Environmental Science Services Administration
The U. S. Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA) was created in 1965 as part of a reorganization of the
United States Department of Commerce(USDOC). Their mission was to oversee weather and climate operations. In January 1966, ESSA changed the Weather Bureau's name to the National Weather Service(NWS), and the National Data Center was renamed the Environmental Data Service (EDS). These new programs caused a reorganization of the USDOC in 1965 that resulted in the creation of the ESSA to oversee weather and climate operations. In January, 1966 ESSA changed the Weather Bureau’s name to the National Weather Service (NWS), and the National Data Center was renamed the Environmental Data Service (EDS). In 1970 ESSA was reorganized again and it became the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration(NOAA). Its satelliteprogram was launched by NASAin 1958, and ended with the decommissioning of its last satellite in 1977. ESSA served as a complement to the The Television Infrared Observation Satellite Program ( TIROS).
As a complement to the
TIROSprogram, ESSA managed the first operational United States polar orbiting weather satellitesystem, known as the Television Infrared Observation Satellite Program (TIROS). These satellites, known as TIROS 1 through 10, were the first generation of American weather satellites. These early satellites carried low resolution television and infrared cameras. Designed mainly to test the feaseability of weather satellites, TIROS proved to be extremely successful, and paved the way for the later project called the TIROS Operational System (TOS).
Tiros Operational System
The TOS project officially began with the launch of
ESSA-1on February 3, 1966 [http://www.earth.nasa.gov/history/essa/essa1.html] . The ESSA program launched nine satellites from 1966 to 1969, each named with ESSA followed by a number from 1 - 9.
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