Juba II


Juba II

Juba II ("Iuba" in Latin; "Ιóβας (Ιóβα)" or "Ιουβας" in Greek)Roller, Duane W. (2003) "The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene" "Routledge (UK)". p. 1-3. ISBN 0-415-30596-9.] or Juba II of Numidia (reigned 25 BC - 23 AD) was a king of Numidia and then later moved to Mauretania. His first wife was Cleopatra Selene II, the last Ptolemaic Monarch and daughter to Greek Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman triumvir Mark Antony.

Early life

Juba II was the only child and heir to King Juba I of Numidia. His mother is unknown. In 46 BC, his father committed suicide as he was defeated by Julius Caesar (in Thapsus, North Africa) and Numidia became a Roman Province. His father was an ally to the Roman General Pompey. Juba II claimed to be a descendant to the sister of General Hannibal (Scol. Lucan, "Pharsalia" 8.287).

Juba II was brought to Rome by Julius Caesar and took part in Caesar’s triumphal procession. In Rome, he learned Latin and Greek, became romanized and was granted Roman citizenship. Through dedication to his studies, he is said to have become one of Rome's best educated citizens, and by age 20 he wrote one his first works entitled "Roman Archaeology". He was raised by Julius Caesar and later by his great-nephew Octavius (future Emperor Caesar Augustus). Juba II while growing up, accompanied Octavius on military campaigns, gaining valuable experience as a leader. He fought alongside Octavius in the battle of Actium in 31 BC. Throughout the years, Juba II and Octavius became lifelong friends.

Restored to the throne

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC. Juba II established Numidia as an ally of Rome. Juba II would become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II, giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen.

Mauretania

When they moved to Mauretania, they renamed their new capital to "Caesaria" (modern Cherchell, Algeria). The city was named in honor of Augustus. The construction and sculpture projects at Caesaria and another city Volubilis, display a rich mixture of Egyptian, Greek and Roman architectural styles.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. The Kingdom of Mauretania was of great importance to the Roman Empire. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean, particularly with Spain and Italy. Mauretania exported fish, grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process. [C.Michael Hogan, "Mogador: Promontory Fort", The Megalithic Portal, ed Andy Burnham, November 2, 2007 [http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=17926] ] Tingis, a town at the Pillars of Hercules (modern Strait of Gibraltar) became a major trade centre. In Gades, (modern Cádiz) and Carthago Nova (modern Cartagena) Spain, Juba II was appointed by Augustus as an honorary Duovir. A Duovir was a chief magistrate of a Roman colony or town, most probably involving with trade and was also a Patronus Colonaie.

The value and quality of Mauretanian coins became distinguished. The Greek historian Plutarch describes him as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar (a grandson of Augustus), as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean.

In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler and Juba II died in 23. Juba II was buried alongside his first wife in their mausoleum. Ptolemy then became the sole ruler of Mauretania.

Marriages and children

* First marriage to Greek Ptolemaic princess Cleopatra Selene II (40 BC-6). Their children were Cleopatra of Mauretania a possible daughter, Ptolemy of Mauretania (1 BC-40) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born 5).

* Second marriage to princess of Cappadocia Glaphyra. Glaphyra’s first husband was prince Alexandros (a son of King of Judea Herod the Great), Alexandros was executed in 7 BC. Glaphyra married Juba II either in 6 or 7. Glaphyra fell in love with King of Judea Herod Archelaus (another son of Herod the Great). Glaphyra ended her brief marriage to Juba II and divorced him to marry Herod Archelaus. Juba II had no children with Glaphyra.

Author

Juba II wrote a number of books in Greek and Latin on history, natural history, geography, grammar, painting and theatre. His guide to Arabia became a bestseller in Rome. Only fragments of his work survived. He collected a substantial library on a wide variety of topics, which no doubt complemented his own prolific output. Pliny the Elder refers to him as an authority 65 times in the "Natural History" and in Athens, a monument was built in recognition of his writings.

Natural history

According to Pliny the Younger, Juba II sent an expedition to the Canary Islands and Madeira. [O'Brien, Sally and Sarah Andrews. (2004) "Lonely Planet Canary Islands" "Lonely Planet". p. 59. ISBN 1-74059-374-X.] Juba II had given the Canary Islands that name because he found particularly ferocious dogs ("canaria") on the island.

Among his discoveries there is a medicinal plant nowadays called "Euphorbia regisjubae" ("‘King Juba's euphorbia’", a species of the spurge family). The Latin name of the Chile Cocopalm or Honey Palm is "‘Iubaea chilensis‘", called after him due to his interests and writings on botany. The sap of the Chile Cocopalm is used in the making of wine and sugar.

References

ources

* [http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/1744.html Juba II] king of Mauretania -Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9044063/Juba-II Juba II] Encyclopaedia Britannica
* Microsoft Encarta 2002 Encyclopaedia
* emazighen.com/article.php3?_article=41
* http://www.lunalucifera.com/Mauretania/index.html


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  • Juba II — (en latín Iuba, en griego Ιóβας (Ιóβα) o Ιουβας) (52 ó 50 a. C. 23 d. C.), fue rey de Numidia y posteriormente de Mauritania. Su primera esposa fue Cleopatra Selene (II), la última descendiente de la Dinastía …   Wikipedia Español

  • Juba — may refer to: People * Juba I of Numidia (85 BC–46 BC) * Juba II of Numidia (52 BC 23) * Juba of Mauretania (2nd century) * Titus Desticius Juba (3rd century) * Master Juba (1825–1852), stage name for William Henry Lane * Jussi Tuomola (b. 1965) …   Wikipedia

  • Juba — puede referirse a: Personajes Juba I, rey de Numidia (85 a. C. – 46 a. C.). Juba II, rey de Numidia y Mauritania (52 a. C. – 23 d. C.). Juba de Mauritania (siglo II). Titus Desticius Juba (siglo III). Master Juba (1825–1852), nombre artístico de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Juba I. — Juba I. Juba I. († 46 v. Chr. bei Cirta) war ein König von Numidien. Juba regierte um 60 v. Chr. bis 46 v. Chr. das Königreich Numidien in Nordafrika, das sich unter der Vorherrschaft von Rom befand. Bei Ausbruch des römischen Bürgerkriegs… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Juba I — Juba Ier de Numidie Juba Ier Juba Ier (en berbère Yuba, tifinagh en tifinagh …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Juba I — Juba I. Juba I de Numidia (85 a. C. 46 a. C.) fue rey de Numidia desde el 60 a. C. al 46 a. C. Consiguió su derecho al trono por favor de Pompeyo y era hijo de Hiempsal II de Numidia …   Wikipedia Español

  • juba — ju ba, n. A dance developed by slaves in the U. S., having a lively tune and accompanied by a complex rhythmic clapping, and by slapping the thighs. [PJC] Wild crap shooters with a whoop and a call Danced the juba in their gambling hall. Vachel… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Juba [2] — Juba, König von Numidien, Sohn Hiempsals II., eines Urenkels des Masinissa, stand im Kampf zwischen Cäsar und Pompejus auf der Seite des letztern, der seinen von Marius verjagten Vater wieder eingesetzt hatte. Als Cäsars Legat Gajus Scribonius… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • juba — ju ba, n.; pl. {jub[ae]} ( b[=e]). [L., a mane.] 1. (Zo[ o]l.) The mane of an animal. [1913 Webster] 2. (Bot.) A loose panicle, the axis of which falls to pieces, as in certain grasses. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Juba — Juba, 1) König von Numidien, Sohn Hiempsals II., wurde, nachdem sein Vater beim Ausbruch des Bürgerkrieges zwischen Marius u. Sulla sich auf die Seite des Letzteren gestellt hatte, der Anhänger des Pompejus u. Cäsars Feind. Sein Vater, welcher… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon


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