name = Oder
native_name = Odra
image_caption = Oder between Kienitz and Zollbrücke, Germany
country = Czech Republic
country1 = Poland
country2 = Germany
length = 854
watershed = 118861
discharge_location = mouth
discharge_average = 574
source_location = Oderské vrchy,
source_country = Czech Republic
mouth_name = Szczecin Lagoon
mouth_location = Baltic Sea
mouth_country = Poland
mouth_lat_d = 53
mouth_lat_m = 40
mouth_lat_s = 19
mouth_lat_NS = N
mouth_long_d = 14
mouth_long_m = 31
mouth_long_s = 25
mouth_long_EW = E
The Oder (known in Czech and Polish as "Odra") is a
riverin Central Europe. It begins in the Czech Republicand flows through western Poland, later forming the northern 187 km of the border between Poland and Germany, part of the Oder-Neisse line. The river ultimately flows into the Szczecin Lagoonnorth of Szczecinand then into three branches ( Dziwna, Świnaand Peene) that empty into the Baltic Sea.
The Oder is 854 km long: 112 in the Czech Republic, 742 in Poland (including 187 on the border between Germany and Poland) and is the second longest river in Poland (after the
Vistula). It drains 118,861 km² of watershed, 106,056 of which are in Poland (89%), 7,217 in the Czech Republic (6%), and 5,587 in Germany (5%). Channels connect it to the Havel, Spree, Vistulasystem and Kłodnica. It flows through Silesian, Opole, Lower Silesian, Lubusz, and West Pomeranian voivodeships of Poland and the states of Brandenburgand Mecklenburg-Vorpommernin Germany.
The main branch empties into the
Szczecin Lagoonnear Police. The Szczecin Lagoon is bordered on the north by islands of Usedom(west) and Wolin(east). Between these two islands, there is only a narrow channel (Świna) going to the Bay of Pomerania, which forms a part of the Baltic Sea.
The largest city on the Oder River is
The Oder is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as to the town of
Koźle, where the river connects to the Gliwicki Canal. The upstream part of the river is canalized and permits larger barges (up to CEMT Class IV) to navigate between the industrial sites around the Wrocławarea.
Further downstream the river is free flowing, passing the towns of
Eisenhüttenstadt(where a canal connects the river to the Spreein Berlin) and Frankfurt (Oder). Downstream of Frankfurt the WartaRiver forms a navigable connection with Poznańand Bydgoszczfor smaller vessels. At Hohensaatenthe Havel-Oder-Wasserstrasse connects with the Berlin waterways again.
Near its mouth the Oder reaches the city of
Szczecin, a major maritime port. The river finally reaches the Baltic Sea through the Szczecin Lagoonand the river mouth at Świnoujście. (Source: [http://www.noorderSoft.com/indexen.html NoorderSoft Waterways Database] )
The river in
GermaniaMagna was known to the Romans as the "Viadrus" or "Viadua" in Classical Latin, as it was a branch of the Amber Roadfrom the Baltic Sea to the Roman Empire(see "via)". In German it was and is called the "Oder", written in older records as "Odera" or "Oddera" in Medieval Latindocuments and was mentioned in the Dagome iudex, which described territory of Duke Mieszko I ca. 990 and Oda von Haldensleben.
The Oder was an important trade route and towns in Germania were documented along with many tribes living between the rivers
Albis, Viadrus and Vistula. Centuries later the Bavarian Geographer(ca. 845) specifies the following peoples: Silesians, Dadoshanie, Opolanians, Lupiglaa, and Golenshitse in Silesiaand Wolinians and Pyrzycans in Western Pomerania. A document of the Bishopric of Prague(1086) mentions Zlasane, Trebovyane, Poborane, and Dedositze in Silesia.
In the 13th century, the first
dams were built to protect agricultural lands.
World War II, the Oder and the Lusatian Neisseformed the Oder-Neisse line, which was designated as the new border between Germany and Poland. The German populations east of these two rivers were expelled westwards.
Ostrava- Bohumín- Racibórz- Kędzierzyn-Koźle- Krapkowice- Opole- Brzeg- Oława- Jelcz-Laskowice- Wrocław- Brzeg Dolny- Ścinawa- Szlichtyngowa- Głogów- Bytom Odrzański- Nowa Sól- Krosno Odrzańskie- Eisenhüttenstadt- Frankfurt (Oder)- Słubice- Kostrzyn - Cedynia- Schwedt- Vierraden- Gartz- Gryfino- Szczecin- Police
Dziwna branch (between
WolinIsland and mainland Poland):: Wolin- Kamień Pomorski- Dziwnów
Świna branch (between Wolin and the
Nowe Warpno- Ueckermünde
Peene branch (between Usedom Island and the German mainland)::
Usedom- Lassan- Wolgast
: Ostravice - Olza -
Ruda- Bierawka- Kłodnica- Czarnka- Mała Panew - Stobrawa - Widawa- Jezierzyca- Barycz- Krzycki Rów- Obrzyca- Jabłonna - Pliszka- Ołobok - Gryzynka- Wartawith the Noteć - Myśla - Kurzyca- Stubia- Rurzyca- Tywa- Płonia - Ina - Gowienica
: Opava - Psina - Cisek - Olszówka - Stradunia - Osobłoga - Prószkowski Potok - Nysa Kłodzka - Oława -
Ślęza- Bystrzyca - Średzka Woda - Cicha Woda - Kaczawa - Ślepca - Zimnica- Dębniak - Biała Woda - Czarna Struga - Śląska Ochla - Zimny Potok - Bóbr - Olcha - Racza - Lusatian Neisse- Gunica
List of rivers of Germany
List of rivers of Poland
Lower Odra Valley National Park
Operation WislaUkraine, Polish territory 1947
WislaLongest Polish river
* [http://www.odra.org/ multi-lingual information site on the Oder river]
* [http://www.wrotaodry.eu Odra River electronic shipping guide]
* [http://www.ppl.nl/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=82 Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law] Peace Palace Library
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
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