- Herodian Dynasty
The Herodian Dynasty was a
Jewish dynastyof Idumean descent, who ruled Iudaea Provincebetween 37 BC - AD 92.
During the time of the
Hasmoneanruler John Hyrcanus, Judea conquered Edom(which the Romans called Idumea) and forced the Edomitesto convert to Judaism.
The Edomites were integrated into the Jewish people. In the days of
Alexander Jannaeusone of them, Antipas, was appointed governor of Edom. Julius Caesarappointed Antipater to be procurator of Judea in 47 BCE and he appointed his sons Phasaeland Herod to be governors of Jerusalemand Galileerespectively.
Antipater was murdered in 43 BCE; however, his sons managed to hold the reins of power and were elevated to the rank of tetrarch in 41 BCE by
Rise to power
In 40 BC the
Parthiansinvaded the Roman eastern provinces and managed to expel the Romans. In Judea the Hasmonean dynasty was restored under king Antigonus. Herod the Great, who was the son of Antipater the Idumeanand Cypros, a Nabataeanprincess, managed to escape to Rome. There he was elected " King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate[ [http://earlyjewishwritings.com/text/josephus/war1.html Jewish War 1] .14.4: Mark Antony" …then resolved to get him made king of the Jews… told them that it was for their advantage in the Parthianwar that Herod should be king; so they all gave their votes for it. And when the senate was separated, Antony and Caesar went out, with Herod between them; while the consul and the rest of the magistrates went before them, in order to offer sacrifices [to the Roman gods] , and to lay the decree in the Capitol. Antony also made a feast for Herod on the first day of his reign."] . However Herod did not fully conquer Judea until 37 BC. He ruled for 34 years.
Herod ruled Judea until 4 BC; at his death his kingdom was divided between his three sons.
Herod Archelaus, son of Herod and Malthace the Samaritan, was given the main part of the kingdom, Judea, Edom and Samaria. He ruled for ten years until 6 AD when he was "banished to Vienne in Gaul, where—according to Dion Cassius Cocceianus, "Hist. Roma," lv. 27—he lived for the remainder of his days." [ [http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=1729&letter=A&search=Herod%20Archelaus#5201 Jewish Encyclopedia: Archelaus: Banishment and Death] ] See also Census of Quirinius. Herod Philip I, son of Herod and his fifth wife Cleopatra of Jerusalem, was given jurisdiction over the northeast part of his father's kingdom; he ruled there until his death in 34. Herod Antipas, another son of Herod and Malthace, was made ruler of the Galileeand Perea; he ruled there until he was exiled to Spainby emperor Caligulain 39. Agrippa Iwas the grandson of Herod; thanks to his friendship with emperor Caligula he was appointed by him as ruler of the territories of Herod Philip after his death in 34, and in 39 he was given the territories of Herod Antipas. In 41 emperor Claudiusadded to his territory the parts of Iudea province that previously belonged to Herod Archelaus. Thus Agrippa re-united his grandfather's kingdom under his rule. He died in 44.
Agrippa IIwas appointed King and ruler of the northern parts of his father's kingdom. He was the last of the Herodians, and with his death in 92 the dynasty was extinct.
In addition some members of the Herodian dynasty were rulers of Chalcis and
Herodian dynasty in later culture
* "Hordos u-Miryam" (1935), a Hebrew novel by
* "Mariamne" (1967), a Swedish novel by
*Herod appears in some cycles of the
Mystery Plays, played as an over the topvillain. Such portrayals were still in folk memory in William Shakespeare's time, for Hamletinstructs the players not to "out-Herod Herod" ( [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Tragedy_of_Hamlet%2C_Prince_of_Denmark/Act_3#Scene_2.__A_hall_in_the_castle. Act 3, Scene 2] ).
* "Marianna" (1565), an Italian drama by
* "Mariam, the Faire Queene of Jewry" (1613) an English drama by
Elizabeth Tanfield Cary
* "Herod and Antipater, with the Death of Faire Mariam" (1622), an English drama by
Gervase Markhamand William Sampson
* "Mariamne" (1636), a French drama by
François Tristan l'Hermite
* "La mort des enfants d’Hérode; ou, Suite de Mariamne" (1639), a French drama by Gathier de Costes de la
* "Herod and Mariamne" (1673), an English drama by
* "La Mariamne" (1696), an Italian opera by
Giovanni Maria Ruggeri(mus.) and Lorenzo Burlini(libr.)
* "Mariamne" (1723), a French drama by
*Herod features in two 18th century French plays on Mariamne, by Nadal and Voltaire.
* "Herodes und Mariamne" (1850), a German drama by
Christian Frederick Hebbel
* "Myriam ha-Hashmonayith" (1891), a Yiddish drama by
* "Tsar Irod I tsaritsa Mariamna" (1893), a Russian drama by
* "Herod and Mariamne" (1938), an English drama by
* "Herod and Mariamne" (1888), an English poem by
* "Mariamne" (1911), an English poem by
Thomas Sturge Moore
* "Mariamne Leaving the Judgment Seat of Herod" (1887), a painting by
John William Waterhouse
* "Herod’s Lament for Mariamne" (1815), an English song by
Isaac Nathan(mus.) and George Byron(libr.)
* "Herodes und Mariamne" (1922), incidental music by
* "Lied der Mariamne (ohne Worte)" (1927), incidental music by
* "La Marianna" (1785), an Italian ballet by
* "Marianne" (1796), a French opera by
Nicolas Dalayrac(mus.) and Benoît-Joseph Marsollier(libr.)
History of ancient Israel and Judah#Roman occupation
* [http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=637&letter=H Jewish Encyclopedia: Herodians]
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