Male oral contraceptive

A male oral contraceptive is not commercially available to the public, although several forms are in various stages of research and development.Fact|date=October 2007

Botanical compounds

*In 1980, a test was successfully performed on male rats using leaves from the neem tree. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7205685&query_hl=14&itool=pubmed_docsum Male antifertility activity of Azadirachta Indica ... [J Postgrad Med. 1980 - PubMed Result ] ]
* In 1995, researchers isolated compounds from a Chinese plant called "Tripterygium wilfordii". [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7750290&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_DocSum Recent progress in research on Tripterygium: a mal... [Contraception. 1995 - PubMed Result ] ]
*In 2002, researchers fed extracts from the seeds of papaya fruits ("Carica papaya") to monkeys. Subsequently, the monkeys had no sperm in their ejaculate. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11907624&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces ... [Asian J Androl. 2002 - PubMed Result ] ]
*In 2002, tests were performed on male rats using oleanolic acid, extracted from "Eugenia jambolana", a tree in the southern part of Africa. The tests demonstrated that the chemical was found to reversibly lower the rats' sperm motility without affecting the sperm count. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12396287&query_hl=10&itool=pubmed_DocSum The effect of oleanolic acid on sperm motion chara... [Lab Anim. 2002 - PubMed Result ] ]
*Pills made from gossypol, a compound found in cotton seeds, have been abandoned as a potential male contraceptive because the compound was proven to cause permanent infertility. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12020773&query_hl=15&itool=pubmed_docsum Gossypol: a contraceptive for men. [Contraception. 2002 - PubMed Result ] ]

Pharmaceutical tests

*Calcium channel blockers such as nifedipine may cause reversible infertility by altering the lipid metabolism of sperm so that they are not able to fertilize an egg. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7782439&query_hl=16&itool=pubmed_DocSum Pregnancy following discontinuation of a calcium c... [Hum Reprod. 1995 - PubMed Result ] ]

Research on sperm

*Dr. George Witman has performed research on sperm tail proteins required for motility. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15572673&query_hl=3&itool=pubmed_DocSum Novel role for a sterol response element binding p... [Mol Cell Biol. 2004 - PubMed Result ] ]

*Dr. David Claphamhas performed research on sperm-specific ion exchange channels needed for hyperactivation. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=14657352&query_hl=5&itool=pubmed_docsum CatSper1 required for evoked Ca2+ entry and contro... [Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 - PubMed Result ] ]

*Dr. Joseph Hall performed research on sperm head enzymes needed to recognize an egg. [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9413557&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum Purification and characterization of protein D/E, ... [Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 1997 - PubMed Result ] ]

References

* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9389813&query_hl=13&itool=pubmed_docsum “An oral regimen of cyproterone acetate and testosterone undecanoate for spermatogenic suppression in men”] by MC Meriggiola "et al." in Fertility and Sterility, November 1997.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2970439&query_hl=13&itool=pubmed_docsum “Inhibition of spermatogenesis in men using various combinations of oral progestagens and percutaneous or oral androgens”] by JF Guerin and J Rollet in the International Journal of Andrology, June 1988.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7750290&query_hl=8&itool=pubmed_DocSum “Recent progress in research on "Tripterygium": a male antifertility plant”] by QS Zhen [sic] "et al." in Contraception, February 1995.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11907624&query_hl=1&itool=pubmed_docsum “Chloroform extract of "Carica papaya" seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey”] by NK Lohiya "et al." in the Asian Journal of Andrology, March 2002.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12396287&query_hl=10&itool=pubmed_DocSum “The effect of oleanolic acid on sperm motion characteristics and fertility of male Wistar rats”] by MC Mdhluli and G van der Horst in Laboratory Animal, October 2002.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7205685&query_hl=14&itool=pubmed_docsum “Male antifertility activity of "Azadirachta indica" in mice”] by VY Deshpande "et al." in the Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, July 1980.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=12020773&query_hl=15&itool=pubmed_docsum “Gossypol: a contraceptive for men”] by E Coutinho in Contraception, April 2002.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7782439&query_hl=16&itool=pubmed_DocSum “Pregnancy following discontinuation of a calcium channel blocker in the male partner”] by A Hershlag "et al." in Human Reproduction, March 1995.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16396932&query_hl=17&itool=pubmed_docsum “Long-term non-hormonal male contraception in mice using N-butyldeoxynojirimycin”] by CM Walden "et al." in Human Reproduction, May 2006.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16181968&query_hl=18&itool=pubmed_docsum “AF-2364 [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carbohydrazide] is a potential male contraceptive: a review of recent data”] by CY Cheng "et al." in Contraception, October 2005.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15572673&query_hl=3&itool=pubmed_DocSum “Novel role for a sterol response element binding protein in directing spermatogenic cell-specific gene expression”] by H Wang "et al." in Molecular and Cellular Biology, December 2004.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=14657352&query_hl=5&itool=pubmed_docsum “CatSper1 required for evoked Ca2+ entry and control of flagellar function in sperm”] by AE Carlson "et al." in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, December 2003.
* [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9413557&query_hl=6&itool=pubmed_docsum “Purification and characterization of protein D/E, a putative sperm-binding protein involved in fertilization”] by JC Hall and CE Tubbs in Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology, November 1997.

ee also

*Male contraceptive


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