- Beatles for Sale
Name = Beatles for Sale
Type = studio
Released = 4 December 1964
Recorded = EMI Studios,
London11—14 August and 29 September—26 October 1964
Folk rock, country rock, rock and roll
Length = 33:26
PMC 1240 (mono)
PCS 3062 (stereo)
CDP 7 46438 2
AllmusicRating|5|5 [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=Adq63tr29kl4x link]
*"Q" Rating|4|5 [http://www.q4music.com/nav?page=q4music.artist.review&fixture_review=117562&fixture_artist=144975 link]
Last album = "A Hard Day's Night"
This album = "Beatles for Sale"
Next album = "Help!"
Misc = Extra album cover 2
Upper caption = Alternative cover
Type = studio
Lower caption = Cover of the original Australian LP (released February 1965). The album was released with this cover until the album was released on
compact discin 1988.
"Beatles for Sale" is
The Beatles' fourth album, released in late 1964 and produced by George Martinfor Parlophone. The album marked a minor turning point in the evolution of Lennon and McCartney as lyricists, Lennon particularly now showing interest in composing songs of a more autobiographical nature. "I'm a Loser" shows Lennon for the first time seemingly coming under the influence of Bob Dylan[ according to leading The Beatles archivist Mark Lewisohn(see "Complete Beatles Chronicle, p.168")] having met him for the first time in New York while on tour on August 28, 1964. [see "Paul McCartney - Many Years From Now" by Barry Miles)]
In the United States, the tracks on "Beatles for Sale" were first released on the Capitol albums "
Beatles '65" and " Beatles VI".
Only 6 days separate the last full band session for "A Hard Day's Night" (Tuesday 2 June) and the first for "Beatles for Sale". Prior to the new recording sessions, the band toured Australia and New Zealand (after a two-show night in Hong Kong), played concerts in the Netherlands, Denmark and Sweden and made several television, radio and live concert appearances in the UK. It was "inevitable that the constant grind of touring, writing, promoting, and recording would grate on The Beatles" (Allmusic), leading to the inclusion of several
cover versions after the all-original "A Hard Day's Night"; the band's visible weariness on the album's cover is noted by narrator Malcolm McDowellduring " The Compleat Beatles". Yet during these sessions they were still capable of recording the single " I Feel Fine" and its B-side, " She's a Woman" (both not in this album), both songs of considerable quality and interest. There is a strong country influence on songs like " I Don't Want to Spoil the Party" and " I'm a Loser". Gram Parsonshas noted The Beatles strong country influence on "I Don't Want to Spoil the Party" noting that country rock was popularized in 1967.
"Beatles for Sale" and its modified U.S. counterparts, "
Beatles '65" and " Beatles VI", each reached number one on the charts in their respective countries, with the former taking over from "A Hard Day's Night" in the United Kingdom.
26 February 1987, "Beatles for Sale" was officially released on CD, as were three other of The Beatles' albums, " Please Please Me", " With The Beatles" and "A Hard Day's Night". Almost 23 years after its original release, the album charted in the United Kingdomfor a fortnight in 1987. Having been available only as an import in the US in the past, the album was also issued domestically in the US on LP and cassette on July 21, 1987. Even though this album was recorded on four-track tape, the CD version as well as the US vinyl and cassette versions are available only in mono.
Writing and recording
When "Beatles for Sale" was being recorded,
Beatlemaniawas just past its peak; in early 1964, The Beatles had made waves with their television appearances in the United States, sparking unprecedented demand for their records. "Beatles for Sale" was The Beatles' fourth album in 21 months. Recording for the album began on August 11, just one month after the release of "A Hard Day's Night", following on the heels of several tours. Much of the production on the album was done on "off days" from performances in the UK, and most of the songwriting was done in the studio itself.
Most of the album's recording sessions were completed in a three-week period beginning on
September 29. The Beatles' producer George Martin recalled: "They were rather war-weary during "Beatles for Sale". One must remember that they'd been battered like mad throughout '64, and much of '63. Success is a wonderful thing, but it is very, very tiring."
Even the prolific
Lennon/McCartneysongwriting team could not keep up with the demand for their songs, and with a targeted deadline of Christmas to meet, the band resorted to recording several cover versions for the album. This had been their mode of operation for their first albums but had been abandoned for the all-original "A Hard Day's Night". The album included six covers, the same number as their first two albums. McCartney recalled: "Recording "Beatles for Sale" didn't take long. Basically it was our stage show, with some new songs." Indeed, three of the cover tunes were recorded in a total of five takes in one session on October 18.
"Beatles for Sale" featured eight original Lennon and McCartney works. At this stage in their collaboration, Lennon's and McCartney's songwriting was highly collaborative; even when songs had a primary author the other would often contribute key parts, as with "No Reply" where McCartney provided a middle-eight for what was otherwise almost entirely a Lennon song.
In 1994, McCartney described the songwriting process he and Lennon went through:
We would normally be rung a couple of weeks before the recording session and they'd say, 'We're recording in a month's time and you've got a week off before the recordings to write some stuff.' ...so I'd go out to John's every day for the week, and the rest of the time was just time off. We always wrote a song a day, whatever happened we always wrote a song a day.... Mostly it was me getting out of
London, to John's rather nice, comfortable Weybridgehouse near the golf course.... So John and I would sit down, and by then it might be one or two o'clock, and by four or five o'clock we'd be done.
Abbey Road Studios
The recording of "Beatles for Sale" took place at
Abbey Road Studiosin London. The Beatles had to share the studio with classical musicians, as McCartney would relate in 1988: "These days you go to a recording studio and you tend to see other groups, other musicians . . . you'd see classical sessions going on in 'number one.' We were always asked to turn down because a classical piano was being recorded in 'number one' and they could hear us." George Harrison recalled that the band was becoming more sophisticated about recording techniques: "Our records were progressing. We'd started out like anyone spending their first time in a studio — nervous and naive and looking for success. By this time we'd had loads of hits and were becoming more relaxed with ourselves, and more comfortable in the studio...we were beginning to do a little overdubbing, too, probably to a four-track."
Recording was completed on
October 18. The band participated in several mixing and editing sessions before completing the project on November 4; the album was rushed into production and released exactly a month later. The Beatles' manager Neil Aspinalllater reflected: "No band today would come off a long US tour at the end of September, go into the studio and start a new album, still writing songs, and then go on a UK tour, finish the album in five weeks, still touring, and have the album out in time for Christmas. But that's what the Beatles did at the end of 1964. A lot of it was down to naivety, thinking that this was the way things were done. If the record company needs another album, you go and make one."
The opening three tracks, "No Reply", "
I'm a Loser" and " Baby's in Black", are sometimes referred to as the "Lennon Trilogy," as Lennon was the chief writer of all three tracks. Unusual for pop music at the time, each one has a sad or resentful emotion attached to it. This opening sequence set the sombre overall mood of the album, revisited in another Lennon tune, " I Don't Want to Spoil the Party", which, "consistent in tone with 'No Reply,' ' I'm a Loser', and ' Baby's in Black,'" according to Allmusic, "finds the singer showing up at a party only to find that the girl he expected to find isn't there."
According to Lennon in 1972, The Beatles' music publisher
Dick Jameswas quite pleased with "No Reply":
Dick Jamescoming up to me after we did this one and saying, 'You're getting better now — that was a complete story.' Apparently, before that, he thought my songs wandered off.
David Rowleyfound its lyrics to "read like a picture story from a girl's comic," and to depict the picture "of walking down a street and seeing a girl silhouetted in a window, not answering the telephone."
"I'm a Loser"
Allmusic singled out "I'm a Loser" as "one of the very first The Beatles compositions with lyrics addressing more serious points than young love." (cf.
There's a Place)
Rowley found it to be an "obvious copy of
Bob Dylan," as where Lennon refers to the listener as a 'friend', Dylan does the same on "Blowin in the Wind". He also said its intention was to "openly subvert the simple true love themes of their earlier work."
"Baby's in Black"
Although "Baby's in Black", which Allmusic described as "a love lament for a grieving girl that was perhaps more morose than any previous The Beatles song," was, as described by some, as mostly Lennon's work, it was written in the same room with McCartney, who contributed a harmony to it. Others therefore dispute that the song was mostly Lennon's work and claim that Lennon and McCartney were equally responsible for the song's composition; a claim that might be supported by the fact that both Lennon and McCartney shared lead vocal duties.
McCartney considered the "Beatles for Sale" sessions to be the beginning of a more mature phase for the band:
We got more and more free to get into ourselves. Our student selves rather than 'we must please the girls and make money', which is all that "From Me to You", "Thank You Girl", "P. S. I Love You!" is about. "Baby's in Black" we did because we liked waltz-time ... and I think also John and I wanted to do something bluesy, a bit darker, more grown-up, rather than just straight pop.
"Every Little Thing"
The dark theme of the album was balanced by "Every Little Thing," a "celebration of what a wonderful girl the guy has," according to Allmusic, that appeared later in the album and had been written as an attempt for a single, according to McCartney:
'Every Little Thing', like most of the stuff I did, was my attempt at the next single ... but it became an album filler rather than the great almighty single. It didn't have quite what was required.
"Eight Days a Week"
"Eight Days a Week" is noteworthy as one of the first examples of the in-studio experimentation that the band would use extensively in the future; in two recording sessions totalling nearly seven hours on
October 6devoted exclusively to this song, Lennon and McCartney tried one technique after another before settling on the eventual arrangement. Each of the first six takes of the song featured a strikingly different approach to the beginning and ending sections of the song; the eventual chiming guitar-based introduction to the song would be recorded in a different session and edited in later. The final version of the song incorporated another The Beatles first and pop music rarity: The song begins with a fade in as a counterpoint to pop songs which end in a fade out.
"I'll Follow the Sun"
"I'll Follow the Sun" was a reworking of an old song; it had originally been written when McCartney was a youth, as he related in 1988:
I wrote that in my front parlour in Forthlin Road. I was about 16.... We had this hard R&B image in
Liverpool, so I think songs like "I'll Follow the Sun", ballads like that, got pushed back to later.
AMG argued that although the song was "sometimes described as a ballad because of its light and mild nature, it's actually taken at a pretty brisk tempo."
Other McCartney songs on the album included "What You're Doing," which implored the singer's girl to "stop your lying." Although "Eight Days a Week" and "What You're Doing" are well-regarded by many fans, they were regarded negatively by their creators; McCartney dismissed "What You're Doing" as "a bit of filler.... Maybe it's a better recording than it is a song...", while Lennon referred to "Eight Days a Week" in a 1980 interview with "
Playboy" magazine as "lousy". In 1972, Lennon revealed that "Eight Days a Week" had been made with the goal of being the theme song for the "Help!" movie:
I think we wrote this when we were trying to write the title song for 'Help!' because there was at one time the thought of calling the film "Eight Arms To Hold You".
The remainder of the album consisted of cover versions, several of which had been staples of The Beatles' live shows years earlier, especially in
Hamburg, Germanyand at The Cavernin Liverpool, the United Kingdom. The band, which in the previous year had grown weary of performing for screaming audiences, followed the contemporary standard industry practice of including covers in order to maintain an expected level of productivity which many later artists would consider excessive. Q found the album title to hold a "hint of cynicism" in depicting The Beatles as a "product" to be sold. Nevertheless, Allmusic said, "the weariness of "Beatles for Sale" comes as something of a shock."
However, even in a somewhat weakened state the Beatles created an album some critics such as Allmusic found to be a stepping stone "from Merseybeat to the sophisticated pop/rock they developed in mid-career." Some of the cover versions on the album included
Chuck Berry's " Rock and Roll Music", Buddy Holly's "Words of Love", and two Carl Perkinstunes: "Everybody's Trying to Be My Baby", sung by Harrison, and "Honey Don't", sung by Ringo Starr. Starr recalled: "We all knew "Honey Don't"; it was one of those songs that every band in Liverpool played ... that's why we did it on "Beatles for Sale". It was comfortable. And I was finally getting one track on a record: my little featured spot."
Many critics panned the cover version of "Mr. Moonlight", and Allmusic went as far to call it Lennon's "beloved obscurity" that wound up as "arguably the worst thing the group ever recorded." "Q" magazine agreed, calling "Mr. Moonlight" "appalling." Rowley noted that the original by Dr Feelgood and the Interns was "hardly outstanding" too. (A cover of
Little Willie John's "Leave My Kitten Alone", recorded at the same session, was rejected for the finished album but much more highly regarded by fans and critics; it was widely bootlegged before seeing official release on 1995's " Anthology 1" compilation.)
The recording of the medley of "Kansas City" and "Hey, Hey, Hey, Hey" was memorable for McCartney, who in 1984 said that it required "a great deal of nerve to just jump up and scream like an idiot." His efforts were egged on by Lennon, who "would go, 'Come on! You can sing it better than that, man! Come on, come on! Really throw it!'" The song was inspired by
Little Richard, who combined "Kansas City" with his own composition, "Hey, Hey, Hey, Hey", but Rowley found the lead vocals "strained" and considered it McCartney's "weakest Little Richard cover version" (although McCartney only recorded one other Little Richard cover, "Long Tall Sally," while with The Beatles). The original LP sleeve listed the song as "Kansas City" (Leiber & Stoller). After the attorneys for Venice Music complained, the record label was revised to read "Medley: (a) Kansas City (Leiber/Stoller) (P)1964 Macmelodies Ltd./KPM. (b) Hey, Hey, Hey, Hey (Penniman) Venice Mus. Ltd. (P)1964."
"Beatles for Sale" was released in the
United Kingdomon December 4, 1964. On December 12, it began a 46-week-long run in the charts, and a week later knocked "A Hard Day's Night" off the top of the charts. After seven weeks, the album's time at the top seemed over, but "Beatles for Sale" made a comeback on February 27, 1965, by dethroning The Rolling Stonesand returning to the top spot for a week. The album's run in the charts was not complete either; on March 7, 1987, almost 23 years after its original release, "Beatles for Sale" re-entered the charts briefly for a period of two weeks.
The album design
The downbeat mood of the songs on "Beatles for Sale" was reflected in the album cover, which shows the unsmiling, weary-looking The Beatles in an
autumnscene photographed at Hyde Park, London. McCartney recalled: "The album cover was rather nice: Robert Freeman's photos. It was easy. We did a session lasting a couple of hours and had some reasonable pictures to use.... The photographer would always be able to say to us, 'Just show up,' because we all wore the same kind of gear all the time. Black stuff; white shirts and big black scarves."
This was the first The Beatles album to feature a gatefold cover (the next would be "
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band", in 1967). The photo inside the gatefold cover showed the Beatles standing in front of a montage of photos, which some have assumed was the source of inspiration for the cover of "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band", though there is no evidence for this.
The sleeve notes featured an observation by
Derek Tayloron what the album would mean to people of the future:
There's priceless history between these covers. When, in a generation or so, a
radioactive, cigar-smoking child, picnicking on Saturn, asks you what The Beatle affair was all about, don't try to explain all about the long hair and the screams! Just play them a few tracks from this album and he'll probably understand. The kids of AD2000 will draw from the music much the same sense of well being and warmth as we do today.
The concurrent The Beatles release in the
United States, " Beatles '65," included eight songs from "Beatles for Sale," omitting the tracks "Kansas City/Hey, Hey, Hey, Hey," "Eight Days a Week" (a #1 hit single in the U.S.), "What You're Doing," "Words of Love," "Every Little Thing," and "I Don't Want to Spoil the Party" (flipside to Eight Days a Week, it reached #35 in the U.S. and it would hit #1 on the U.S. Country chart for Rosanne Cashwhen she remade it in 1989). In turn, it added the track "I'll Be Back" from the British release of "A Hard Day's Night" and the single "I Feel Fine"/"She's A Woman." The six omitted tracks were finally released in America on " Beatles VI" in 1965. "Beatles '65" was released eleven days after "Beatles for Sale" (and just ten days before the Christmasholiday) and became the fastest-selling album of the year in the United States.
Although the LP was released with an identical track listing to the UK version, EMI Australia changed the cover art. The reason for this was due to a union rule stating that either new had to be made for overseas albums or the original cover was to be photographed. John Lennon complained to EMI Australia at a meeting about the changes, but the cover remained the same until the album's release on compact disc in 1988. Miles 2002.]
According to Mark Lewisohn [Lewisohn, Mark. The Complete Beatles Recording Sessions: The Official Story of the Abbey Road Years (1962-1970). ISBN 0-681-03189-1]
John Lennon: lead, harmony and background vocals; rhythm and acoustic guitars; harmonica, piano; tambourineand handclaps.
George Harrison: background vocals; lead vocals on Everybodys trying to be my baby, lead and acoustic guitars; african drumon "Mr. Moonlight" and handclaps.
Paul McCartney: lead, harmony and background vocals; acoustic and bass guitar; piano and hammond organand handclaps.
Ringo Starr: drums, tambourine, tympani, packing caseand bongos; lead vocals on "Honey don´t".
George Martin: piano and producer.
*John, Paul and Martin played the same piano on "Rock 'n' roll music".
*Robert Freeman: photography.
Derek Taylor: liner notes.
All songs credited to
John Lennonand Paul McCartney, except where noted.
#"No Reply" – 2:15
I'm a Loser" – 2:31
Baby's in Black" – 2:02
Rock and Roll Music" ( Chuck Berry) – 2:30
I'll Follow the Sun" – 1:46
#"Mr. Moonlight" (
Roy Lee Johnson) – 2:33
#"Kansas City/Hey, Hey, Hey, Hey" (
Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, Richard Penniman) – 2:33
- "Eight Days a Week" – 2:43
Words of Love" ( Buddy Holly) – 2:12
Honey Don't" ( Carl Perkins) – 2:55
#"Every Little Thing" – 2:01
I Don't Want to Spoil the Party" – 2:33
What You're Doing" – 2:30
Everybody's Trying to Be My Baby" ( Carl Perkins) – 2:23
* Miles, Barry. "The Beatles: A Diary". Omnibus Press, 2002 ISBN 0711963150
*Badman, Keith. "The Beatles Off The Record". Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-7985-5.
*"The Beatles Anthology". Chronicle Books, 2000.
* [http://www.beatles-discography.com/uk-albums.html#beatlesforsale "beatles-discography.com - UK albums"] . Retrieved 25 January, 2005.
* [http://www.beatles-discography.com/us-albums.html#beatles65 "beatles-discography.com - US albums"] . Retrieved 25 January, 2005.
* [http://www.geocities.com/~beatleboy1/dba04sale.html "The Beatles Ultimate Experience"] . Retrieved 25 January, 2005.
*Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=Adq63tr29kl4x "Beatles for Sale > Overview"] . Retrieved Nov. 7, 2005.
*Lewisohn, Mark. "The Complete Beatles Recording Sessions: The Official Story of the Abbey Road years 1962-1970". Hamlyn, 1988.
*Noyer, Paul Du. [http://www.q4music.com/nav?page=q4music.artist.review&fixture_review=117562&fixture_artist=144975 "The Beatles A Hard Day's Night"] . Retrieved Nov. 7, 2005.
*Rowley, David (2002). "Beatles for Sale". Mainstream Publishing. ISBN 1-84018-567-8.
*Ruhlmann, William. [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=33:alkxi3zkbb69 "I Don't Want to Spoil the Party"] . Retrieved Nov. 7, 2005.
*Unterberger, Richie. [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=33:bdtvadski8w2 "Baby's In Black"] . Retrieved Nov. 7, 2005.
*Unterberger, Richie. [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=33:hm6ftm3wkl1x "Eight Days A Week"] . Retrieved Nov. 7, 2005.
*Unterberger, Richie. [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=33:3m1tk60xwkmf "Every Little Thing"] . Retrieved Nov. 7, 2005.
*Unterberger, Richie. [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=33:4dd2vwbia9tk "I'll Follow the Sun"] . Retrieved Nov. 7, 2005.
*Unterberger, Richie. [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=33:vi7m96bohep7 "I'm A Loser"] . Retrieved Nov. 7, 2005.
*Unterberger, Richie. [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=33:3j67gjer26iv "No Reply"] . Retrieved Nov. 7, 2005.
*Unterberger, Richie. [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=33:ejuf623o71q0 "What You're Doing"] . Retrieved Nov. 7, 2005.
* [http://www.geocities.com/~beatleboy1/dba04sale.html Beatles comments on each song]
* [http://www.norwegianwood.org/beatles/disko/uklp/sale.htm Recording data and notes on mono/stereo mixes and remixes]
before = "The Rolling Stones" by
The Rolling Stones
title = Australian Kent Music Report number-one album
February 6- April 23 1965
after = "The Sound of Music (soundtrack)"
Richard Rodgersand Oscar Hammerstein II
- "Eight Days a Week" – 2:43
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