Presidential Directives, better known as Presidential Decision Directives or PDD are a form of an executive order issued by the President of the United States with the advice and consent of the National Security Council. As a National Security instrument, the PDD articulates the executive's policy, carries the "full force and effect of law", and throughout the terms of presidents, have taken on various titles or intents towards national security policy.
Since many of the Presidential Directives pertain to the national security of the United States, many were or are promulgated as classified. Various presidents since the administration of John F. Kennedy have issued such directives but under different names.
Names for National Security Directives by administration
NSCID National Security Council Intelligence Directives 1947-1977 Truman - Ford NSAM National Security Action Memorandums 1961-1969 Kennedy and Johnson NSSM National Security Study Memorandums 1969–1977 Nixon and Ford NSDM National Security Decision Memorandums 1969–1977 Nixon and Ford PRM Presidential Review Memorandums 1977-1981 Carter PD Presidential Directives 1977–1981 Carter NSSD National Security Study Directives 1981-1989 Reagan NSDD National Security Decision Directives 1981–1989 Reagan NSR National Security Reviews 1989-1993 G. H. W. Bush NSD National Security Directives 1989–1993 G. H. W. Bush PRD Presidential Review Directive 1993-2001 Clinton PDD Presidential Decision Directives 1993–2001 Clinton NSPD National Security Presidential Directives 2001–2009 G. W. Bush HSPD Homeland Security Presidential Directives 2001- G. W. Bush and Obama PSD Presidential Study Directives 2009- Obama PPD Presidential Policy Directives 2009- Obama
After the hijacking of the Achille Lauro cruise ship and interagency problems over responsibility for coordinating terrorism efforts, a National Security Decision Directive was signed by President Reagan in early 1986. This gave the State Department responsibility for coordinating international terrorism policy.
After September 11, 2001, George Bush issued Homeland Security Presidential Directives (HSPDs), with the consent of the Homeland Security Council. The first such directive created the Homeland Security Council while the second changed immigration policies to combat terrorism. The most recent HSPD (HSPD-21) was issued October 18, 2007 and called for public and private healthcare organizations, hospitals and healthcare facilities to form a system of "disaster healthcare" the definition of which mimicked the definition of disaster medicine.
The State Department was put in charge of coordinating the efforts of CIA, DOD, and FBI efforts to track and deal with terrorism. The first man in charge was L. Paul Bremer with the title Coordinator for Counter Terrorism at State Department (S/CT).
Steven Aftergood, of the Federation of American Scientists' Project on Government Secrecy, stated in February 2008 that:
Of the 54 National Security Presidential Directives issued by the (George W.) Bush Administration to date, the titles of only about half have been publicly identified. There is descriptive material or actual text in the public domain for only about a third. In other words, there are dozens of undisclosed Presidential directives that define U.S. national security policy and task government agencies, but whose substance is unknown either to the public or, as a rule, to Congress.
- Presidential memorandum
- Continuity of Operations Plan
- National Security and Homeland Security Presidential Directive (NSPD-51)
- ^ Moss, R. Legal Effectiveness of a Presidential Directive as Compared to an Executive Order - Memorandum For The Counsel to the President. January 29, 2000.
- ^ a b http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/98-611.pdf | Presidential Directives: Background and Overview
- ^ http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/direct.htm | FAS Presidential Directives and Executive Orders
- ^ Aftergood, Steven (2008-02-07). "The next president should open up the Bush Administration's record". Neiman Watchdog; Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard. http://niemanwatchdog.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=ask_this.view&askthisid=00321. Retrieved 2008-02-12.
- Homeland Security Watch (www.HLSwatch.com) provides current details on HSPS-1 implementation
- List of National Security Presidential Directives and Homeland Security Presidential Directives, Federation of American Scientists
- National Security Action Memorandums | Document & Images From The Presidential Papers of John Fitzgerald Kennedy | National Security Files
- Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum
- JFK | NSAMs list | PDF
- Federation of American Scientists Collection of Presidential Directives
- Presidential Directives: Background and Overview | PDF
- Terrorism: Why The Numbers Matter By Larry C Johnson, Managing Director BERG Associates, LLC
- The National Security Archive - George Washington University
- Homeland Security Presidential Directives
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