Brody

Brody ( _uk. Броди, _pl. Brody, _ru. Броды, Yiddish: בּראָד, translit. "Brod") is a city in the Lviv Oblast (province) of western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Brodivskyi Raion (district), and is located in the valley of the upper Styr River, approximately 90 kilometres northeast of the oblast capital, Lviv. As of 2004, its population is 23,239.

Brody is the junction place of the "Druzhba" and "Odessa-Brody" oil pipelines.

History

The first mention of a settlement on the site of Brody is dated 1084 (Instructions by Volodymyr Monomach). It is believed to have been destroyed by Batu Khan in 1241.

From 1441 Brody was the property of different feudal families (Jan Sieniński, from 1511 - Kamieniecki).

Brody was granted Magdeburg rights and city status in 1546. At this time it was known under the name Lubicz (Любич, _pl. Lubicz) that gave name to the Lubicz Coat of Arms of the owner, Stanisław Żółkiewski (not to be confused with Lubech, "Lubecz").

From 1629, the city became the property of Stanisław Koniecpolski, who transformed it into a fortress (1630-1635). In 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky was unable to capture it for about 8 weeks. The fortress was designed by the French military engineer Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan.

Since the 17th century, the city has been populated not only by Ukrainians and Poles, but also a significant number of Jews (70% of the town's population), Armenians, and Greeks .Fact|date=January 2008

In 1704, Brody was purchased by Potocki family. In 1734 the fortress was destroyed by Russian troops and rebuilt again by Stanisław Potocki in the baroque style. In 1772, Brody became a part of Habsburg Empire (from 1804 - Austrian Empire). In 1812, Wincenty Potocki was forced by the Austrian government to remove the city's fortifications.

A crossroads and a Jewish trade center in the nineteenth century, the city is considered to be one of the shtetls. It was particularly famous for the "Brodersänger" or Broder singers, who were among the first to publicly perform Yiddish songs outside of Purim plays and wedding parties.

The promulgation of the May Laws, and the massive exodus of Russian Jews which was its result, took the leaders of Western Jewry completely by surprise. Throughout 1881, hundreds of immigrants… kept arriving in Brody daily. Their arrival placed Austrian and German coreligionists in a quandary… the comfortable middle-class Jewish community of Central and Western Europe looked instinctively to the Alliance Israelite Universelle, the world's largest and most respected Jewish philanthropic agency, to bring order out of chaos, to cope with the huge influx of newcomers. (Howard M. Sachar)

The town was the site of heavy destruction by both Polish and Russian forces in the Polish-Soviet War of 1920, and is described extensively in stories of the Red Cavalry by Isaac Babel. After the conflict, it became part of Second Polish Republic and was located in the Tarnopol Voivodeship. Brody was an important military base, with the Kresowa Cavalry Brigade headquarters established there.

In September 1939 after the Polish defeat in World War II, Brody was occupied by the Red Army following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. Between June 26 and June 30, 1941 a tank battle was fought nearby between the German 1st Panzer Army and 5 Soviet Mechanized Corps with heavy losses on both sides.In December 1942 the German occupiers forced the Jewish population to resettle in a ghetto inside the town. Most of the prewar population of 9000 Jewish inhabitants died either in the concentration camps, through starvation, forced labour or were shot to death. During July-August 1944, Brody and the nearby areas saw the battles of the strategically important Lvov-Sandomierz Operation (a.k.a. "Brodovkiy Kotel") where the Soviet army successfully encircled and destroyed German forces.

During the Cold War, Brody air base served Soviet Air Force regiments.

The Brody museum of history and district ethnography was founded in 2001.

Famous People associated with Brody

*Jozef Korzheniovskiy (1797-1863), famous polish writer
*Ivan Trush (1869-1941), famous ukrainian artist.
*Myron Tarnavskiy (1869-1938), general of Ukrainian Galychina Army
*Feliks West (1846-1946), polish publisher
*Petro Fedun-Poltava (1919-1951), ideologist of Ukrainian national liberation fight 1940-50 years.

Famous Jews associated with Brody

*Adolph Baller, pianist
*Iuliu Barasch, physician
*Berl Broder (Berl Margulis), singer
*Oscar Chajes, chess player
*Zvi Hirsch Chajes, rabbi and talmudist
*Hans Kelsen (father was born there)
*Nachman Krochmal, philosopher
*Max Margules, meteorologist
*Jacques Mieses (parents from Brody; he was born in Leipzig
*Amalia Nathansohn-Freud (1835–1930), mother of Sigmund Freud
*Joseph Ludwig Raabe, mathematician
*Jakob Rosanes, mathematician
*Joseph Roth (1894-1939), writer
*Daniel Abraham Yanofsky, chess player. "See German-language article".
*Israel Zolli, former Chief Rabbi of Rome who converted to Catholicism

Nearby towns

* Zolochiv
* Oles'ko
* Pidhirtsi (Szwaby, Schwabendorf), German settlement
* Bus'k
* Pidkamin'
* Zboriv

References

* Howard M. Sachar, "The Course of modern Jewish history". Vintage Books (a division of Random House) Chapter 15

External links

* [http://encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?linkPath=pagesBRBrody.htm Brody] in the [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com Encyclopedia of Ukraine]
* [http://www.tour.brody.lviv.ua/sites/?en&sites=2&site=5 About Brody museum]
* [http://www.brody.lviv.ua/ Brody site]
* [http://www.shtetlinks.jewishgen.org/Brody/Brody.htm ShtetLinks Site for Brody]
* [http://homepage.univie.ac.at/boerries.kuzmany/ Brody - Броди - בראד]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • BRODY — BRODY, city in Lvov district, Ukraine (in Russia until 1772; in Austria, 1772–1919; and in Poland, 1919–39). An organized Jewish community existed in Brody by the end of the 16th century. In 1648 approximately 400 Jewish families are recorded.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Bródy — Brody heißen die Orte Stadt in den Vorkarpaten (Galizien) bei Lwiw (Lemberg), Ukraine; siehe Brody (Ukraine) Gemeinde (deutsch Pförten) in der Niederlausitz, Powiat Żarski, Wojwodschaft Lebus, Polen; siehe Brody (Lebus) Gemeinde in der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Brody — heißen die Orte Stadt in den Vorkarpaten (Galizien) bei Lwiw (Lemberg), Ukraine; siehe Brody (Ukraine) Gemeinde (deutsch Pförten) in der Niederlausitz, Powiat Żarski, Wojwodschaft Lebus, Polen; siehe Brody (Lebus) Gemeinde im Powiat Starachowicki …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Brody — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Escudo Lugar Datos principales Cuando se fundó: 1084 Area: km² Población: 23 239 (2001) Altura …   Wikipedia Español

  • Brody — (Polish), Brody Броды (Russian), Brody Броди (Ukrainian), Brod (Romanian), Brod בראָד (Yiddish), Brodi Броди (Macedonian) …   Names of cities in different languages

  • Brody — Brody, Stadt im Kreise Zloczow des österreichischen Verwaltungsgebiets Lemberg (Galizien), am Sulka Wielkabache; schlecht gebaut; gräflich Potocki sches Schloß mit Park, eine katholische u. drei griechische Kirchen, Kloster der Barmherzigen… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Bródy — Bródy, 1) Siegmund, hervorragender ungar. Publizist, geb. 15. Nov. 1840 in Miskolcz, war ursprünglich auf belletristischem Gebiete tätig, widmete sich aber bald der Publizistik und galt schon in den 60er Jahren des 19. Jahrh. als einer der… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Brody — Brody, Stadt in Galizien, unweit der russischen Grenze in einer waldumkränzten Ebene, an der Staatsbahnlinie Krafne B. (Anschluß an die russische Südwestbahn), hat 3 Kirchen, eine schöne Synagoge, ein altertümliches Schloß und (1900) mit der… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Brody — Brody, Bezirksstadt in Ostgalizien, (1900) 17.360 E. (2/3 Israeliten); Hauptstapelplatz zwischen Österreich und Rußland; Dampfmühle, Garnspinnerei …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Brody — Brody, Stadt im Reg. Bez. Lemberg in Galizien, Sitz einer Bezirkshauptmannschaft, einer Handels und Gewerbekammer mit 19500 E., größtentheils Juden. B. ist ein Haupthandelsplatz. der den Verkehr zwischen Deutschland und Oesterreich mit Rußland… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.