhone C
type of prop=rotary
number of props=1
power main= 60 kW
power alt=80 hp
max speed main=106 km/h
max speed alt= 57 knots, 68 mph
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
range alt= 4 h
ceiling main= 4300 m
ceiling alt= 14,110 ft
climb rate main=
climb rate alt=
armament= One small calibre machine gun (optional) and some hand released bombs (optional)
Caudron G.4 Caudron R.4 Caudron R.11
* [http://www.airminded.net/caug3/caug3.html Caudron G3 (airminded.net)]
* [http://www.rafmuseum.org.uk/caudron-g3.htm RAF Museum]
* Kalevi Keskinen, Kyösti Partonen, Kari Stenman: "Suomen Ilmavoimat I 1918-27", 2005. ISBN 952-99432-2-9.
* Kalevi Keskinen, Kari Stenman, Klaus Niska: "Suomen ilmavoimien lentokoneet 1918-1939', Tietoteos, 1976.
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