History of Maine
The history of the U.S. State of Maine spans thousands of years, measured from the earliest human settlement, or less than two hundred, measured from the advent of U.S. statehood in 1820. The present article will concentrate on the period of European contact and after.
The origin of the name "Maine" is unclear. One theory is it was named after the French province of Maine. Another is that the name was coined by English settlers living on islands along the coast, who would speak of going to the mainland as "going over to the main." [cite web |url=http://www.maine.gov/msl/services/reference/meorigin.htm |title=Origin of Maine’s Name |accessdate=2006-11-28 |publisher=Maine State Library] [cite web |url=http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761577633/Maine.html |title=Maine |accessdate=2007-02-24 |work=Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006]
The earliest culture known to have inhabited Maine, from roughly 3000 B.C. to 1000 B.C., were the
Red Paint People, a maritime group known for elaborate burials using red ochre. They were followed by the Susquehana culture, the first to use pottery.
By the time of European arrival, the inhabitants of Maine were
Algonquian-speaking Wabanakipeoples, including the Abenaki, Passamaquoddy, and Penobscots.
European colonization and the various mappings of Maine
The first European settlement in Maine was made in 1604 by a French party that included
Samuel de Champlain. The French named the area Acadia. Later English colonization pushed Acadia north into what are today the Canadian Maritimes, but the French continued to maintain strong relations with the area's Native American tribes through the medium of Catholic missionaries.
English colonists sponsored by the
Plymouth Companyattempted a settlement in Maine in 1607 (the Popham Colonyat Phippsburg), but it was eventually abandoned.
The territory between the Merrimack and
Kennebec Rivers was first called the Province of Mainein a 1622 land patent granted to Ferdinando Gorgesand John Mason. The two split the territory along the Piscataqua Riverin a 1629 pact that resulted in the Province of New Hampshirebeing formed by Mason in the south and New Somersetshirebeing created by Gorges to the north, in what is now Maine. The present Somerset County in Maine preserves this early nomenclature. The failure to colonize New Somersetshire, however, resulted in a second patent, granted to Gorges by Charles I, for what became known once again as the Province of Maine (but now minus New Hampshire). Gorges' second effort also ended unsuccessfully, but did stamp the name "Maine" onto the territory between the Piscataqua and Kennebec.
One of the first English explorers of the Maine coast was
Christopher Levett, an agent for Gorges and a member of the Plymouth Council for New England. After securing a Royal grant for convert|6000|acre|km2 of land on the site of present-day Portland, Maine, Levett built a stone house and left a group of men behind when he returned to England in 1623 to drum up support for his settlement, which he called "York" after the city of his birth in England. Levett's settlement also failed -- the men left behind were never heard from again -- and Levett never returned to Maine. Levett did sail back across the Atlantic to meet with Massachusetts Bay ColonyGovernor John Winthropat Salem in 1630, but died on the return voyage.
That part of present-day Maine east of the
Kennebec Riverwas known in the 17th century as the Territory of Sagadahockby the English, and Acadia by the French. In 1669, this land and what had been the Province of Maine, were incorporated into another patent, this time granted by Charles II to James, Duke of York. Under the terms of this grant, all the territory from the St. Lawrence Riverto the Atlantic Oceanwas constituted as Cornwall County, now part of a vastly expanded Province of New York. With the incorporation of Sagadahock, the territory that would become Maine extended along the coast from the Piscataqua to the St. Croix River for the first time, incorporating the entire coastline of the future state in a single political unit (though still only a paper one).
In 1673, part of this territory was partitioned to create
Devonshire, Massachusetts. The remainder was lost to the Abnakiin King Philip's Warin 1675, which rolled back nascent English settlement. In 1692 the entirety of the former Province of Maine, from the Piscataqua to the St. Croix, was absorbed into the Province of Massachusetts Bayas Yorkshire, a name which survives in present day York County.
Maine was much fought over by the French and English during the 17th and early 18th centuries. After the defeat of the French colony of
Acadiaduring the French and Indian War(part of the global struggle between France and Britain that is known overall as the Seven Years War), the territory from the Penobscot Rivereast fell under the nominal authority of the Province of Nova Scotia, and together with present day New Brunswickformed the Nova Scotia County of Sunbury, with its court of general sessions at Campobello.
In the late 1700s, several tracts of land in Maine, then part of Massachusetts, were sold off by lottery. Two tracts of 1,000,000 acres (4,000 km²), one in south-east Maine and another in the west, were bought by a wealthy Philadelphian banker,
William Bingham. This land became known as the Bingham Purchase.http://newenglandtowns.org/maine/franklin-county "Franklin County, Maine", "New England Towns". Retrieved: 11-22-2007]
The American Revolution, the War of 1812, and Maine in the middle
American and British forces contended for Maine's territory during both the
American Revolutionand the War of 1812. In 1775 a British fleet bombarded and destroyed Portland and in 1779 captured Castine. A fleet from Massachusetts (the so-called Penobscot Expedition) attempted to recover Castine but was decimated by the British, with Paul Revereand other survivors sent scrambling into the woods.
With peace, the District of Maine was confirmed to be part of
Massachusettswhen the United States was formed, but the treaty was ambiguous about the boundary between Maine and British North America. This all but guaranteed that Maine would be a battleground in the next war as well.
Maine suffered more in the War of 1812 than anywhere else in New England. British army and naval forces from nearby
Nova Scotiacaptured and occupied the eastern coast from Machias to Castine, and plundered the Penobscot Rivertowns of Hampden and Bangor (see Battle of Hampden). Their intention was to carve off the eastern half of Maine as the new British province of "New Ireland"fact|date=September 2008. Commerce all along the Maine coast was largely stopped - a critical situation for a place so dependent on shipping. Claims to "New Ireland" were dropped in the Treaty of Ghent, but Maine's vulnerability to foreign invasion, and its lack of protection by Massachusetts, were important factors in the post-war momentum for statehood.
tatehood and the Aroostook War
Maine gained its statehood in 1820 as the result of the
Missouri Compromise, in which free northern states approved the statehood of Missouri(as a slave state) in exchange for the statehood of Maine (as a free one). In this manner northern representation remained in balance with southern pro-slavery influence in the Senate.
The still-lingering border dispute with
British North Americacame to head in 1839 when Maine Governor Fairfield declared virtual war on Britain over the incursion of lumbermen from New Brunswickinto northern Maine. Four regiments of Maine militia were mustered in Bangor and marched to the border of British North America, ready for a fight. Known as the Aroostook War, the dispute was settled by Federal intervention before any blood was shed, although the final border between the two countries was not established until the Webster-Ashburton Treatyof 1842.
The passion of the Aroostook War signaled the increasing role lumbering and logging were playing in the Maine economy, particularly in central and eastern sections. Bangor arose as a lumbering boom-town in the 1830s, and a potential demographic and political rival to Portland. Bangor became for a time the largest lumber port in the world, and the site of furious land speculation that extended up the
Penobscot Rivervalley and beyond.
"Industrialization" in 19th century Maine took a number of forms, depending on the region and period. The river valleys, and particularly the
Kennebecand Penobscotbecame virtual conveyor belts for the making of lumber beginning in the 1820s-30s. Logging crews penetrated deep into the Maine Woods in search of pine (and later spruce) and floated it down to sawmills gathered at waterfalls. The lumber was then shipped from ports such as Bangor, Ellsworthand Cherryfieldall over the world.
Partly because of the lumber industry's need for transportation, and partly due to the prevalence of wood and carpenters along a very long coastline,
shipbuildingbecame an important industry in Maine's coastal towns. The Maine merchant marine was huge in proportion to the state's population, and ships and crews from communities such as Bath, Brewer, and Belfast could be found all over the world. The building of very large wooden sailing ships continued in some places into the early 20th century. Cotton textilemills migrated to Maine from Massachusettsbeginning in the 1820s. The major site for cotton textile manufacturing was Lewiston on the Androscoggin River, the most northerly of the Waltham-Lowell systemtowns (factory towns modeled on Lowell, Massachusetts). The twin cities of Biddeford and Saco, as well as Augusta, Waterville, and Brunswick also became important textile manufacturing communities. These mills were established on waterfalls and amidst farming communities as they initially relied on the labor of farm-girls engaged on short-term contracts. In the years after the Civil War they would become magnets for immigrant labor.
Other important 19th century industries included
graniteand slatequarrying, brick-making, shoe-making, and of course fishing, which had been one of Maine's oldest pursuits.
Starting in the early 20th century the
pulp and paper industryinherited the Maine woods and most of the river valleys from the lumbermen, so completely that Ralph Naderwould famously describe Maine in the 1960s as a "paper plantation". Entirely new cities, such as Millinocket and Rumford were established on the upper-most reaches of the large rivers.
For all this industrial development, however, Maine remained a largely agricultural state well into the 20th century, with most of its people living in a myriad of small and widely-separated villages. With short growing seasons, however, along with rocky soil and relative remoteness from markets, Maine agriculture was never as prosperous as that in other states, and the populations of most farming communities peaked in the 1850s, declining steadily thereafter.
Railroads shaped Maine's geography as they did that of most American states. The first railroad in Maine was the
Calais Railroadincorporated by the state legislature on February 17, 1832. ["Railroads and Canals of the United States of America", by Henry V. Poor (New York: John H. Schultz & Co, 1860), page 35. [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=M0YKAAAAIAAJ] It was built to transport lumber from a mill on the Saint Croix River opposite Milltown, New Brunswicktwo miles to the tidewater at Calais in 1835. [http://oldrailhistory.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=78&Itemid=109 (map)] In 1849, the name was changed to the Calais and Baring Railroadand the line was extended four more miles to Baring. ["Railroads and Canals of the United States of America", by Henry V. Poor (New York: John H. Schultz & Co, 1860), pages 21-2. [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=M0YKAAAAIAAJ] In 1870, it became part of the St. Croix & Penobscot Railroad. ["Report on the Agencies of Transportation in the United States 1880" by United States Census Bureau (Washington DC: 1883). [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1880a_v4.zip] ]
The second railroad was the
Bangor & Piscataquis Railroad & Canal Companyincorporated by the legislature on February 18, 1833. ["Railroads and Canals of the United States of America", by Henry V. Poor (New York: John H. Schultz & Co, 1860), page 20. [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=M0YKAAAAIAAJ] It ran eleven miles from Bangor to Oldtown along the west bank of the Penobscot Riverand opened in November, 1836. [http://oldrailhistory.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=60&Itemid=90 (map)] In 1854-55, it was extended 1.5 miles across the Penobscot River to Milford and the name was changed to the Bangor, Oldtown & Milford Railroad Company. In 1869, it was absorbed into the European and North American Railway.
The third railroad in Maine was the
Portland, Saco and Portsmouth Railroad, incorporated by the legislature on March 14, 1837. ["Railroads and Canals of the United States of America", by Henry V. Poor (New York: John H. Schultz & Co, 1860), page 28-9. [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=M0YKAAAAIAAJ] This was a crucial railroad in the development of railroads in Maine because it connected Portland to Boston by connecting to the Eastern Railroad at Kitteryvia a bridge to Portsmouth. This railroad was opened on November 21, 1842 and was 51.34 miles in length. [http://oldrailhistory.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=275&Itemid=311 (map)]
Portland in particular prospered as the terminus of the
Grand Trunkrailroad from Montreal, essentially becoming Canada's winter port. A railroad pushed through to Bangor in the 1850s, and as far as Aroostook Countyin the early 20th century, fostering potato growing as a cash crop. For a complete list of Maine Railroads, both past and present, see .
"Ohio Fever", the California Gold Rush, and westward migration from Maine
Even before the tide of settlement crested in most of Maine, some began to leave for The West. The first large-scale exodus was probably in 1816-17, spurred by the privations of the
War of 1812, an unusually cold summer, and the expansion of settlement west of the Appalachian Mountainsin Ohio. "Ohio Fever" as the lure of the West was initially called, emptied out a number of fledgling Maine communties and stunted the growth of others, even if the overall momentum of settlement had been largely restored by the 1820s, when Maine achieved statehood. [Alan Taylor, "Liberty Men and Great Proprietors" (1990), p. 239. Taylor estimates that "as many as 20,000" left Maine for Ohio an and points West. Nineteenth century estimates usually put the number at 15,000]
As the American frontier continued to expand westward, Mainers were particularly attracted to the forested states of
Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and large numbers brought their lumbering skills and knowledge there. Minnesota was particularly thick with migrants from Maine, including three 19th century Mayors of Minneapolis. [These were Dorilus Morrison(1867-68 & 1869-70), George A. Brackett(1873-74), John deLaittre(1877-78)]
California Gold Rushof 1849 and after was a major boost to the lumber and coastal shipbuilding economies, as building lumber needed to be "shipped around the Horn" from Maine before the establishment of a West Coast sawmilling industry. Maine ships also carried gold-seeking migrants, however, and thus were many Mainers (and aspects of Maine culture, such as lumbering and carpentering) transplanted to California and the Pacific Northwest. Three 19th century Mayors of San Francisco[These were Washington Allan Bartlett(1846-47); Isaac Smith Kalloch(1879-1881), and Maurice Carey Blake(1881-1883)] , two Governors of California[These were Frederick Ferdinand Law(1863-67) and George Clement Perkins(1880-1883)] , a Governor of Oregon[This was Lafayette Grover(1877-1883)] , and two Governors of Washington[These were John McGraw(1893-97) and John Rankin Rogers(1897-1901)] were born in Maine.
Maine in the Civil War
Maine was the first state in the northeast to be captured by the new Republican Party, partly due to the influence of evangelical Protestantism, and partly to the fact that Maine was a frontier state, and thus receptive to the party's "
free soil" platform. Abraham Lincolnchose Maine's Hannibal Hamlinas his first Vice President, and said on meeting Brunswick, Mainenovelist Harriet Beecher Stowe(the author of " Uncle Tom's Cabin"), "so this is the little lady who made this big war". [Michael Hanne, "The Power of the Story: Fiction and Political Change" (1996), p. 75]
Maine was so enthusiastic for the cause that it ended up contributing a larger number of combatants, in proportion to its population, than any other Union state. [William E.S. Whitman & Charles H. True, "Maine in the War for the Union" (Lewiston, Me.: 1865), p. 21] It was second only to
Massachusettsin the number of its sailors who served in the U.S. Navy. Maj. Gen. (then Col.) Joshua L. Chamberlainand the 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regimentplayed a key role at the Battle of Gettysburg, and the 1st Maine Heavy Artillery Regimentlost more men in a single charge (at the Battle of Petersburg) than any Union regiment in the war.
One legacy of the war was Republican Party dominance of state politics for the next half-century and beyond. Moreover, Maine was so reliable a state for the Republicans, and a bellwether at that ("
as Maine goes, so goes the nation" was a familiar phrase) that its politicians enjoyed inordinate national influence. In the 50-year period 1861 to 1911 (when Democrats temporarily swept most state offices) Maine Republicans served as Vice President, Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury (twice), President pre tempore of the Senate, Speaker of the House (twice) and Republican Nominee for the Presidency. This synchronization between the politics of Maine and the nation broke down dramatically in 1936, however, when Maine became one of only two states to vote for the Republican candidate, Alf Landonin Franklin D. Roosevelt's landslide re-election. Maine Republicans remain a force in state politics, but have been marginalized nationally because they are considerably more liberal than the party as a whole. The most nationally-influential Maine Republican of the last quarter-century, Defence Secretary and former Senator William Cohen, served as a cabinet member in a Democratic administration.
Immigration of the Irish, French-Canadians and other minorities
Like much of the rest of the East Coast, Maine experienced a wave of
Irish immigrationin the 19th century, though many came to the state via Canada, and before the potato famine. There was a riot in Bangor between Irish and yankee (nativist) sailors and lumbermen as early as 1834, and a number of early Catholic churches were burned or vandalized in coastal communities, where the Know-Nothing Partybriefly flourished. After the Civil War Maine's Irish-Catholic population began a process of integration and upward mobility that was only complete in the later 20th century.
In the late 19th century, many
French Canadiansalso began migrating to Maine and other New Englandstates from Quebecand New Brunswickin Canada to work in the textile mill cities such as Lewistonand Biddeford. These new arrivals were often forcibly assimilated into Anglo-American culture; notably, children were subjected to corporal punishment for speaking French in schools. In response the French Canadian community in New England determined to preserve some of its cultural norms. This doctrine, like efforts to preserve francophone culture in Quebec, became known as " la Survivance". In recent years the state has sought to address its legacy of intolerance against French Canadians by embracing bilingual signs and actively promoting French Canadian culture in schools and local festivities. :"See also: Quebec diaspora"
Largely because of Irish and French-Canadian immigration, 40% of Maine's population was Catholic by 1900, and the Catholic church ran its own school system in the cities, where almost all Catholics lived. This demographic and its resulting social and political ramifications led to a backlash in the 1920s, as the
Ku Klux Klanformed cells in a number of Maine towns, and contributed to the victory of Republican Gov. Owen Brewsterin 1924. The immigrant population was largely responsible for the steady growth of the Democratic Party, however, which gave Maine a true two-party system in the years after World War II. The election in 1954 of Gov. Edmund Muskie, a Catholic Polish-Americantailor's son from the mill-town of Rumford was a major watershed. The current Governor, John Baldacciis an Italian-Americanfrom Bangor.
Less well-recognized, because they were more culturally assimmilable, were a very large number of English- and Scottish-Canadian immigrants from the
Maritime Provinces. Called with slight derogation Blue Noses, Down Homersor PIs (after Prince Edward Island), this group also included a certain number of African-Canadians.
Maine's natural beauty and proximity to the large East Coast cities made it a major tourist destination as early as the 1850s. Summer resorts such as
Bar Harbor, Sorrento, and Islesborosprung up along the coast, and soon America's wealthiest citizens were building "summer cottages" (actually huge wooden mansions) in what had formerly been shipbuilding and fishing villages. Referred to by natives as "Summer People" or "Cottage people", Maine's seasonal residents not only changed the economy of large areas of the state but its culture, especially when they began staying all year round.
Bush familyand their compound in Kennebunkportare a notable example of this demographic. The Rockefeller familywere conspicuous members of the summer community at Bar Harbor, while the Rooseveltspreferred the remoteness and privacy of Campobello Island, so far east that it was actually in New Brunswick, Canada.
A generally poorer class of summer people - painters and writers - began to create images of the state (particularly its coast) that would come to define it.
De-industrialization and "Vacationland"
By the mid-20th century, the textile industry was establishing itself more profitably in the American South, and some Maine cities began to de-industrialize. Shipbuilding also ceased in all but a few places, notably Bath and its successful
Bath Iron Works, which became a notable producer of naval vessels during the Second World War and after. In recent years, however, even Maine's most traditional industries have been threatened; forest conservation efforts have cut down on logging and restrictions on fisheries have likewise exerted considerable pressure along the coast.
The last "heavy industry" in Maine,
pulp and paperbegan to withdraw in the late 20th century, leaving the future of the Maine Woods an open question.
In response, the state attempted to buttress retailing and service industries, especially those linked to tourism. The term "Vacationland" was added to license plates in the 1960s. More recent tax incentives have encouraged outlet shopping centers such as the cluster at Freeport. More and more urbanites and suburbanites began to visit Maine to enjoy its vast area of relatively unspoiled wilderness, its ski-friendly mountains, and its hundreds of miles of coastline. State and national parks in Maine also became loci of middle-class tourism, especially
Acadia National Parkon Mount Desert Island.
The growth of Portland and areas of southern Maine and the retraction of job opportunities (and population) in the northern and eastern areas of the state led in the 1990s to discussion of "two Maines", with potentially different interests. Portland and certain coastal towns aside, Maine remains the poorest state in the Northeast, ranked 34th in per capita income (2000 census), while neighboring New Hampshire ranked seventh.
In the latter part of the 20th century, the
Maine Lotterywas created, although it was not until 2004 that Maine joined Powerball.
* Maine A History [http://books.google.com/books?id=EcUMAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0 vol.1] , vol2, vol 3, by Louis Clinton Hatch. Published 1919.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=IsYMAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0 The History of Maine.] By John Stevens Cabot Abbott, Edward Henry Elwell. Published 1892.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=XEMlAAAAMAAJ&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 The History of the State of Maine: From Its First Discovery.] By William Durkee Williamson. Published 1832.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=AmSFIvLGjLoC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 History of Brunswick, Topsham, and Harpswell, Maine] Including Ancient Pejebscot. By George Augustus Wheeler and Henry Warren Wheeler. Published 1878.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=dvp8H_OgjNYC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 History of Castine, Penobscot, and Brooksville, Maine] including the ancient settlement of Pentagoet. By George Augustus Wheeler. Published 1875.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=oS_W2WjiXt0C&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 Sketches of the History of the Town of Camden, Maine.] By John Lymburner Locke. Published 1859.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=h4Wy3OQQDioC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 History of Boothbay, Southport and Boothbay Harbor, Maine,] 1623-1905. By Francis Byron Greene.Published 1906.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=uy26pYZRX1kC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 History of Farmington, Maine, from Its First Settlement.] By Thomas Parker. Published 1875.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=UBSLCfFCFcYC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 History of Bath and Environs, Sagadahoc County, Maine, 1607-1894.] By Parker McCobb Reed.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=KpPIaB79Gl0C&pg=PA1&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0#PPR3,M1 The Government of Maine: Its History and Admnistration.] By William MacDonald. Published 1902.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=cVHA1M85mpcC&pg=PA1&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0#PPP13,M1 The Makers of Maine: Essays and Tales of Early Maine History.] By Herbert Edgar Holmes. Published 1912.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=BMn8qeJgpHsC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 Sketches of the Ecclesiastical History of the State of Maine.] By Jonathan Greenleaf. Published 1821.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=-w7D3qa4RBAC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 A History of the Baptists in Maine.] By Joshua Millet. Published 1845.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=VP3Khbt1kDsC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 History of the First Maine Cavalry, 1861-1865.] By Edward Parsons Tobie. Published 1887.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=v-wXxhDO5LUC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 History of Piscataquis County, Maine: From Its Earliest Settlement to 1880.] By Amasa Loring. Published 1880.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=T2klAAAAMAAJ&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 A History of Swan's Island, Maine.] By Herman Wesley Small. Published 1898.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=3X-4t4qKo-IC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 Genealogical and Family History of the State of Maine.] By Henry Sweetser Burrage, Albert Roscoe Stubbs. Published 1909.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=Qwg1AAAAIAAJ&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 The History of Waterford: Oxford County, Maine.] By Henry Pelt Warren, William Warren. Published 1879.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=NfG9QoxISugC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 The History of Sanford, Maine, 1661-1900.] By Edwin Emery, William Morrell Emery. Published 1901.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=TbYXZbZ5eCUC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 History of Rumford, Oxford County, Maine: From Its First Settlement in 1779.] By William Berry Lapham. Published 1890.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=HJJ-YBQRX1kC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 History of the City of Belfast in the State of Maine.] By Joseph Williamson. Published 1877.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=4N7JXxlylYgC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 A History of the Town of Industry: Franklin County, Maine.] By William Collins Hatch. Published 1893.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=QP9CAAAAIAAJ&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 History of the Maine State College and the University of Maine.] By Merritt Caldwell Fernald. Published 1916.
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=sIatbud9ScIC&dq=History+of+Maine&lr=&num=50&as_brr=0&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 The Wadsworth-Longfellow House: Longfellow's Old Home.] By Nathan Goold. Published 1908.
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