Thripidae

Taxobox
name = Thripidae


image_caption = Pear Thrip adult
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Arthropoda
classis = Insecta
ordo = Thysanoptera
subordo = Terebrantia
familia = Thripidae
familia_authority = Stevens, 1829
subdivision_ranks = Subfamilies
subdivision =
Dendrothripinae

Panchaetothripinae

Sericothripinae

Thripinae

The Thripidae are the most speciose family of thrips, with over 290 genera representing just over two thousand species [Mound, L. A. 2002. So many thrips – so few tospoviruses?, pp. 15 - 18. In L. A. Mound and R. Marullo [eds.] , Thrips and Tospoviruses: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Thysanoptera. CSIRO Entomology, Reggio Calabria, Italy.] . They can be distinguished from other thrips by a saw-like ovipositor curving downwards, narrow wings with two veins, and antennae of six to ten antennomeres with stiletto-like forked sense cones on antennal segments III and IV [Mound, L. A. 1998. Thysanoptera: an identification guide. CAB International, Oxon, New York.] . They are considered to be among the more derived of thrips, having evolved many traits key to specializing as cryptophilous phytovores, living in the narrow spaces at the bases of leaves and within flowers [Gentile, A. G., and S. F. Bailey. 1968. A revision of the genus Thrips Linnaeus in the New World, with a catalogue of world species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). University of California Press, Berkely, CA.] [Lewis, T. 1973. Thrips. Their biology, ecology and economic importance. Academic Press, London, GB.] . It should be noted that many of the divisions within the Thripidae are not based on common ancestry, but are instead based on common environment and morphological homoplasy, and that these distinctions tend to be irrelevant to true phylogenetic relationships [Mound, L. A., and D. C. Morris. 2004. Thysanoptera Phylogeny – the Morphological Background. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica 39: 101 - 113.] . As a result, many species of the Thripidae have undergone recent drastic taxonomic revision, splitting and promoting two tribes, Dendrothripini and Sericothripini, to subfamily status [Moritz, G., D. C. Morris, and L. A. Mound. 2001. Thrips ID: an interactive identification and information system (CD), Pest thrips of the world. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.] , with the possibility of greater reorganizations to come as modern phylogenetic methods and a more comprehensive morphological analysis provide additional evidence defining evolutionary relationships [Grimaldi, D., A. Shmakov, and N. Fraser. 2004. Mesozoic Thrips, and early evolution of the Order Thysanoptera (Insecta). Journal of Paleontology 78: 941 - 952.] . This revision is probably necessary, as more than half of the genera in family Thripidae are monobasic, with the majority of monotypic species concentrated in subfamily Thripinae [Mound, L. A. 2005. Thysanoptera: diversity and interactions. Annual Review of Entomology 50: 247 - 269.] .

Family Thripidae also includes many pest species, such as the following prominent in recent literature:

* "Limothrips"
** "pecerealium" - Grain thrips
** "denticornis" - Rye thrips
* "Thrips
** "meridionalis" - Pea thrips
** "tabaci" - Onion thrips
** "palmi" - Melon thrips
** "angusticeps"
* "Frankliniella"
** "robusta"
** "occidentalis" - Western Flower thrips
** "bispinosa" - Florida Flower thrips
** "fusca" - Tobacco thrips
** "schultzei" - Blossom thrips
* "Taeniothrips inconsequens" - Pear thrips
* "Scirtothrips"
** "dorsalis" = Chili thrips
** "perseae" - Avocado thrips

The western flower thrips, "Frankliniella occidentalis", has recently expanded its range from Western North America to large portions of Europe and Asia through the trade of greenhouse plants. [William D. J. Kirk, L. Irene Terry (2003). The spread of the western flower thrips "Frankliniella occidentalis" (Pergande). Agricultural and Forest Entomology 5 (4): 301–310. [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046%2Fj.1461-9563.2003.00192.x] ]

The Chilli thrips, "Scirtothrips dorsalis", is an Asian pest on many crops, including chili pepper, roses, strawberry, tea, ground nuts, and castor.

ystematics

The Thripidae are ordered into four subfamilies:

* Dendrothripinae Priesner, 1925 (16 genera)
* Panchaetothripinae Bagnall, 1912 (38 genera)
* Sericothripinae Karny, 1921 (11 genera)
* Thripinae Stephens, 1829 (227 genera)

Further reading

* Hoddle, M.S. & Mound, L.A. (2003). The genus "Scirtothrips" in Australia (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae). "Zootaxa" 268:1-40. [http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2003f/zt00268.pdf PDF]

References

ee also

Thrips

External links

* [http://anic.ento.csiro.au/worldthrips/taxon_details.asp?BiotaID=763 Thrips of the World Checklist: Family Thripidae]
* [http://www.cfl.scf.rncan.gc.ca/collections-cfl/insects/genclass/thy_thripidae.html Pictures of "Taeniothrips inconsequens" from Canada]
* [http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN638 Chilli Thrips (castor thrips, Assam thrips, yellow tea thrips, strawberry thrips), "Scirtothrips dorsalis" Hood, Provisional Management Guidelines]
* [http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/orn/thrips/greenhouse_thrips.htm greenhouse thrips] on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site
* [http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/orn/thrips/gladiolus_thrips.htm gladiolus thrips] on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site
* [http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/orn/thrips/redbanded_thrips.htm redbanded thrips] on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site
* [http://creatures.ifas.ufl.edu/veg/melon_thrips.htm melon thrips] on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site


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