- Anti-Social Behaviour Order
An Anti-Social Behaviour Order or ASBO (pronEng|ˈæzbəʊ) in the
United Kingdomand the Republic of Ireland[http://www.ireland.com/newspaper/breaking/2006/1229/breaking9.htm Asbos come into force on Monday] — " The Irish Times" news report, 29 December 2006.] is a civil order made against a person who has been shown to have engaged in anti-social behaviour. In the UK, there has been criticism that an ASBO is sometimes viewed as a 'badge of honour' by some younger people. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/6107028.stm Asbos viewed as 'badge of honour'] ]
In the United Kingdom, an ASBO may be ordered in response to "conduct which caused or was likely to cause alarm, harassment, distress, or harm to one or more persons not of the same
householdas him or herself and where an ASBO is seen as necessary to protect relevant persons from further anti-social acts by the Defendant"." [http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/98037--b.htm#1 s1(1) Crime and Disorder Act 1998] ", Office of Public Sector Information. URL accessed on 18 June 2006.] In England and Walesthey are issued by Magistrates' Courts, and in Scotlandby the Sheriff Courts.
The British government introduced ASBOs by the
Crime and Disorder Act 1998. In the UK, a CRASBO is a "criminally related" ASBO. One local authority has published photos of those given ASBOs on an Internet site. [http://onlinenews.warwickshire.police.uk/releases/archive/2006/10/20061025ImagesofASOan Warwickshire Police Media Portal - Images of ASBO and CRASBO Offenders Published On Warwickshire Police Website] ] Anti-social behaviour includes a range of problems including noisy neighbours, abandoned cars, vandalism and intimidating groups.
ASBOs were first introduced in
England, Scotlandand Walesby the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Later legislation has strengthened its application: in England and Wales this has largely been via the Anti-Social Behaviour Act 2003, in Northern Ireland through an Order-in-Counciland in Scotland with the Antisocial Behaviour etc. (Scotland) Act 2004." [http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/social/asbsg-00.asp Antisocial Behaviour etc. (Scotland) Act 2004: Guidance on Antisocial Behaviour Orders] ", Scottish Executive. "PDFlink| [http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/26350/0025277.pdf Guidance on Antisocial Behaviour Orders: Antisocial Behaviour etc. (Scotland) Act 2004] |333 KiB " URLs accessed on 18 June 2006.] Scotland, however, has an existing tribunalcharged with dealing with children and young persons who offend, the Children's HearingsSystem.
In a press release of
28 October 2004, Tony Blairand David Blunkettannounced further measures to extend the use and definition of ASBOs." [http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page6491.asp Press Briefing: 3.45pm Thursday 28 October 2004] ", 10 Downing Street. URL accessed on 18 June 2006.] The remit would include:
* Extension of the Witness Protection Program in
* Morehow many|date=August 2008 courts dealing with cases.
* More offenceswhich|date=August 2008 liable for
Fixed Penalty Notices and giving parish councils the power to issue fixed penalty notices for infringements.
The press release concluded by remarking:
"In the past year around 100,000 cases of anti social behaviour have been dealt with. 2,633 ASBOs and 418 dispersal orders have been issued in the same period."
25 October 2005, Transport for Londonannounced its intent to apply for a new law giving them the authority to issue orders against repeat fare dodgers, and increased fines." [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/4373458.stm Plans for £50 fare-dodger fines] , BBC News, 25 October 2005. URL accessed on 18 June 2006.] The first ever ASBO was given to offender Kat Richards for repeated drunk and disorderly behaviour. As of 31 March 2004, 2455 ASBOs had been issued in England and Wales. On 30 March 2006, the Home Officeannounced that 7,356 anti-social behaviour orders had been given out since 1999 in England and Wales." [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/03/30/asbo_total/ Asbo total hits 7,356] ", The Register, 30 March 2006. URL accessed on 18 June 2006.]
What warrants an ASBO
An anti-social behaviour order is an Order of the Court which tells an individual over 10 years old how they must not behave. Under 10s can be given a BASBO. An Order can contain only negative prohibitions. It cannot contain a positive obligation. [
Crime and Disorder Act 1998, s1(4) and 1(6); " R (Lonergan) v. Crown Court at Lewes" (2005) 2 All ER 362] In order to obtain an ASBO a two-stage test must be satisfied by the applicant authority (see s.1(1) Crime and Disorder Act 1998). The first is that the defendant has committed acts causing or likely to cause harassment, alarm or distress within six months of the date of issue of the summons. The second is that an order is necessary to protect persons from further anti-social behaviour.
The applicant has to prove in a court of law that the individual has acted in an anti-social manner. That is to say, in a manner that caused or was likely to cause
harassment, alarm or distressto one or more persons not of the same household as himself, [Crime and Disorder Act 1998, s1(a)] Although the proceedings are civil, not criminal, the court must apply in relation to this test the criminal standard of proof. The applicant must prove that the respondent has acted in such a manner beyond all reasonable doubt. [" R (McCann) v. Crown Court at Manchester"  UKHL 39] A court may order an ASBO only if such an order is 'necessary'. [Crime and Disorder Act 1988 s1(b)] Further, each prohibited act must be an act preparatory to a criminal offence rather than the offence itself. In addition, each prohibition itself must be necessary. It would be inappropriate for a condition to be not to spray graffiti – the final act. It would be more appropriate for the order to prohibit the carrying a paint-spray can in a particular area, marked on a map. This would only be necessary if it could be proved beyond all reasonable doubt that the respondent continually created graffiti with spray-cans in a specific area.
An order must be tailor-made for the individual respondent. It must be relevant to the anti-social behaviour. Orders must not be drafted too widely or imprecisely. Each prohibition must be necessary. ["
R v. Dean Boness"  EWCA Crim 2395] The fact that some of the evidence is hearsay without the possibility of cross-examination does not have the automatic result that the proceedings are unfair. The court will have to consider what weight to give to the hearsay evidence. The Court of Appeal has stated that the high standard of proof is difficult to meet if the entirety of the case, or the majority of it, is based upon hearsay evidence. [" M v. DPP"  EWHC 1032 (Admin)]
Hearsay evidence is admissible by
Civil Evidence Act 1995. Section 4(1) states that...
"in estimating the weight (if any) to be given to hearsay evidence in civil proceedings the court shall have regard to any circumstances from which any inference can reasonably be drawn as to the reliability or otherwise of the evidence."
The High Court has emphasised that the use of the words "if any" shows that some hearsay evidence may be given no weight at all. ["
R (Cleary) v. Highbury Corner Magistrates’ Court" (2007) 1 All ER 270] In order for an ASBO to be ordered by a court, the applicant must provide beyond all reasonable doubt (the criminal standard of proof) that the respondent has behaved in an anti-social manner. The applicant can rely on hearsay evidence. However, the Court of Appeal has stated that it does not expect a court to find that the criminal standard has been reached by relying solely on hearsay evidence. The Civil Evidence Act 1995 itself makes clear that courts should consider what weight, if any at all, attaches to hearsay material. In "Cleary", the Court of Appeal again restated that courts should consider attaching no weight at all to such material, in accordance with the words of the statute.
An ASBO is very similar to a civil injunction even though the difference are important. First, the injunction is supposed to protect the world at large, in a given geographical area, rather than an individual. Second, breach of an ASBO is a criminal offence to be tried in a criminal court applying the criminal standard of beyond all reasonable doubt. A power of committal to prison is available for breach of a civil injunction but a court is unlikely to exercise that power. A subject of an anti-social behaviour where it does not follow a criminal conviction has an automatic right of appeal against both the making of the order and its terms to a higher court. There is also the availability of an appeal to the High Court by way of "case stated".
An application for an ASBO is considered by the courts in its civil jurisdiction and is a civil order. However, breach of an ASBO is a criminal offence and conviction may result in up to five years' imprisonment (two for a minor). An ASBO may contain any prohibition even if the same is not an anti-social act, e.g. can include a prohibition in entering an area or speaking to named persons. Cases of orders have included:
Vandalism"" Wikinews, 25 September 2007] [http://www.crimereduction.gov.uk/asbos/asbos7.htm "How ASBOs have worked"] CrimeReduction.gov.uk, 6 September, 2006]
Theft[http://www.rochdaleobserver.co.uk/news/s/224/224758_asbo_for_youth_who_terrorised_his_neighbours.html "Asbo for youth who terrorised neighbours"] Rochdale Observer, 16 March 2007, Helen Johnson]
* Abusive behaviour [http://www.camden.gov.uk/ccm/content/press/2005/january/asbo-for-abusive-rochester-square-resident.en;jsessionid=aPed0L6AR_Bd ASBO for abusive Rochester Square resident] , Camden Council,
13 January 2005]
Flyposting[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/3805171.stm "Top music chiefs are spared ASBOs"] BBC News, 14 June 2004]
* Organising illegal
raves [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/oxfordshire/5079204.stm "Man banned from organising raves"] BBC News, 14 June 2006]
* Begging [http://www.statewatch.org/asbo/asbowatch-puborder.htm "Cases of ASBOs used for general public order issues"] Statewatch's ASBOWatch]
Less common ASBOs
Less conventional uses of ASBOs, as listed by a report to the
Home Officeto illustrate the difficulties with ASBOs, include:
* Two teenage boys from east
Manchesterforbidden to wear one golfglove. [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200405/cmselect/cmhaff/80/80we20.htm Home Affairs - Written Evidence: 19. Memorandum submitted by Napo] , House of Commons, 22 March 2005. URL accessed on 18 June 2006.]
* A 17-year-old forbidden to use the word "grass" as a term of abuse in order to threaten people.
* A 15-year-old forbidden to play football in his street.
* The oldest recipient of an ASBO, an 87-year-old man who was abusive to his neighbours.
* An 18-year-old male was banned from congregating with more than three youths, and subsequently arrested when he entered a very popular youth club.
* The first farmer to be given an ASBO was instructed to keep his geese and
pigs from damaging his neighbour's property.
Criticism of ASBOs
MORI opinion pollpublished on 9 June 2005found that 82% of the British public were in favour of ASBOs; however, only 39% believed they were effective in their current form." [http://www.mori.com/polls/2005/asbo-top.shtml Public Concern About ASB And Support For ASBOs] ", MORI, 10 June 2005. URL accessed on 18 June 2006.]
Some critics of the ASBO system argue that it criminalises behaviour that is otherwise lawful. Other parties have voiced concerns about the open-ended nature of ASBO penalties – that is, there is little restriction on what a court may impose as the terms of the ASBO, and little restriction on what can be designated as antisocial behaviour. Critics have reported that only around 3% of ASBO applications have been turned down." [http://society.guardian.co.uk/crimeandpunishment/comment/0,8146,1452267,00.html A triumph of hearsay and hysteria] " The Guardian,
5 April 2005] In July 2007 the Local Government Ombudsmanpublished a report criticising Manchester City Councilfor serving an ASBO based purely on uncorroborated reports of nuisance by a neighbour, and the Council agreed to pay £2000 in compensation." [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/manchester/6272062.stm 'False' Asbo woman wins payout] " BBC, 5 July 2007]
A 2005 memorandum submitted by the
National Association of Probation Officers(NAPO) asserted that "There is ample evidence of the issuing of ASBOs by the courts being inconsistent and almost a geographical lottery. There is great concern that people are being jailed following the breach of an ASBO where the original offence was itself non-imprisonable. There is also evidence that ASBOs have been used where people have mental healthproblems where treatment would be more appropriate. In NAPO's view the time is right for a fundamental review of the use and appropriateness of Anti-social Behaviour Orders by the Home Office." [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200405/cmselect/cmhaff/80/80we20.htm Home Affairs - Written Evidence: 19. Memorandum submitted by NAPO] , House of Commons, 22 March 2005. URL accessed on 18 June 2006.]
Problems included clinical depression, autism, psychosis, suicidal tendencies, personality disorders, learning disabilities, and ADHD. By contrast the same survey of ASBO teams gave only a 5% reported incidence of mental impairement. This massive difference suggests that most ASBO teams do not take into account mental health problems even though the Home Office safeguards for vulnerable people in the ASBO process require it. Even more remarkable according to the government's own evaluation reports (e.g. Housing Research Summary No. 230; DfCLG) in the 'ASB Intensive Family Support' (Sin Bin) projects introduced to supplement ASBOs, 80% of the families targeted had serious mental health and learning disability problems. 60% were recognised as victims of ASB. Project managers described many families as 'easily scapegoated' in neighbour disputes. HRS 230 calls for a review of ASBO policy and investigation procedures to make the whole process fairer.
The biggest criminal justice-related charity in England and Wales,
NACRO, has published two reports, the first claiming that ASBOs were a failure due to being costly and slow to obtain,cite web| url=http://www.nacro.org.uk/templates/news/newsitem.cfm/2002111200.htm/archive | title=Failure of policy in tackling anti-social behaviour | accessdate=2007-01-03 | date=2002-11-12|publisher=Nacro] and the second criticising their use by the courts, saying that they are being used too hastily, before alternative remedies have been tried.cite web| url=http://www.nacro.org.uk/templates/news/newsitem.cfm/2006120700.htm|title=ASBOs oversold as the answer to antisocial behaviour| accessdate=2007-01-03|publisher=Nacro|date=2006-12-07]
TV and media
* Nine teenage girls from
Manchester, many of whom have criminal convictions (including one with an ASBO), are the subject of the TV series " ASBO Teen to Beauty Queen" for Five.
* Top Gear's
Jeremy Clarksonrefers to the Ford Focus ST as the Ford ASBO.
The Streetsrefers to ASBO in the song "Memento Mori" from his 2006 album " The Hardest Way to Make an Easy Living".
* In the "
Doctor Who" episode "School Reunion," the Doctor mentioned ASBOs, stating that the school was "very well behaved" and that he "thought they'd all be happy-slappy hoodies. Happy-slappy hoodies with ASBOs. Happy-slappy hoodies with ASBOs and ringtones ..."
Little Britaincharacter Vicky Pollardintroduces the adverb/adjective ASBOtastic.
Fixed Penalty Notice
Lettre de cachet
* [http://www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1998/19980037.htm HMSO.gov.uk] -
Crime and Disorder Act 1998(introduced ASBOs), Office of Public Sector Information
* [http://www.legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2003/20030038.htm HMSO.gov.uk] -
Anti-social Behaviour Act 2003, Office of Public Sector Information
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