The method is based on three steps:
# Reducing the body of the deceased to a fine powder, thereby allowing subsequent
decompositionto be aerobic. This is achieved by submerging the body in liquid nitrogen, making the remains so brittle that they shatter into a powder as the result of slight vibrations. The powder is then dried, reducing the deceased remains to around 30% of their original body weight.
# Removing and
recyclingmetals within the powdered remains.
# Shallow-burying the powder in a biodegradable
The first facilities for promession-based funerals, known as
Promators, are due to be ready in 2008. They will be located in Sweden, Germany, Great Britain, South Korea and South Africa.Fact|date=February 2008
The volume of remains left by this procedure is about three times that left by a
cremation, but the advantages claimed include avoiding the release of pollutants into the atmosphere (for instance, mercury vapour from dental fillings) and the rapid degradation of the remains after the procedure (within 6 to 12 months). The procedure meets the requirements of new European Unionpollution laws.Fact|date=February 2008
The terms "promession" and "Promator" are
neologisms. "Promession" is derived from the Italian word for "promise" ("promessa"), the promise being the good environmental management of the Earth.Fact|date=February 2008
A complete ecological study should include the energy requirements of cryogenic freezing compared to cremation. Depending on size, the
human bodyis between 55 and 78 percent water.
Much of the energy required for cremation is the heat needed to convert water to steam.To heat water from 20 °C to 100 °C requires 334.5
Joules per gram(J/g) of water. To convert this into steam requires 2258 J/g, meaning the total heat required is 2593 J/g.
Much of the energy required for
cryogenic freezingis the latent heatneeded to freeze the water used and to cool a massto the temperatureof liquid nitrogen(77 K).
*To cool water from 20 °C to 0 °C (273 K) requires 83.6 J/g.
*To freeze water requires 334 J/g.
*To cool ice from 273 K to 77 K requires 457 J/g.
*The total heat removed is 874 J/g.
Comparison of cremation and cryogenic freezing
The ratio of the heat moved for the two methods is almost exactly a factor of 3. However, the effect of the
second law of thermodynamicsmust also be considered. To heat a mass requires heat energy; and to cool something below ambient temperaturerequires work energy or electricity that must be generated from heat energy. Typically, electricity is generated from heat at roughly 33% efficiency. A common (non-cryogenic) freezer, operating on the Rankine cycle, might have a coefficient of performanceof about 3, thus removing 3 units of heat for every 1 unit of work input. So overall, it takes at least one unit of heat energy burned in an electric powergenerator to run a freezer that will remove one unit of heat energy at 0 °C. It should be considered whether this is cold enough to make tissue brittle. To cool even further, a good cryogenic cooler will only remove 1 unit of heat at 77 K for every 20 to 25 units of work, so the coefficient of performance is only 4 to nowrap|5 percent [http://www.sunpower.com] .
More accurately, the coefficient of performance (CoP) is a function of temperature. For a Stirling engine cryocooler, this is about nowrap|(0.0015 × Tc) - 0.065, where Tc is the cooler temperature.
The average CoP of the Stirling cryocooler operating between 273 K and 77 K is 0.2 (20%).
*The electricity needed to cool water from 293 K to 77 K using a Stirling cryocooler is 4424 J/g.
*To cool water from 293 K to 273 K with a Rankine cooler is 27.9 J/g.To cool ice from 273 K to 77 K with a Stirling cryocooler is 2312 J/g.To cool water from 293 K to 77 K with a Rankine cooler and then Stirling cryocooler is 2340 J/g.
Hence it is most efficient to use a Rankine freezer to freeze the water and then a Stirling cryocooler to reduce the temperature of the resulting ice to 77 K. If we assume electricity is generated from heat at 33% efficiency, then it takes 7091 J of heat to create 2340 J of electricity.
energy efficiencyof the freezing and boiling processes involved can be made very high. It takes an estimated 2.75 times more primary energyto cryocool water than it does to turn it to steam; much of this energy, however, can be recycled, though this may require additional equipment. A Stirling cryocooler can run in reverse, efficiently moving latent heatfrom cryocooled ice to warm water. This can be made to generate electricity, thus replacing some of the electricity used in the initial cooling process. The use of energy recuperationand counter-flow heat exchangers also significantly improves the quantities of energy consumed.
* [http://www.promessa.se Promessa] , the Swedish company developing the method.
* Kate Connolly, [http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/the-big-freeze/2005/09/29/1127804608668.html "Big freeze an alternative to cremation"] , "
Sydney Morning Herald" website, 30 September 2005.
* [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-1823234,00.html "A chilling way to say the final farewell"] , "
The Times", 13 October 2005, reporting an investigation into the process by Crewe and NantwichBorough Council.
* [http://naturalburial.coop Centre for Natural Burial] , a website providing information about eco-cemeteries and natural burial.
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