1400-1500 in fashion
Fashion in 15th century Europe was characterized by a series of extremes and extravagances, from the voluminous gowns called
houppelandes with their sweeping floor-length sleeves to the revealing doublets and hose of Renaissance Italy. Hats, hoods, and other headdresses assumed increasing importance, and were swagged, draped, jewelled, and feathered.
As Europe continued to grow more prosperous, the urban middle classes, skilled workers, began to wear more complex clothes that followed, at a distance, the fashions set by the elites. National variations in clothing seem on the whole to have increased over the century.Boucher, François: "20,000 Years of Fashion", Harry Abrams, 1966.]
Dominance of the Burgundian court
With England and France mired in the
Hundred Years Warand its aftermath and then the English Wars of the Rosesthrough most of the century, European fashion north of the Alpswas dominated by the glittering court of the Duchy of Burgundy, especially under the fashion-conscious power-broker Philip the Good (ruled 1419-1469). Having added Hollandand Flandersto their dominion, the Dukes of Burgundy had access to the latest fabrics of Italy and the East and to English wool exports through the great trading cities of Brugesand Antwerp. [Parry, "History of Costume", p. 199] Purchases of fabrics through Italian merchants like the two cousins Giovanni Arnolfiniamounted to a noticeable proportion of all government expenditure. [ 2% to the elder Giovanni alone, in 1444-6, p195 National Gallery Catalogues, The Fifteenth Century Netherlandish Paintings, Lorne Campbell, 1998, ISBN 185709171X ] Especially in Florence, where sumptuary laws prevented the citizens from wearing the most luxurious cloths on which the city's fortunes were built, the materials of men's clothing in particular often appear plain in paintings, but contemporaries who understood the difference in grades of cloth very well would have appreciated the beauty and great expense of a very fine grade.Frick, Carole Collier. [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0801869390 Dressing Renaissance Florence: Families, Fortunes, and Fine Clothing.] Johns Hopkins University Press (2002).]
Fabrics and furs
Woolwas the most popular fabric for all classes by far, followed by linenand hemp.Koslin, Désirée, "Value-Added Stuffs and Shifts in Meaning: An Overview and Case-Study of Medieval Textile Paradigms", in Koslin and Snyder, "Encountering Medieval Textiles and Dress", p. 237-240] Wool fabrics were available in a wide range of qualities, from rough undyed cloth to fine, dense broadclothwith a velvety nap; high-value broadcloth was a backbone of the English economy and was exported throughout Europe.Crowfoot, Elizabeth, Frances Prichard and Kay Staniland, "Textiles and Clothing c. 1150 - c. 1450"] Wool fabrics were dyed in rich colours, notably reds, greens, golds, and blues, although the actual blue colour achievable with dyeing with woad(and less frequently indigo) could not match the characteristic rich lapis lazuli pigmentblues depicted in contemporary illuminated manuscripts such as the " Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry". Silk-weaving was well-established around the Mediterranean by the beginning of the century, and figured silks, often silk velvets with silver-gilt wefts, are increasingly seen in Italian dress and in the dress of the wealthy throughout Europe. Stately floral designs featuring a pomegranateor artichokemotif had reached Europe from Chinain the previous century and became a dominant design in the Ottoman silk-producing cities of Istanbuland Bursa, and spread to silk weavers in Florence, Genoa, Venice, Valencia and Sevillein this period. [ [http://www.metmuseum.org/Works_Of_Art/viewOne.asp?dep=20&item=12%2E49%2E8&viewMode=0§ion=description Late 15th century Italian (Venice) Velvet at the Metropolitan Museum of Art] ]
Fur was worn, mostly as a lining layer, by those who could afford it. The grey and white squirrel furs of the Middle Ages,
vairand miniver, went out of style except at court, first for men and then for women; the new fashionable furs were dark brown sableand marten. Toward the end of the century, wild animal furs such as lynxbecame popular. [Favier, Jean, "Gold and Spices: The Rise of Commerce in the Middle Ages", 1998, p. 66] Ermineremained the prerogative and hallmark of royalty.
Contemporary chroniclers identify the source of the fashion for slashing garments (to reveal a lining or full undergarment beneath) to the actions of Swiss soldiers in the aftermath of the
Battle of Grandsonin 1476. [Laver, "Concise History of Costume and Fashion", p. 78] Supposedly the Swiss plundered the rich fabrics of the Burgundian nobles and used the scraps to patch their tattered clothes. In reality, images appear of sleeves with a single slashed opening as early as mid-century, although the German fashion for "many small all-over slits" may have begun here. [Payne, op cit p.241, ] Whatever its origin, the fad for multiple slashings spread to German Landsknechtsand thence to France, Italy, and England, where it was to remain a potent current in fashionable attire into the mid-seventeenth century.
A second result of the defeat at Grandson was the decline of Burgundy as a fount of culture and fashion. The heiress
Mary of Burgundymarried Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperorbut died young. In the last decade of the century, Charles VIII of Franceinvaded Italy and was briefly declared King of Naples. As a result, the French nobility were introduced to the fabrics and styles of Italy, which would combine with German influence to dominate fashion in France (and later, England) in the first half of the sixteenth century. [Laver, "Concise History of Costume and Fashion", chapters 3 and 4 "passim"]
Gown, kirtle, and chemise
Women's fashions of the fifteenth century consisted of a long gown, usually with sleeves, worn over a
kirtleor undergown, with a linen chemise or smock worn next to the skin. The long-waisted silhouette of the previous period was replaced by a high-waisted style with fullness over the belly, often confined by a belt. The wide, shallow scooped neckline was replaced by a V-neck, often cut low enough to reveal the decorated front of the kirtle beneath.
Various styles of overgowns were worn. The "
cotehardie" fitted smoothly from the shoulders to the hips and then flared by means of inserted triangular gores. It featured sleeves tight to the elbow with hanging streamers or "tippets". The tight fit was achieved with lacing or buttons. This style faded rapidly from fashion in favor of the houppelande, a full robe with a high collar and wide sleeves that had become fashionable around 1380 and remained so to mid-century.Payne, Blanche: "History of Costume from the Ancient Egyptians to the Twentieth Century", Harper & Row, 1965.] The later houppelande had sleeves that were snug at the wrist, making a full "bag" sleeve. The bag sleeve was sometimes slashed in the front to allow the lower arm to reach through.
Around 1450, the gown of northern Europe developed a low V-neck that showed a glimpse of the square-necked kirtle. The neckline could be filled in with a sheer linen partlet. Wide turn-backs like revers displayed a contrasting lining, frequently of fur or black velvet, and the sleeves might be cuffed to match. Sleeves were very long, covering half of the hand, and often highly decorated with embroidery. Fine sleeves were often transferred from one dress to another.
In Italy, the low scoop-neck of the early decades gave way to a neckline that was high in front with a lower V-neck at the back at mid-century. This was followed by a V-neckline that displayed the kirtle or "gamurra" (sometimes spelled "camorra"). Sleeveless overgowns were popular, and the gamurra sleeves displayed were often of rich figured silks. A sideless overgown called the "giornea" was also worn with the gamurra or kirtle. Toward the end of the period, sleeves were made in sections or panels and slashed, allowing the full chemise sleeves below to be pulled through in puffs along the arm, at the shoulder, and at the elbow. This was the beginning of the fashion for puffed and slashed sleeves that would last for two centuries.
The "partlet", a sort of separate yoke to fill in a low neckline, appeared in this period, usually of sheer fabric (linen or possibly silk) with an open V-neckline. Burgundian partlets are usually depicted worn under the gown (but over the kirtle); in Italy the partlet seems to have been worn over the gown and could be pointed or cut straight across at the lower front.
Two uniquely Spanish fashions appear from the 1470s. The "verdugada" or "verdugado" was gown with a bell-shaped
hoop skirtwith visible casings stiffened with reeds, which would become the farthingale. The earliest depictions of this garment come from Catalonia, where it is worn with pieced or slashed sleeves and the second new style, a chemise with trumpet sleeves, open and very wide at the wrist.
The sideless surcoat of the 14th century became fossilized as a ceremonial costume for royalty, usually with an ermine front panel (called a "plackard" or "placket") and a mantle draped from the shoulders; it can be seen in variety of royal portraits and as "shorthand" to identify queens in illuminated manuscripts of the period.
Hairstyles and headdresses
A variety of hats and headdresses were worn in Europe in this century.
The "crespine" of Northern Europe, originally a thick hairnet or
snood, had evolved into a mesh of jeweler's work that confined the hair on the sides of the head by the end of the fourteenth century. Gradually the fullness at the sides of head was pulled up to the temples and became pointed, like horns ("à corné").
By mid-century, the hair was pulled back from the forehead, and the crespine, now usually called a "caul", sat on the back of the head. Very fashionable women shaved their foreheads and eyebrows.
Any of these styles could be topped by a padded roll, sometimes arranged in a heart-shape, or a veil, or both.
Veils were supported by wire frames that exaggerated the shape and were variously draped from the back of the headdress or covered the forehead.
Women also wore the chaperon, a draped hat based on the
hoodand liripipe, and a variety of related draped and wrapped turbans.
The most extravagant headdress of Burgundian fashion is the
hennin, a cone or truncated-cone shaped cap with a wire frame covered in fabric and topped by a veil. Later hennins feature a turned-back brim, or are worn over a hood with a turned-back brim [M. Vibbert, "Headdresses of the 14th and 15th Centuries", The Compleat Anachronist, No. 133, SCA monograph series (August 2006)] .
Women of the merchant classes in Northern Europe wore modified versions of courtly hairtyles, with coifs or caps, veils, and
wimples of crisp linen (often with visible creases from ironing and folding). A brief fashion added rows of gathered frills to the coif or veil; this style is sometimes known by the German name "kruseler".Kõhler, "History of Costume"] .
The general European convention of completely covering married women's hair was not accepted in warmer Italy.
Italian women wore their hair very long, wound with ribbons or braided, and twisted up into knots of various shapes with the ends hanging free. The hair was then covered with sheer veils or small caps. Toward the 1480s women wore chin-length sections of hair in loose waves or ripples over the ears (a style that would inspire "vintage" hair fashions in the 1620s and '30s and again in the 1840s and 1850s). Blond hair was considered desirable (by Botticellifor one), and visitors to Venice reported that ladies sat out in the sun on their terraces with their hair spread out around large circular disks worn like hats, attempting to bleach it in the sun. Chemical methods were also used.
tyle gallery - Northern Europe 1400s-1440s
# in a cotehardie. She wears a wired "horned" headdress with a veil. France, 1410-11.
# with a broad collar and a heart-shaped headdress. Her books stress that women should dress appropriately to their station in life, as her own less sumptuous headdress here reflects. [Laura Rinaldi Dufresne, “A Woman of Excellent Character: A Case Study of Dress, Reputation and the Changing Costume of Christine de Pizan in the Fifteenth Century,” Dress 16:2 (1990), 105–117. Depictions after de Pisan's death in 1430 tend to "promote" her socially.]
#. The bee-hive hair above the cap should be ignored, and the striping and quilting in the cap are not seen in older photographs and drawings, where it appears flat and made from one piece of cloth. The clothes on the body are original apart from retouched areas. See J.O. Hand & M. Wolff, Early Netherlandish Painting, p 90-97, National Gallery of Art, Washington(catalogue)/Cambridge UP,1986, ISBN 0521340160]
# wears a linen headdress and a grey gown lined in black fur confined with a belt at the high waist. Her veil is pinned to her cap, and has sharp creases from ironing, Netherlands, 1430.
# wears a horned headdress with a ruffled veil called a "kruseler". Her red gown is lined in grey fur, 1439.
# with fur-lined bag sleeves, Bruges, 1443.
# (likely godmother and mother) wear heart-shaped headdresses with veils and belted, fur-lined gowns open at the fron to display the chemises beneath, Burgundy, 1445-50.
tyle gallery - Northern Europe 1450s-1470s
# shows the hair pulled smoothly back from the face and confined in a caul or early hennin beneath a sheer veil. The gown has a wide V-neckline that shows the dark kirtle beneath and is worn with a wide red belt and a sheer partlet at the neck, Netherlands.
#, Emilia wears the formal ermine-trimmed sideless surcoat that identifies royalty in illuminated manuscripts of this period, 1460.
# in another illustration from Boccaccio wear tall steeple hennins with white veils. A long gown with a train has fur at the cuffs and neckline and is worn with a wide belt, c. 1460.
# in from the same illustration wears a red hood with a long liripipe. Her blue gown is "kirtled" or shortened by poufing it over a belt, c. 1460.
# wears a simple headdress of draped linen and a red gown trimmed with white fur. Note that the sleeve is only attached to the gown at the top, 1467-71.
#, Netherlands, 1478-78.
#, wears a black gown with patterned collar and cuffs and a matching truncated English hennin beneath a sheer veil. ?1470s. [This is one of several extant copies of a work likely from life, between her marriage in 1464 and the death of her husband in 1483; Parry, "History of Costume", shows a brass rubbing dated 1479 with the same style of headdress and neckline.]
tyle gallery - Northern Europe 1480s-1490s
# is portrayed in contemporary dress of 1480. The low front opening now laces over the kirtle or an inserted panel or plackard, and the gown is draped up to reveal the richer fabric of the kirtle skirt.
# of the 1480s are carried looped up to allow walking, displaying the kirtle beneath.
#, the woman wears a pointed hennin with a sheer veil. Her gown is laced across her kirtle, Netherlands, 1485-90.
#, Regent of France, in the ceremonial ermine-trimmed sideless surcoat and mantle of royalty, c. 1490s. The small cap worn with her coronet is a new French fashion of the last decade of the century.
# wears a red velvet front-opening gown lined in ermine. Her hood has black velvet lappets and gold embroidery, 1490s.
# is depicted wearing an embroidered coif or cap decorated with small slashes, with her hair braided down her back underneath. She wears a square-necked gown with flared sleeves, French, 1496-98.
# of this period features a striped veil wrapped over an embroidered padded roll with a jewel, worn over a coif tied under the chin. The portion over the brow is probably a matching "forehead cloth" rather than part of the coif. The loose, square-necked gown of figured silk is worn over a black partlet, French, 1496-98.
tyle gallery - Italy 1400s-1460s
#. The woman on the right wears her hair in a long, thick braid encased in sheer fabric and twisted around her head. Her simple gown laces up the front with a single lace, 1423.
# of mid-century has an obvious waist seam and a skirt pleated to the bodice. The figured underdress has a high front neckline and wide upper sleeves. Hair is lightly covered with a cap and veil twisted into a turban.
# wears a fur-lined red gown with a belt at the high waistline and full slashed sleeves over adark patterned undersleeves gathered to the elbow. Her headdress features a red chaperon, Florence, c. 1440.
# wears her hair wrapped in ribbon, coiled at her ears, and covered with a ruched veil. Her black gown is high necked in front and lower at the back, typical of Italian fashion at this time, and is worn with floral sleeves, probably attached to an underdress, 1465-70.
Bianca Maria Viscontiis depicted as the Virgin Mary with her son Galeazzo as the infant Jesus in this portrait c.1445. She is wearing a high-waisted gown of embroidered gold with tight-fitting sleeves, and her blonde hair is partially covered by a long black veil.
tyle gallery - Italy and Spain 1470s-1490s
# wears sleeves of figured silk with the fashionable pomegranate motif, 1470.
# wears her very long hair in a knot at the back with a tail wrapped in black cord or ribbons. A single braid is studded with pearls, and a long loose lock is looped over the braid. Her neckline is lower and squared, 1478-80.
#, a skirt stiffened with reeds set in casings, that would spread to Italy briefly in the 1480s and '90s [Boucher, "20,000 Years of Fashion"] , and to France and England in the sixteenth century. The flaring chemise sleeves of striped or embroidered fabric are uniquely Spanish at this time, but the small cap and wrapped braid of hair are common to both Spain and Italy.
# features the sheer pointed partlet worn over the gown that was popular in Italy at this time. This woman wears a small cap with a brim on the back of her head; it ties under her chin.
# wears a V-necked, high-waisted gown with hanging sleeves over a floral silk gamurra with a square neckline. Her cap is of the same floral silk. Siena, c. 1490.
#Two Venetian ladies with blonde frizzy hair and caps. The very high waist is typical of Venice. Note the "
chopines" or platform shoes to the left. As with other similar pictures, historians argue as to whether these are patrician ladies or courtesans.
# in her crown wears an overgown with long hanging sleeves over pieced and jewelled undersleeves and a gold brocade kirtle. Her companion (probably her daughter Juana or Joanna) wears undersleeves fastened up the back over full chemise sleeves. Her red gown is open from the waist down in back and has very long hanging sleeves, one of which is looped up over her right shoulder. Her hair is braided and wrapped with a knot or tassel at the end. Spain, 1490-95.
# wears her long hair smoothed over her ears and pulled back into a braid. Her sleeves are tied to her gown, and the chemise beneath is pulled out in puffs between the ribbon ties. The puffs and the lower waist would be important fashion trends in the next decades.
hirt, doublet, and hose
The basic costume of men in this period consisted of a shirt, doublet, and hose, with some sort of overgown.
Linen shirts were worn next to the skin. Toward the end of the period, shirts (French "
chemise", Italian "camicia", Spanish "camisa") began to be full through the body and sleeves with wide, low necklines; the sleeves were pulled through the slashings or piecing of the doublet sleeves to make puffs, especially at the elbow and the back of the arm. As the cut of doublets revealed more fabric, wealthy men's shirts were often decorated with embroideryor applied braid.
Over the shirt was worn a doublet. From around the mid-century very tight-fitting doublets, belted or tailored to be tight at the waist, giving in effect a short skirt below, were fashionable, at least for the young. Sleeves were generally full, even puffy, and when worn with a large chaperon, the look was extremely stylish, but very top-heavy. Very tight hose, and long pointed shoes or thigh-boots gave a long attenuated appearance below the waist, and a chunky, solid one above. The doublet was often elaborately pleated, especially at the back, the pleats being achieved by various means. In Italy both shirt and doublet were often high, tight and collarless at the front of the neck; sometimes they are shown higher at the front than the back.
Men of all classes wore short "braies" or breeches, a loose undergarment, usually made of linen, which was held up by a belt. Hose or
chaussesmade out of wool were used to cover the legs, and were generally brightly colored. Early hose sometimes had leather soles and were worn without shoes or boots. Hose were generally tied to the breech belt, or to the breeches themselves, or to a doublet.
As doublets became shorter, hose reached to the waist rather than the hips, and were sewn together into a single garment with a pouch or flap to cover the front opening; this evolved into the
The hose exposed by short tops were, especially in Italy late in the century, often strikingly patterned, parti-coloured (different colours for each leg, or vertically divided), or embroidered. Hose were cut on the cross-grain or bias for stretch.
Gowns and outerwear
Houppelande, in Italy called the "cioppa", is the characteristic overgarment of the wealthy in the first half of the 15th century.Laver, "Concise History of Costume and Fashion"] . It was essentially a gown with fullness falling from the shoulders in organ pleats [Parry, "History of Costume"] and very full sleeves often reaching to the floor with, at the start of the century, a high collar. The houppelande could be lined in fur, and the hem and sleeves might be dagged or cut into scallops. It was initially often worn belted, but later mostly hanging straight. The length of the garment shortened from around the ankle to above the knee over this period. The floor-length sleeves were later wrist-length but very full, forming a bag or sack sleeve, or were worn off the arm, hanging ornamentally behind.
A sideless overgown or
tabard, called a "giornea" in Italy and a "journade" in France [Boucher, François: "20,000 Years of Fashion", p, 197] , was popular. It was usually pleated and was worn hanging loose or belted. Young men wore them short and older men wore them calf- or ankle-length.
The middle of the century in Burgundy saw what seems to have been the earliest occurrence of the male fashion for dressing all in black, which was to reappear so strongly in the "Spanish" style of the mid-16th–17th century and again in the 19th–20th centuries. This was apparently begun by Duke
Philip the Good. [Anne Hollander, "Seeing through Clothes",1978, The Viking Press,ISBN 0380487772]
Venice, the patrician class, after the age of joining the Great Council, wore their long red robes as a uniform virtually unchanged throughout the century. In contrast, the young men and the famous courtesans of the city dressed very extravagantly.
In the last decades of the century, a new style of
gownappeared; this was of various lengths, generally worn unbelted, and featured wide turned back revers and collar. [Parry, "History of Costume", p. 219-20]
Short or long
cloaks or mantles were worn overall for ceremonial occasions and in bad weather; these typically fastened on one shoulder.
Early in the century, the hood remained a common component of dress for all classes, although it was frequently worn around the neck as a cowl or twisted into the fantastical shapes of the chaperon.
Hats of various styles—tall-crowned with small brims or no brims at all, or low-crowned with wider brims pulled to a point in front—began to compete with the draped chaperon, especially in Italy. [Laver, "Concise History of Costume and Fashion"] A brimless scarlet cap became nearly universal for young Florentines in particular, and was widely worn by older men and those in other cities.
In mid-century, a bowl haircut with the hair shaved at the back of the neck was stylish. In Germany, and briefly in Venice, a wide shock of frizzy blond hair was often seen on images of lovers (and angels) in the later part of the century - less often in portraits. By the end of the century, shoulder-length hair became fashionable, a trend that would continue into the early 16th century.
tyle gallery 1400-1450
# on the left wears a long figured houppelande with full sleeves lined in fur, while the men of his household wear short solid-coloured gowns with parti-coloured or matching hose. Several of the men wear hoods around their necks, and some wear hats. France, "Livre de Chasse", 1405-10.
# (d. 1419), Duke of Burgundy and father of Philip the Good, wears a fur-lined black houppelande with high neck and dagged sleeves over a red doublet. His bag-shaped hat has a rolled brim and is decorated with a jewel. Early 15th century.
# wears a draped chaperon and a dark gown over a reddish doublet. Note the characteristic high front neckline compared to the back neckline, Florence, 1425.
# worn in elaborate twists, 1433.
# wears a bold floral patterned gown with fur trim and bag sleeves. The "bowl" haircut with the back of the neck shaved was popular in mid-century.
# worn with braies and tied to a belt, 1440.
# of a knee-length Italian "cioppa" or houppelande of figured silk. One sleeve is turned back to the shoulder to reveal the lining and the doublet sleeve beneath. Sienna, 1442.
#, Duke of Burgundy, wears an elaborately draped chaperon with a black-on-black figured silk short gown with width at the shoulder, 1447-48.
tyle gallery 1450-1500
# of the conjoined hose of the fifteeth century. The man on the right has slashed undersleeves. Note V-shaped back neckline, 1460s.
# Short doublet, heavily pleated, with chaperon and thigh boots.
# around his neck, 1467-70.
# (right) wears a long floral patterned gown, while his attendants wear very short doublets with hose. All wear long pointed shoes, France, 1468-70.
# are worn with a sideless gown belted at the waist. Italy, c. 1470.
# wears the high collarless Italian style at the neck, 1478.
# wears an open gown fastened across his chest with pairs of ribbon ties. Beneath the gown he wears a brown velvet doublet with sleeves buttoned to the wrist. Bruges, 1487.
During most of the fifteenth century, both men and women wore narrow shoes with pointed toes. Very long pointed shoes, called "
poulaines" or "crackowes" (after their reputed Polish origin), were popular early in the period. [Laver, "Concise History of Costume", pages 71-72] . They stayed in fashion longer in Northern Europe. Pattens, or wooden clogs with cloth straps over the instep, were worn over poulaines and other soft shoes outdoors and in public areas (see picture below and ). A blunt toed-shoe began to appear in the last decades of the century.
# wears ankle-high shoes over hose rolled at the knee. Working-class shoes changed only slowly over the centuries. C. 1450
# costume features ankle-high shoes with a natural toe. The man on the right wears pattens, 1475-80.
#, son of Philip III of Burgundy, wears a gold floral figured short gown, black hose, and pointed shoes with pattens underneath, and a "pudding-basin" haircut 1447-48.
# holding a teething ring wears a short gown with a sash and open-toed shoes, Italy, 1461.
# wear the family colours with parti-coloured hose with ornamental points (laces).
# a banker's daughter of Bruges [Miller, I: "Miraculous childbirth and the Portinari altarpiece", "The Art Bulletin", June 1, 1995, online at http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-17239634.html; retrieve 3/19/2007] wears a green gown laced up the front with a single lace over a dark kirtle. Her hair is worn loose under a black cap with a pendant jewel, Netherlands, 1476-78.
Working class clothing
# wear looser gowns belted at the waist while younger men wear fashionable short gowns fitted through the body and belted at the hip. The higher-ranking figures wear less practical clothes and chaperons, "Livre de Chasse".
# in linen braies and shirt, "Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry".
#. She wears a black hood with a long liripipe and a scrip or bag at her waist. He wears a floppy black hat tied under the chin, "Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry".
# work barefoot and wear their kirtles looped up over long-sleeved linen smocks, "Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry".
# on a dock wear short gowns with hats, Italy, 1437.
# in well-worn and basic versions of the clothes of the more prosperous.
# showing fastening of the hose to the short doublet by means of points or ties, 1475-80.
#s wear open-fronted, slashed doublets and hose divided into upper and lower sections, 1494.
* [http://www.metmuseum.org/Works_Of_Art/viewOne.asp?dep=20&item=12%2E49%2E8&viewMode=0§ion=description Late 15th century Italian (Venice) Velvet at the Metropolitan Museum of Art]
* [http://www.renaissancewoman.net/realmofvenus/seamstress/figuredfabrics.htm 15th and 16th century figured textiles at Renaissance Woman]
* [http://www.uvm.edu/~hag/sca/15th/ 15th Century Female Flemish Dress: A Portfolio of Images, by Hope Greenberg]
* [http://www.florentine-persona.com/femflorence.html Women's Clothing in 15th Century Florence]
* [http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/flemish/theme_1a.html Burgundian wedding c1470, from the Getty]
* [http://cadieux.mediumaevum.com/burgundian-reference.html Burgundian women's dress] including [http://cadieux.mediumaevum.com/burgundian-hennin.html Images of Burgundian hennins]
* [http://www.florentine-persona.com/menflorence.html Men's clothing in 15th century Florence]
* [http://www.personal.utulsa.edu/~marc-carlson/cloth/glossary.html Glossary of some medieval clothing terms]
* [http://cleftlands.case.edu/BurgundianCostume.pdf Article on Burgundian women's dress]
*Black, J. Anderson, and Madge Garland: "A History of Fashion", 1975, ISBN 0-6880-2893-4
*Boucher, François: "20,000 Years of Fashion", Harry Abrams, 1966
*Crowfoot, Elizabeth, Frances Prichard and Kay Staniland, "Textiles and Clothing c. 1150 -c. 1450", Museum of London, 1992, ISBN 0-1129-0445-9
*Favier, Jean, "Gold and Spices: The Rise of Commerce in the Middle Ages", London, Holmes and Meier, 1998, ISBN 0841912327
*Kõhler, Carl: "A History of Costume", Dover Publications reprint, 1963, from 1928 Harrap translation from the German, ISBN 0-4862-1030-8
*Koslin, Désirée and Janet E. Snyder, eds.: "Encountering Medieval Textiles and Dress: Objects, texts, and Images", Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0-3122-9377-1
*Laver, James: "The Concise History of Costume and Fashion", Abrams, 1979
*Payne, Blanche: "History of Costume from the Ancient Egyptians to the Twentieth Century", Harper & Row, 1965. No ISBN for this edition; ASIN B0006BMNFS
*Newman, Paul B.: "Daily Life in the Middle Ages"
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History of Western fashion — Overview of fashion from The New Student s Reference Work, 1914 … Wikipedia
Late medieval philosophy, 1350–1500 — Zénon Kaluza INTRODUCTION No fact in philosophical or other history underlies the commonlymade division of fourteenth century philosophy around the year 1350, except perhaps the Black Death of 1348–9, which overcame the Oxford masters and… … History of philosophy
List of fashion topics — This is a list of topics related to fashion, many of which do not yet have Wikipedia articles. NOTOC 0 9 1300 1400 in fashion 1500 1550 in fashion 1600 1650 in fashion 1700 1750 in fashion 1795 1820 in fashion 20th century fashion A A line A line … Wikipedia
History of clothing and textiles — Ladies making silk, early 12th century painting by Emperor Huizong of Song (a remake of an 8th century original by artist Zhang Xuan), illustrates silk fabric manufacture in China. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and … Wikipedia
Women in the Middle Ages — Christian convents in the Middle Ages provided women one alternative to married life. Women in the Middle Ages occupied a number of different social roles. Women in the Middle Ages, a period of European history from around the 5th century to the… … Wikipedia
Culture of Europe — The culture of Europe might better be described as a series of overlapping cultures. Whether it is a question of North as opposed to South; West as opposed to East; Orthodoxism as opposed to Protestantism as opposed to Catholicism; many have… … Wikipedia
Hennin — Hans Memling, Young woman in a conical hennin with black velvet lappets or brim and a sheer veil, from the Allegory of True Love, 1485–90. The hennin (pronounced /ˈhɛnɨn/) was a headdress in the shape of a cone or steeple , or truncated cone worn … Wikipedia
Houppelande — A houppelande or houpelande is an outer garment, with a long, full body and flaring sleeves, that was worn by both men and women in Europe in the late Medieval period. Sometimes the houppelande was lined with fur. The garment was later worn by… … Wikipedia
Europe, history of — Introduction history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present. Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates.… … Universalium
painting, Western — ▪ art Introduction history of Western painting from its beginnings in prehistoric times to the present. Painting, the execution of forms and shapes on a surface by means of pigment (but see also drawing for discussion of depictions in … Universalium