Ulmus minor subsp. minor

Taxobox
status = LC
name = "Ulmus minor" subsp. "minor"



image_caption = Smooth-leafed Elm at East Coker, Somerset, 2008. Photo: Andrew Brookes, University of Portsmouth
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Rosales
familia = Ulmaceae
genus = "Ulmus"
species = "U. minor"
subspecies = "U. minor" subsp. "minor"
trinomial = "Ulmus minor" subsp. "minor"
trinomial_authority = Richens
synonyms =
*"Ulmus campestris" var. "laevis" Spach, Planch.
*"Ulmus campestris" var. "glabra" Hartig, Planch., Aschers. & Graebn.
*"Ulmus carpinifolia" Gled.
*"Ulmus foliaceae" Gilibert, Sarg.
*"Ulmus glabra" (not Huds.), Ley, Mill., Smith, Loudon, Rchb., Wilkomm, C. K. Schneid.
*"Ulmus nitens" Moench

"Ulmus minor" subsp. "minor" Richens, the Smooth-leafed Elm or Narrow-leafed Elm is a subspecies of the Field Elm native to southern Europe and Asia Minor (including Iran).

Description

A deciduous tree that once commonly grew < 35 m tall, its Latin synonym "carpinifolia" alluding to the superficial similarity of the leaves to those of Hornbeam "Carpinus sp.", while the common names contrast the smooth upper surface and narrowness of the leaves with those of the Wych Elm, which are rough and broad Stace, C. A. (1997). "New Flora of the British Isles", 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press. ] White, J. & More, D. (2003). "Trees of Britain & Northern Europe". Cassell's, London. ] . The apetalous wind-pollinated flowers and fruit (samarae) are very similar to those of the species.

Pests and diseases

The Smooth-leafed Elm is generally susceptible to Dutch elm disease, but is genetically a highly variable tree (see Cultivation).

Cultivation

Many mature specimens still survive in England, notably in East Anglia Gibbs, J. N., Brasier, C. M., Webber, J. F. (1994) Dutch elm disease in Britain. "Forestry Commission Research Note No. 252."] . This should not imply an innate resistance, as many other factors are involved in the field [http://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/HCOU-4U4JCL] . The tree is believed to have been introduced to northern Europe, including England, by Man during the Bronze Age Richens, R. H. (1983). "Elm". Cambridge University Press.] . As the tree suckers readily, its genetic resources are not considered endangered Collin, E., Bilger, I., Eriksson, G. & Turok, J. (2000). The conservation of elm genetic resources in Europe, in Dunn, C. P., (Ed.) (2000) "The Elms: Breeding, Conservation and Disease Management". Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, USA. ] .

Notable trees

The largest recorded tree in the UK grew at Amwell, Herts., measuring 40 m in height and 228 cm d.b.h. in 1911 Elwes, H. J. & Henry, A. (1913). "The Trees of Great Britain & Ireland". Vol. VII. pp 1848&ndash;1929. Private publication, Edinburgh. [http://fax.libs.uga.edu/QK488xE4/7tgbi/] ] . The two largest known trees surviving in 2008 are at Termitts Farm in Essex (25 m high, 145 d.b.h.) and Melchbourne, Beds., (147 cm d.b.h.) Tree Register Of the British Isles (TROBI) [http://www.treeregister.org/treecollections/] ] .

A tree over 650 years old survives in the centre of Biscarrosse south of Bordeaux. Isolated amid the heaths and pine forests of the Landes, it has remained undiscovered by disease-carrying beetles. The tree is a wreck; the trunk, almost 3m in diameter, completely hollow and supporting just a few heavily pollarded branches [http://www.pijouls.com/albums/alblormedebiscarrosse/page_01.htm] .

Cultivars

Numerous cultivars have been raised in Europe since the 18th century, although most are now probably extinct owing to Dutch elm disease:
*Albo-dentata, Amplifolia, Biltii, Concavaefolia, Cucullata, Dijkwel, Erecta, Folia Alba-punctata, Hoersholmiensis, Holmstruph, Hunnybunii, Koopmannii, Laciniata, Lanuginosa, Latifolia, Microphylla Purpurea, Microphylla Rubra, Pendula, Picturata, Propendens, Purpurascens, Reverti, Rueppellii, Schuurhoek, Silvery Gem, Sowerbyi, Tortuosa, Umbraculifera, Umbraculifera Gracilis, Variegata (Variegated Smooth-leafed Elm), Virgata

Hybrids

The tree's natural range generously overlaps that of Wych Elm "Ulmus glabra" to the north, and readily hybridizes with it to produce the so-called 'Dutch Elm' "Ulmus x hollandica", while in Spain it has also naturally hybridized with the Siberian Elm "U. pumila" introduced in the 16th century.
*"Ulmus × hollandica", "Ulmus × viminalis".

Hybrid cultivars

The tree has featured strongly in artificial hybridization experiments in Europe and to a lesser extent in the USA. Most of the European research was based at Wageningen in the Netherlands until 1992, whence a number of hybrid cultivars have been commercially released since 1960. The earlier trees were raised in response to the initial Dutch elm disease pandemic that afflicted Europe after the First World War, and were to prove vulnerable to the much more virulent strain of the disease that arrived in the late 1960s. However, further research eventually produced several trees immune to disease that were released after 1989 Heybroek, H. (1993). The Dutch elm breeding program. In Sticklen, M. & Sherald, J. (Eds). "Dutch Elm Disease Research. Cellular and Molecular Approaches". Springer-Verlag, New York.] .

*Alba, Angustifolia, Arno, Aurea, Belgica (Belgian Elm), Cinerea, Clusius, Columella, Commelin, Dampieri, Dauvessei, Daveyi (Davey Elm), Den Haag, Dumont, Eleganto-Variegata, Fiorente, Fjerrestad, Frontier, Fulva, Gaujardii, Groeneveld, Haarlemensis, Hillieri, Homestead, Lobel, Major (Dutch Elm), Macrophylla Aurea, Marginata, Microphylla, Modiolina, Muscaviensis, Nanguen (LUTECE), Pioneer, Plantyn, Plinio , Pulverulenta, Recerta, San Zanobi, Scampstoniensis, Serpentina, Smithii (Downton Elm), Superba, Tricolor, Urban, Vegeta (Huntingdon Elm), Vegeta (Chichester Elm), Virens (Kidbrook Elm), Viscosa, Warnoux (VADA), Wredei (Golden Elm), Ypreau.

Accessions

North America

*Brooklyn Botanic Garden [http://www.bbg.org/cgi/bgbase/search.cgi] , New York, acc. nos. 350001, X02487 (as "U. carpinifolia").
*Dawes Arboretum [http://www.dawesarb.org/collectionsgardens/plant-search.asp] , Newark, Ohio. 3 trees, listed as "U. carpinifolia", no acc. details available.

Europe

*Brighton & Hove City Council, NCCPG elm collection holders.
*Royal Botanic Garden, Wakehurst Place, as "U. carpinifolia" Gled., acc. nos. 1975-6201, 1977-6682, collected by Melville.

Nurseries

North America

None known

Europe

*Eggleston Hall Gardens, [http://egglestonhallgardens.com]
*Firecrest Tree & Shrub Nursery, [http://www.firecrest.org.uk]
*Trees & Hedges, [http://treesandhedges.co.uk]

Australasia

*Established Tree Planters Pty. Ltd., Wandin, Victoria, Australia. [http://establishedtrees.com.au] , as "U. carpinifolia".

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ulmus minor subsp. angustifolia — Cornish Elm, Finistere, France, in 1996. Photo: Eric Collin, Cemagref Scientific classification Kingdom …   Wikipedia

  • Ulmus minor subsp. minor 'Variegata' — Ulmus minor subsp. minor Details Cultivar Variegata Ori …   Wikipedia

  • Ulmus minor subsp. sarniensis 'Microphylla Pendula' — Ulmus minor subsp. sarniensis Details Cultivar Microphylla Pendula Origin Europe The Guernsey Elm Ulmus minor var. sarniensis forma Microphylla Pendula was first listed by Kirchner …   Wikipedia

  • Ulmus minor subsp. sarniensis — Taxobox status = LC name = Ulmus minor subsp. sarniensis image caption = Guernsey Elms, Amsterdam. Photo: Ronnie Nijboer, Bonte Hoek kwekerijen. regnum = Plantae divisio = Magnoliophyta classis = Magnoliopsida ordo = Rosales familia = Ulmaceae… …   Wikipedia

  • Ulmus minor — Taxobox status = LC name = Ulmus minor regnum = Plantae divisio = Magnoliophyta classis = Magnoliopsida ordo = Rosales familia = Ulmaceae genus = Ulmus species = U. minor binomial = Ulmus minor binomial authority = Mill. synonyms = * Ulmus… …   Wikipedia

  • Ulmus-Minor — Feld Ulme Feld Ulme (Ulmus minor) Systematik Unterklasse: Rosenähnliche (Rosidae) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ulmus minor — Feld Ulme Feld Ulme (Ulmus minor) Systematik Unterklasse: Rosenähnliche (Rosidae) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ulmus minor subsp angustifolia — Taxobox status = LC name = Ulmus minor subsp. angustifolia regnum = Plantae image caption = Cornish Elm, Finistere, France, in 1996. Photo: Eric Collin, Cemagref divisio = Magnoliophyta classis = Magnoliopsida ordo = Rosales familia = Ulmaceae… …   Wikipedia

  • Ulmus minor subsp. minor 'Hoersholmiensis' — Infobox Cultivar name = Ulmus minor subsp. minor image caption = Hoersholmiensis , Amsterdam. Photo: Ronnie Nijboer, Bonte Hoek kwekerijen. cultivar = Hoersholmiensis origin = Hørsholm, DenmarkThe Smooth leaved Elm Ulmus minor subsp. minor… …   Wikipedia

  • Ulmus minor subsp. minor 'Umbraculifera' — Infobox Cultivar | name = Ulmus minor subsp. minor cultivar = Umbraculifera image caption = Umbraculifera , Netherlands. Photo: Ronnie Nijboer, Bonte Hoek kwekerijen origin = IranThe Smooth leaved Elm Ulmus minor var. minor cultivar Umbraculifera …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.