- Civil procedure
Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters). These rules govern how a lawsuit or case may be commenced, what kind of service of process (if any) is required, the types of pleadings or statements of case, motions or applications, and orders allowed in civil cases, the timing and manner of depositions and discovery or disclosure, the conduct of trials, the process for judgment, various available remedies, and how the courts and clerks must function.
Differences between civil and criminal procedure
Criminal and civil procedure are different. Although some systems, including the English and French, allow private persons to bring a criminal prosecution against another person, prosecutions are nearly always started by the state, in order to punish the defendant. Civil actions, on the other hand, are started by private individuals, companies or organizations, for their own benefit. In addition, governments (or their subdivisions or agencies) may also be parties to civil actions. The cases are usually in different courts, and juries are not so often used in civil cases.
In Anglo-American law, the party bringing a criminal charge (that is, in most cases, the state) is called the "prosecution", but the party bringing most forms of civil action is the "plaintiff" or "claimant". In both kinds of action the other party is known as the "defendant". A criminal case against a person called Ms. Sanchez would be described as “The People v. (="versus", "against" or "and") Sanchez,” "The State (or Commonwealth) v. Sanchez" or "[The name of the State] v. Sanchez" in the United States and “R. (Regina, that is, the Queen) v. Sanchez” in England. But a civil action between Ms. Sanchez and a Mr. Smith would be “Sanchez v. Smith” if it was started by Sanchez, and “Smith v. Sanchez” if it was started by Mr. Smith.
Most countries make a clear distinction between civil and criminal procedure. For example, a criminal court may force a convicted defendant to pay a fine as punishment for his crime, and the legal costs of both the prosecution and defence. But the victim of the crime generally pursues his claim for compensation in a civil, not a criminal, action. In France and England, however, a victim of a crime may incidentally be awarded compensation by a criminal court judge.
Evidence from a criminal trial is generally admissible as evidence in a civil action about the same matter. For example, the victim of a road accident does not directly benefit if the driver who injured him is found guilty of the crime of careless driving. He still has to prove his case in a civil action, unless the doctrine of collateral estoppel applies, as it does in most American jurisdictions. In fact he may be able to prove his civil case even when the driver is found not guilty in the criminal trial, because the standard to determine guilt is higher than the standard to determine fault. However, if a driver is found by a civil jury not to have been negligent, a prosecutor may be estopped from charging him criminally.
If the plaintiff has shown that the defendant is liable, the main remedy in a civil court is the amount of money, or "damages", which the defendant should pay to the plaintiff. Alternative civil remedies include restitution or transfer of property, or an injunction to restrain or order certain actions.
The standards of proof are higher in a criminal case than in a civil one, since the state does not wish to risk punishing an innocent person. In English law the prosecution must prove the guilt of a criminal “beyond reasonable doubt”; but the plaintiff in a civil action is required to prove his case “on the balance of probabilities”. Thus, in a criminal case a crime cannot be proven if the person or persons judging it doubt the guilt of the suspect and have a reason (not just a feeling or intuition) for this doubt. But in a civil case, the court will weigh all the evidence and decide what is most probable.
Civil procedure by country
- Affirmative defense
- Civil Justice Fairness Act
- Criminal procedure
- Prejudice (law)
- Statute of limitations
- Summary judgment
- Time constraints
- Trial de novo
- Civil Procedure Rules applying to England and Wales
- Complete text of Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (Cornell Univ.)
- Rhode Island Civil Court Rules of Procedure - Optimized by a Constable from the law library at the 6th District Court of Rhode Island
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Look at other dictionaries:
civil procedure — n: the steps taken and methods used in bringing and conducting a civil action; also: a course of study in the rules of procedure in civil actions Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996. civil procedure … Law dictionary
civil procedure — Body of law concerned with methods, procedures and practices used in civil litigation, e.g. Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; Title 28 of United States Code … Black's law dictionary
civil procedure — noun a body of rules that regulate the administration of civil trials and appeals … Wiktionary
civil procedure — regulations governing legal proceedings dealing with civil matters … English contemporary dictionary
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Civil Procedure Rules — the name given to the new rules on civil procedure introduced in England and Wales in April 1999 to implement the Woolf Reforms. Collins dictionary of law. W. J. Stewart. 2001. Civil Procedure Rules … Law dictionary
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