__NOTOC__Urban and peri-urban horticulture (UPH) includes all horticultural crops grown for human consumption and ornamental use within and in the immediate surroundings of cities. Although crops have always been grown inside the city, the practice is expanding and gaining more attention. The products of UPH include a large variety of vegetables, cereals, flowers, ornamental trees, aromatic vegetables and mushrooms.
Generally, the types of crops cultivated vary according to the area, influenced by culture and tradition. In cities, short-cycle crops are preferred, while in the surroundings of the city crops with longer cycles are cultivated, for example in orchards.
In summary urban
horticultureis defined as the production, functional use and impact of horticultural crops under urban conditions.
Crops are grown in small gardens or larger fields, using traditional or high-tech and innovative practices. Some new techniques that have been adapted to the urban situation and tackle the main city restrictions are also documented. These include horticultural production on built-up land using various types of substrates (eg. roof top, organic production and hydroponic production), water saving in highly populated areas, the production of pesticide-free vegetables year-round with a low content of heavy metals and human pathogens, and control of wastes and leaching (fertilisers, pesticides, organic matter, water) in the urban environment. Urban and periurban cultivation systems differ from rural systems by their proximity to cities and by the constraints of space, which often lead to greater intensification of production.
* Philippe Tixier and Hubert de Bon. 2006. [http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-103878-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html Ch. 11. Urban Horticulture] in "Cities Farming for the Future - Urban Agriculture for Green and Productive Cities" by René van Veenhuizen (Ed.), International Development Research Centre (Canada)
* [http://www.fao.org/AG/Agp/agpc/doc/hort/hcprog2.htm FAO Urban and Periurban Horticulture (UPH) Programme Area]
* [http://www.puvep.com Periurban Vegetable Project, Philippines]
* [http://www.agrar.hu-berlin.de/struktur/institute/gbw/struktur/ubg Urban Horticulture at Humboldt University Berlin, Germany]
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