World energy resources and consumption
In order to directly compare world energy resources and consumption of energy, this article uses
SIunits and prefixes and measures "energy rate" (or power) in watts (W) and "amounts of energy" in joules (J). One watt is one joule per second.
In 2005, total worldwide energy consumption was 500 EJ (= 5 x 1020 J) (or 138,900 TWh) with 86.5% derived from the combustion of
fossil fuels, although there is at least 10% uncertainty in that figure.cite web | publisher= Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy|url= http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/table18.xls | title = World Consumption of Primary Energy by Energy Type and Selected Country Groups, 1980-2004 | format = XLS | date = July 31 2006| accessdate=2007-01-20] This is equivalent to an average energy consumption rate of 15 TW (= 1.5 x 1013 W). Not all of the world's economies track their energy consumption with the same rigor, and the exact energy content of a barrel of oil or a ton of coal will vary with quality.
Most of the world's energy resources are from the sun's rays hitting earth - some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy, some is directly or indirectly usable e.g. via wind, hydro or wave power. The term
solar constantis the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area, measured on the outer surface of Earth's atmosphere, in a plane perpendicular to the rays. The solar constant includes all types of solar radiation, not just visible light. It is measured by satellite to be roughly 1366 watts per square meter, though it fluctuates by about 6.9% during a year - from 1412 W/m2 in early January to 1321 W/m2 in early July, due to the earth's varying distance from the sun, and by a few parts per thousand from day to day. For the whole Earth, with a cross section of 127,400,000 km², the total energy rate is 1.740×1017 W, plus or minus 3.5%. This 174 PW is the total rate of solar energy received by the planet; about half, 89 PW, reaches the earth's surface.
The estimates of remaining worldwide energy resources vary, with the remaining fossil fuels totaling an estimated 0.4 YJ (1 YJ = 1024J) and the available nuclear fuel such as
uraniumexceeding 2.5 YJ. Fossil fuels range from 0.6-3 YJ if estimates of reserves of methane clathratesare accurate and become technically extractable. Mostly thanks to the Sun, the world also has a renewable usable energy flux that exceeds 120 PW (8,000 times 2004 total usage), or 3.8 YJ/yr, dwarfing all non-renewable resources.
Since the advent of the
industrial revolution, the worldwide energy consumption has been growing steadily. In 1890 the consumption of fossil fuels roughly equaled the amount of biomassfuel burned by households and industry. In 1900, global energy consumption equaled 0.7 TW (0.7×1012 watts). Smil, p. ?]
The twentieth century saw a rapid twentyfold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 1980 and 2004, the worldwide annual growth rate was 2%. According to the US
Energy Information Administration's 2006 estimate, the estimated 15TW total energy consumption of 2004 was divided as follows, with fossil fuels supplying 86% of the world's energy:
Coal fueled the industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century. With the advent of the automobile, airplanes and the spreading use of electricity, oil became the dominant fuel during the twentieth century. The growth of oil as the largest fossil fuel was further enabled by steadily dropping prices from 1920 until 1973. After the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, during which the price of oil increased from 5 to 45 US dollars per barrel, there was a shift away from oil. [Yergin, p. 792] Coal and nuclear became the fuels of choice for electricity generation and conservation measures increased energy efficiency. In the US the average car more than doubled the number of miles per gallon. Japan, who bore the brunt of the oil shocks, made spectacular improvements and now has the highest energy efficiency in the world. Over the last forty years, the use of fossil fuels has continued to grow and their share of the energy supply has increased. In the last three years,
coal, which is one of the dirtiest sources of energy, [ [http://www.knowyourpower.net/coal_pollution/default.aspx Coal Pollution] ] has become the fastest growing fossil fuel. [Yergin, p. ?] .
nuclear poweraccounted for 6.3% of world's total primary energy supply.cite web | publisher= International Energy Agency| url= http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2007/key_stats_2007.pdf | title = Key World Energy Statistics 2007 | format=PDF | date = 2007 | accessdate=2007-12-08] The nuclear power production in 2006 accounted 2,658 TWh (23.3 EJ), which was 16% of world's total electricity production.cite web| publisher=Uranium Information Centre| url=http://www.uic.com.au/nip07.htm | title= Nuclear Power in the World Today. Briefing Paper 7 | date= August 2007 | accessdate=2007-12-08] In November 2007, there were 439 operational nuclear reactors worldwide, with total capacity of 372,002 MWe. A further 33 reactors were under construction, 94 reactors were planned and 222 reactors were proposed.cite web| publisher=Uranium Information Centre| url=http://www.uic.com.au/reactors.htm | title=World Nuclear Power Reactors 2006-07 | date= 2007-12-07| accessdate=2007-12-08]
In 2004, renewable energy supplied around 7% of the world's energy consumption.cite web | publisher= U. S. Department of Energy—National Renewable Energy Laboratory | title = Photovoltaics | url= http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/power_databook/docs/pdf/db_chapter02_pv.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate=2007-01-20] The renewables sector has been growing significantly since the last years of the 20th century, and in 2005 the total new investment was estimated to have been 38 billion US dollars.
Germanyand Chinalead with investments of about 7 billion US dollars each, followed by the United States, Spain, Japan, and India. This resulted in an additional 35 GW of capacity during the year.
hydroelectricityconsumption reached 816 GW in 2005, consisting of 750 GW of large plants, and 66 GW of small hydroinstallations. Large hydro capacity totaling 10.9 GW was added by China, Braziland Indiaduring the year, but there was a much faster growth (8%) in small hydro, with 5 GW added, mostly in China where some 58% of the world's small hydro plants are now located.
Western world, although Canadais the largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world, the construction of large hydro plants has stagnated due to environmental concerns.cite web | publisher= Union of Concerned Scientists | title = Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies (adapted from material in the UCS book Cool Energy: Renewable Solutions to Environmental Problems, by Michael Brower (MIT Press, 1992), 220 pp) | url= http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/renewable_energy_basics/environmental-impacts-of-renewable-energy-technologies.html | format = | date = 10 August 2005| accessdate=2007-04-08] The trend in both Canada and the United States has been to micro hydrobecause it has negligible environmental impacts and opens up many more locations for power generation. In British Columbia alone the estimates are that micro hydro will be able to more than double electricity production in the province.
Biomass and biofuels
Until the end of the nineteenth century biomass was the predominant fuel, today it has only a small share of the overall energy supply. Electricity produced from
biomasssources was estimated at 44 GW for 2005. Biomass electricity generation increased by over 100% in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Polandand Spain. A further 220 GW was used for heating (in 2004), bringing the total energy consumed from biomass to around 264 GW. The use of biomass fires for cooking is excluded.
World production of bioethanol increased by 8% in 2005 to reach 33 billion
litres (8.72 billion US gallons), with most of the increase in the United States, bringing it level to the levels of consumption in Brazil. Biodieselincreased by 85% to 3.9 billion litres (1.03 billion US gallons), making it the fastest growing renewable energy source in 2005. Over 50% is produced in Germany.
According to the
Global Wind Energy Council, the installed capacity of wind powerincreased by 27% from the end of 2006 to the end of 2007 to total 94.1 GW, with over half the increase in the United States, Spain and China.cite web | url = http://www.gwec.net/uploads/media/chartes08_EN_UPD_01.pdf| format = PDF | publisher = GWEC | title = Global wind energy markets | date = 2008-02-02 | accessdate = 2008-04-30 ] Doubling of capacity took about three years. The total installed capacity is approximately three times that of the actual average power produced as the nominal capacity represents peak output; actual capacity is generally from 25-40% of the nominal capacity. [ [http://www.awea.org/faq/basicen.html Basics: Energy Output of Wind Turbines] ]
The available solar energy resources are 3.8 YJ/yr (120,000 TW). Less than 0.02% of available resources are sufficient to entirely replace fossil fuels and nuclear power as an energy source. Assuming that our rate of usage in 2005 remains constant, we will run out of conventional oil in 40 years (2045), coal in 154 yrs (2159). In practice neither will actually run out, as natural constraints will force production to decline as the remaining reserves dwindle. [ [http://www.hubbertpeak.com/hubbert/natgeog.htm Oil, the Dwindling Treasure] ] [ [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/res.html World Energy Reserves] ] [ [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/wec.html World Energy Consumption in Standard U.S. Physical Units] ]
In 2007 grid-connected
photovoltaicelectricity was the fastest growing energy source, with installations of all photovoltaics increasing by 83% in 2007 to bring the total installed capacity to 8.7 GW. Nearly half of the increase was in Germany, now the world's largest consumer of photovoltaic electricity (followed by Japan). Solar cell production increased by 50% in 2007, to 3,800 megawatts, and has been doubling every two years. [ [http://environment.about.com/od/renewableenergy/a/solar_cells.htm Solar Cell Production Jumps 50 Percent in 2007] ]
The world's most powerful photovoltaic solar power plant is the 20 megawatt
Beneixama photovoltaic power plantin Spain, although a 116 megawatt plant is under construction in southern Portugal, one of the sunniest places in Europe. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/renewable/Story/0,,1477722,00.html Huge solar power station planned for Portugal] ] The largest photovoltaic installation in North America is the 18 megawatt Nellis Solar Power Plant.
Since 1991 the largest solar power plant has been the 354 megawatt
Solar Energy Generating Systems, in the Mohave Desertin California, using parabolic troughcollectors. Stirling Energy Systemsis currently building a 500MW solar power plant using solar concentrators and Stirling engineswith a 750MW plant also planned.
The consumption of
solar hot waterand solar space heating was estimated at 88 GWt (gigawatts of thermal power) in 2004. The heating of water for unglazed swimming pools is excluded.
Geothermal energy is used commercially in over 70 countries.cite web | publisher =
MIT| title = The Future of Geothermal Energy | url = http://geothermal.inel.gov/publications/future_of_geothermal_energy.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate=2007-02-07] By the end of 2005 worldwide use for electricity had reached 9.3 GW, with an additional 28 GW used directly for heating. If heat recovered by ground source heat pumps is included, the non-electric use of geothermal energy is estimated at more than 100 GW.
Energy consumption is loosely correlated with gross national product, but there is a large difference even between the most highly developed countries, such as
Japanand Germanywith 6 kW per person and United States with 11.4 kW per person. In developing countries such as Indiathe per person energy use is closer to 0.7 kW. Bangladeshhas the lowest consumption with 0.2 kW per person.
The US consumes 25% of the world's energy (with a share of global productivity at 22% and a share of the world population at 5%). The most significant growth of energy consumption is currently taking place in
China, which has been growing at 5.5% per year over the last 25 years. Its population of 1.3 billion people is consuming energy at a rate of 1.6 kW per person.
Over the past four years, electricity consumption per capita in the U.S. has decreased about 1% per year between 2004 and 2008. Power consumption is projected to hit 4,333,631 million kilowatt hours by 2013, an annual growth rate of 1.93% for the next five years. Consumption increased from 3,715,949 in 2004 to an expected 3,937,879 million kilowatt hours per year in 2008, an increase of about 0.36% per year. U.S. population has been increasing about 1.3% per year, a total increase of about 6.7% over five years. [ [http://www.ibisworld.com/pressrelease/pressrelease.aspx?prid=125 March 2008, Cashing in on Climate Change] , "IBISWorld"] The decrease has been mostly due to efficiency increases. Compact fluorescent bulbs, for example use about one third as much electricity as incandescents. LED bulbs, however, use about one tenth as much, and over their 50,000 to 100,000 hour lifetime are cheaper than compact fluorescents.
One metric of efficiency is
energy intensity. This is a measure of the amount of energy it takes a country to produce a dollar of gross domestic product.
Industrial users (agriculture, mining, manufacturing, and construction) consume about 37% of the total 15 TW. Personal and commercial transportation consumes 20%; residential heating, lighting, and appliances use 11%; and commercial uses (lighting, heating and cooling of commercial buildings, and provision of water and sewer services) amount to 5% of the total. [cite web
title = International Energy Outlook 2007
publisher = United States Department of Energy - Washington, DC
url = http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/index.html
accessdate = 2007-06-06]
The other 27% of the world's energy is lost in energy transmission and generation. In 2005, global electricity consumption averaged 2 TW. The energy rate used to generate 2 TW of electricity is approximately 5 TW, as the efficiency of a typical existing power plant is around 38%. [cite web | title=Energy efficiency measures and technological improvements. |url= http://www.e8.org/index.jsp?numPage=138| publisher = e8.org | accessdate=2007-01-21 Article by group of ten leading electricity companies] The new generation of gas-fired plants reaches a substantially higher efficiency of 55%. Coal is the most common fuel for the world's electricity plants.cite web | url = http://www.worldcoal.org/assets_cm/files/PDF/coal_fact_card_2006.pdf | title = Coal Facts 2006 Edition | publisher =
World Coal Institute| format = PDF |date=September 2006 | accessdate = 2007-04-08]
Remaining reserves of conventional fossil fuels are estimated as:cite web | title= USGS World Energy Assessment Team |url= http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-060/ESpt4.html#Table | accessdate=2007-01-18]
Significant uncertainty exists for these numbers, and they may be too optimistic. The estimation of the remaining fossil fuels on the planet depends on a detailed understanding of the Earth crust. This understanding is still less than perfect. While modern drilling technology makes it possible to drill wells in up to 3 km of water to verify the exact composition of the geology, one half of the
oceanis deeper than 3 km, leaving about a third of the planet beyond the reach of detailed analysis. It is, however, known that deep ocean rock is principally volcanic, and volcanic rock is nowhere associated with petroleum. The Energy Watch Group reports show that we already cannot supply the demand for oil, [ [http://www.energywatchgroup.org/fileadmin/global/pdf/EWG_Oilreport_10-2007.pdf Energy Watch Group Oil Report] ] and that uranium resources will be exhausted within 70 years. [ [http://www.energywatchgroup.org/fileadmin/global/pdf/EWG_Report_Uranium_3-12-2006ms.pdf Energy Watch Group Uranium Report] ]
Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. According to the
International Energy Agencythe proven reserves of coal are around 909 billion tonnes, which could sustain at the current production rate for 155 years. [IEA (2006), p. 127] This was the fuel that launched the industrial revolution and has continued to grow in use; China, which already has many of the world's most polluted cities, [ [http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,501031124-543833,00.html The Middle Landfill] ] was in 2007 building about two coal fired power plants every week. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6769743.stm China building more power plants] ] [ [http://www.jacksonville.com/tu-online/stories/041707/opi_opinion1.shtml COAL: Scrubbing its future] ] Coal is the fastest growing fossil fuel and its large reserves would make it a popular candidate to meet the energy demand of the global community, short of global warming concerns and other pollutants. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/11/business/worldbusiness/11chinacoal.html Pollution From Chinese Coal Casts a Global Shadow] accessed 14 October 2007] With the Fischer-Tropsch processit is possible to make liquid fuels such as diesel and jet fuel from coal. The Stop Coal campaign calls for a moratorium on the construction of any new coal plants and on the phase out of all existing plants, citing concern for global warming. [ [http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/10/04/want-to-stop-global-warming-stop-coal/ Want to stop global warming? STOP COAL!] ] In the United States, 49% of electricity generation comes from burning coal. [ [http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epa/epat1p1.html EIA sources of electricity] ]
It is estimated that there may be 57 ZJ of oil reserves on Earth (although estimates vary from a low of 8 ZJ, consisting of currently proven and recoverable reserves, to a maximum of 110 ZJFact|date=April 2007) consisting of available, but not necessarily recoverable reserves, and including optimistic estimates for unconventional sources such as
tar sandsand oil shale. Current consensus among the 18 recognized estimates of supply profiles is that the peak of extraction will occur in 2020 at the rate of 93-million barrels per day (mbd). Current oil consumption is at the rate of 0.18 ZJ per year (31.1 billion barrels) or 85-mbd.
There is growing consensus that peak oil production may be reached in the near future, resulting in severe oil price increases. cite news
title=Oil Officials See Limit Looming on Production
author= Gold Russell, Davis Ann
publisher=The Wallstreet Journal] A 2005 French Economics, Industry and Finance Ministry report suggested a worst-case scenario that could occur as early as 2013.cite news
last = Porter | first = Adam
title='Peak oil' enters mainstream debate
June 10 2005
accessdate=2007-02-02] There are also theories that peak of the global oil production may occur in as little as 2-3 years. The ASPO predicts peak year to be in 2010. Some other theories present the view that it has already taken place in 2005. World oil production decreased from a peak of 84.59 mbd in 2005 to 84.55 mbd in 2006 and to 84.48 in 2007, but is projected to increase to 87.58 mbd in 2009. [ [http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/cfapps/STEO_Query/steotables.cfm?periodType=Annual&startYear=2005&startMonth=1&endYear=2009&endMonth=12&tableNumber=6 International Petroleum Supply, Consumption, and Inventories] Retrieved 27 August 2008] According to peak oil theory, increasing production will lead to a more rapid collapse of production in the future, while decreasing production will lead to a slower decrease, as the bell-shaped curve will be spread out over more generations.
Political considerations over the security of supplies, environmental concerns related to
global warmingand sustainabilitywill move the world's energy consumption away from fossil fuels. The concept of peak oilshows that we have used about half of the available petroleum resources, and predicts a decrease of production.
A government led move away from fossil fuels would most likely create economic pressure through carbon emissions trading and
green taxation. Some countries are taking action as a result of the Kyoto Protocol, and further steps in this direction are proposed. For example, the European Commissionhas proposed that the energy policy of the European Unionshould set a binding target of increasing the level of renewable energy in the EU's overall mix from less than 7% today to 20% by 2020.cite web | title= Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council: Renewable Energy Road January 10 2007| accessdate=2007-01-27]
The Easter Island Effect is cited as an example of a culture that was unable to develop sustainability and depleted nearly 100% of its natural resources. [ [http://strategy.sauder.ubc.ca/nemetz/jibe.pdf Basic Concepts of Sustainable Development for Business Students] ]
International Atomic Energy Agencyestimates the remaining uranium resources to be equal to 2500 ZJ. [ cite web | title= Global Uranium Resources to Meet Projected Demand: Latest Edition of "Red Book" Predicts Consistent Supply Up to 2025| url= http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/News/2006/uranium_resources.html | date = June 2 2006| publisher = International Atomic Energy Agency | accessdate= 2007-02-01 ] This assumes the use of Breeder reactors which are able to create more fissilematerial than they consume. IPCCestimated currently proved economically recoverable uranium deposits for once-through fuel cycles reactors to be only 2 ZJ. The ultimately recoverable uranium is estimated to be 17 ZJ for once-through reactors and 1000 ZJ with reprocessing and fast breeder reactors. [ cite web | author = Nakicenovic, Nebojsa et al. | title= IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios |url= http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc/emission/071.htm| publisher = Inergovernmental Panel on Climate Change | accessdate=2007-02-20 ]
Resources and technology do not constrain the capacity of nuclear power to contribute to meeting the energy demand for the 21st century. However, political and environmental concerns about
nuclear safetyand radioactive wastestarted to limit the growth of this energy supply at the end of last century, particularly due to a number of nuclear accidents. Concerns about nuclear proliferation(especially with Plutoniumproduced by breeder reactors) mean that the development of nuclear power by countries such as Iran and Syriais being actively discouraged by the international community. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7364269.stm Syria 'had covert nuclear scheme'] ]
Fusion poweris the process driving our sun and other stars. It generates large quantities of heat by fusing the nuclei of hydrogen isotopes. The heat can theoretically be harnessed to generate electricity. The temperatures and pressures needed to sustain fusion make it a very difficult process to control and doing so is an unsolved technical challenge. The tantalizing potential of fusion is its theoretical ability to supply vast quantities of energy, with relatively little pollution. [ [http://www.efda.org/fusion_energy/safety_and_the_environment.htm Fusian Energy: Safety] European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA). 2006. Retrieved on 2007-04-03] Both the United States and the European Union are supporting a moderate level of research (such as investing in the ITERfacility), along with other countries. According to one report, inadequate research has stalled progress in fusion research for the past 20 years, and under these conditions is 50 years away from commercial availability. [ [http://fire.pppl.gov/us_fusion50yr_dean.pdf Fifty years of U.S. fusion research - An overview of programs] ] Lithium could provide 3,100 ZJ of energy and deuterium 1E10 ZJ. The amount of energy available from deuterium, however, is less than 0.002% of the amount of solar energy available at the earth's surface. [http://gcep.stanford.edu/research/exergycharts.html Exergy(the useful portion of energy) flow charts] ]
Renewable resources are available each year, unlike non-renewable resources which are eventually depleted. A simple comparison is a coal mine and a forest. While the forest could be depleted, if it is managed properly it represents a continuous supply of energy, vs the coal mine which once it has been exhausted is gone. Most of earth's available energy resources are renewable resources. Renewable resources account for more than 93 percent of total U.S. energy reserves. Annual renewable resources were multiplied times thirty years for comparison with non-renewable resources. In other words, if all non-renewable resources were uniformly exhausted in 30 years, they would only account for 7 percent of available resources each year, if all available renewable resources were developed. [ [http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/pub_summaries/renew_es.html Renewable Resources in the U.S. Electricity Supply] ]
Renewable energy sources are even larger than the traditional fossil fuels and in theory can easily supply the world's energy needs. 89 PWcite book | last = Tester | first = Jefferson W. | authorlink = | coauthors = et al. | title = Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options | publisher = The MIT Press | date = 2005 | location = | pages = | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0-262-20153-4 ] of solar power fall on the planet's surface. While it is not possible to capture all, or even most, of this energy, capturing less than 0.02% would be enough to meet the current energy needs. Barriers to further solar generation include the high price of making
solar cellsand reliance on weather patterns to generate electricity. Also, solar generation does not produce electricity at night, which is a particular problem in high northern and southern latitude countries; energy demand is highest in winter, while availability of solar energy is lowest. Globally, solar generation is the fastest growing source of energy, seeing an annual average growth of 35% over the past few years. Japan, Europe, China, U.S. and India are the major growing investors in solar energy. Advances in technology and economies of scale, along with demand for solutions to global warming, have led photovoltaics to become the most likely candidate to replace nuclear and fossil fuels. [ [http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pv_important.html Why PV is important.] ]
The available wind energy estimates range from 300 TW to 870 TW. [ [http://gcep.stanford.edu/research/exergycharts.html Exergy Flow Charts] ] Using the lower estimate, just 5% of the available wind energy would supply the current worldwide energy needs. Most of this wind energy is available over the open ocean. The
oceans cover 71% of the planet and wind tends to blow stronger over open water because there are fewer obstructions.
Wave and tidal power
At the end of 2005, 0.3 GW of electricity was produced by
tidal power. Due to the tidal forcescreated by the Moon (68%) and the Sun (32%), and the Earth's relative rotation with respect to Moon and Sun, there are fluctuating tides. These tidal fluctuations result in dissipationat an average rate of about 3.7 TW. [ [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00070-3 Munk & Wunsch, 1999] ] As a result, the rotational speedof the Earth decreases, and the distance of the Moon to the Earth increases, on geological time scales. In several billion years, the Earth will rotate at the same speed as the Moon is revolving around it. So, several TW of tidal energy can be produced without having a significant effect on celestial mechanicsFact|date=March 2008.
Another physical limitation is the energy available in the tidal fluctuations of the oceans, which is about 0.6 EJ (
exa joule). [Marchuk, G.I. and Kagan, B.A. (1989) "Dynamics of Ocean Tides", Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-9027725523. See page 225.] Note this is only a tiny fraction of the total rotational energy of the Earth. Without forcing, this energy would be dissipated (at a dissipation rate of 3.7 TW) in about four semi- diurnaltide periods. So, dissipation plays a significant role in the tidal dynamics of the oceans. Therefore, this limits the available tidal energy to around 0.8 TW (20% of the dissipation rate) in order not to disturb the tidal dynamics too much. Fact|date=March 2008
Waves are derived from wind, which is in turn derived from solar energy, and at each conversion there is a drop of about two orders of magnitude in available energy. The energy
fluxes of waves that wash against our shores add up to 3 TW. [Tester, et al, p. 593]
Estimates of exploitable worldwide geothermal energy resources vary considerably. According to a 1999 study, it was thought that this might amount to between 65 and 138 GW of electrical generation capacity 'using enhanced technology'. [cite web
title = All About Geothermal energy
publisher = Geothermal Energy Association - Washington, DC
url = http://www.geo-energy.org/aboutGE/potentialUse.asp#world
accessdate = 2007-02-07 ]
A 2006 report by
MITthat took into account the use of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) concluded that it would be affordable to generate 100 GWe (gigawatts of electricity) or more by 2050, just in the United States, for a maximum investment of 1 billion US dollars in research and development over 15 years.
The MIT report calculated the world's total EGS resources to be over 13 YJ, of which over 200 ZJ would be extractable, with the potential to increase this to over 2 YJ with technology improvements - sufficient to provide all the world's energy needs for several millennia.
Production of biomass and biofuels are growing industries as interest in sustainable fuel sources is growing. Utilizing waste products avoids a
food vs fueltrade-off, and burning methane gas reduces greenhouse gas emissions, because even though it releases carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide is 23 times less of a greenhouse gas than is methane. Biofuels represent a sustainable partial replacement for fossil fuels, but their net impact on greenhouse gasemissions depends on the agricultural practices used to grow the plants used as feedstock to create the fuels. While it is widely believed that biofuels can be carbon-neutral, there is evidence that biofuels produced by current farming methods are substantial net carbon emitters. [cite news | last=Rosenthal | first=Elisabeth | title=Biofuels Deemed a Greenhouse Threat | newspaper= New York Times| date= 2008-02-08| url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/08/science/earth/08wbiofuels.html Registration required. "Almost all biofuels used today cause more greenhouse gas emissions than conventional fuels if the full emissions costs of producing these “green” fuels are taken into account, two studies being published Thursday have concluded." "In the wake of the new studies, a group of 10 of the United States’s most eminent ecologists and environmental biologists today sent a letter to President Bush and the speaker of the House, Nancy Pelosi, urging a reform of biofuels policies. “We write to call your attention to recent research indicating that many anticipated biofuels will actually exacerbate global warming”" "International environmental groups, including the United Nations, responded cautiously to the studies, saying that biofuels could still be useful. “We don’t want a total public backlash that would prevent us from getting the potential benefits,” said Nicholas Nuttall, spokesman for the United Nations Environment Program, who said the United Nations had recently created a new panel to study the evidence. “There was an unfortunate effort to dress up biofuels as the silver bullet of climate change,” he said." "the papers published Thursday suggested that, if land use is taken into account, biofuels may not provide all the benefits once anticipated. Dr. Searchinger said the only possible exception he could see for now was sugar cane grown in Brazil, which take relatively little energy to grow and is readily refined into fuel."] [Citation | last1=Farigone | first1=Joseph | last2=Hill | first2=Jason | last3=Tillman | first3=David | last4=Polasky | first4=Stephen | last5=Hawthorne | first5=Peter | title=Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt | journal=Science | volume=319 | pages=1235-1238 | date= 2008-02-29| year=2008] [Citation | last1=Searchinger | first1=Timothy | last2=Heimlich | first2=Ralph | last3=Houghton | first3=R. A. | last4=Dong | first4=Fengxia | last5=Elobeid | first5=Amani | last6=Fabiosa | first6=Jacinto | last7=Tokgaz | first7=Simla | last8=Hayes | first8=Dermot | last9=Yu | first9=Tun-Hsiang | title=Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change | journal=Science | volume=319 | pages=1238-1240 | date= 2008-02-29| year=2008] Geothermal and biomass are the only two renewable energy sources which require careful management to avoid local depletion. [ [http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=8813 The New Math of Alternative Energy] ]
In 2005, hydroelectric power supplied 16.4% of world electricity. [ [http://www.iea.org/textbase/nppdf/free/2007/key_stats_2007.pdf Key World Energy Statistics 2007 ] ] Large dams are still being designed. Nevertheless, hydroelectric power is probably not a major option for the future of energy production in the developed nations because most major sites within these nations are either already being exploited or are unavailable for other reasons, such as environmental considerations.
Alternative energy paths
Denmarkand Germanyhave started to make investments in solar energy, despite their unfavorable geographic locations. Germany is now the largest consumer of photovoltaic cells in the world. Denmark and Germany have installed 3 GW and 17 GW of wind powerrespectively. In 2005, wind generated 18.5% of all the electricity in Denmark.cite web | title= Danish Annual Energy Statistics |url= http://www.energistyrelsen.dk/graphics/UK_Facts_Figures/Statistics/yearly_statistics/Figures2005.xls | publisher = Danish Energy Authority | date = December 2006 | format = XLS | accessdate=2007-01-27] Brazilinvests in ethanol production from sugar cane which is now a significant part of the transportation fuel in that country.Starting in 1965, Francemade large investments in nuclear power and to this date three quarters of its electricity comes from nuclear reactors.Smil, p. ?] Switzerlandis planning to cut its energy consumption by more than half to become a 2000-watt societyby 2050 and the United Kingdomis working towards a zero energy buildingstandard for all new housing by 2016. In 2005, the Swedish government announced the oil phase-out in Swedenwith the intention to become the first country to break its dependence on fossil fuelby 2020.
In the twenty first century, some of these different energy paths might become more mainstream and start replacing the ubiquitous fossil fuels. It should be noted that between 1950 and 1984, as the
Green Revolutiontransformed agriculturearound the globe, world grain production increased by 250%. The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuelsin the form of fertilizers(natural gas), pesticides(oil), and hydrocarbonfueled irrigation. [ [http://www.energybulletin.net/281.html Eating Fossil Fuels |EnergyBulletin.net] ] The peaking of world hydrocarbon production ( Peak oil) may test Malthuscritics. [ [http://www.soilassociation.org/peakoil Peak Oil: the threat to our food security] ]
Cubic mile of oil
Domestic Energy Consumption
Earth's energy budget
Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom
Energy use in the United States
List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions
List of countries by energy intensity
List of countries by electricity consumption
List of countries by energy consumption per capita
List of countries by electricity production
List of countries by renewable electricity production
Oil phase-out in Sweden
* International Energy Agency. (2006) World Energy Outlook 2006. ISBN 92-64-10989-7
* Smil, Vaclav. (2003) "Energy at the crossroads" MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-19492-9
* Tester, Jefferson W. "et al". (2005) "Sustainable Energy: Choosing Among Options." The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-20153-4
* Yergin, Daniel (1993). "The Prize". Simon & Schuster: New York. ISBN 0-671-79932-0
* [http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/ World Energy Outlook]
* [http://www.eia.doe.gov/ Official Energy Statistics from the US government]
* [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/aer.pdf Annual Energy Review 2006, DOE/EIA-0384(2006)] , by the
U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration(PDF)
* [http://www.bp.com/productlanding.do?categoryId=6848&contentId=7033471 Statistical Review of World Energy 2007] , annual review by BP
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