Ulmus minor subsp. minor
status = LC
name = "Ulmus minor" subsp. "minor"
image_caption = Smooth-leafed Elm at
East Coker, Somerset, 2008. Photo: Andrew Brookes, University of Portsmouth
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
genus = "
species = "U. minor"
subspecies = "U. minor" subsp. "minor"
trinomial = "Ulmus minor" subsp. "minor"
trinomial_authority = Richens
*"Ulmus campestris" var. "laevis" Spach, Planch.
*"Ulmus campestris" var. "glabra" Hartig, Planch., Aschers. & Graebn.
*"Ulmus carpinifolia" Gled.
*"Ulmus foliaceae" Gilibert, Sarg.
*"Ulmus glabra" (not Huds.), Ley, Mill., Smith, Loudon, Rchb., Wilkomm, C. K. Schneid.
*"Ulmus nitens" Moench
"Ulmus minor" subsp. "minor" Richens, the Smooth-leafed Elm or Narrow-leafed Elm is a
subspeciesof the Field Elmnative to southern Europeand Asia Minor(including Iran).
deciduous treethat once commonly grew < 35 m tall, its Latin synonym "carpinifolia" alluding to the superficial similarity of the leaves to those of Hornbeam"Carpinus sp.", while the common names contrast the smooth upper surface and narrowness of the leaves with those of the Wych Elm, which are rough and broad Stace, C. A. (1997). "New Flora of the British Isles", 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press. ] White, J. & More, D. (2003). "Trees of Britain & Northern Europe". Cassell's, London. ] . The apetalouswind-pollinated flowers and fruit ( samarae) are very similar to those of the species.
Pests and diseases
The Smooth-leafed Elm is generally susceptible to
Dutch elm disease, but is genetically a highly variable tree (see Cultivation).
Many mature specimens still survive in England, notably in East Anglia Gibbs, J. N., Brasier, C. M., Webber, J. F. (1994) Dutch elm disease in Britain. "Forestry Commission Research Note No. 252."] . This should not imply an innate resistance, as many other factors are involved in the field [http://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/HCOU-4U4JCL] . The tree is believed to have been introduced to northern
Europe, including England, by Man during the Bronze AgeRichens, R. H. (1983). "Elm". Cambridge University Press.] . As the tree suckers readily, its genetic resources are not considered endangered Collin, E., Bilger, I., Eriksson, G. & Turok, J. (2000). The conservation of elm genetic resources in Europe, in Dunn, C. P., (Ed.) (2000) "The Elms: Breeding, Conservation and Disease Management". Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, USA. ] .
The largest recorded tree in the
UKgrew at Amwell, Herts., measuring 40 m in height and 228 cm d.b.h.in 1911 Elwes, H. J. & Henry, A. (1913). "The Trees of Great Britain & Ireland". Vol. VII. pp 1848–1929. Private publication, Edinburgh. [http://fax.libs.uga.edu/QK488xE4/7tgbi/] ] . The two largest known trees surviving in 2008 are at Termitts Farm in Essex(25 m high, 145 d.b.h.) and Melchbourne, Beds., (147 cm d.b.h.) Tree Register Of the British Isles (TROBI) [http://www.treeregister.org/treecollections/] ] .
A tree over 650 years old survives in the centre of
Biscarrossesouth of Bordeaux. Isolated amid the heaths and pine forests of the Landes, it has remained undiscovered by disease-carrying beetles. The tree is a wreck; the trunk, almost 3m in diameter, completely hollow and supporting just a few heavily pollarded branches [http://www.pijouls.com/albums/alblormedebiscarrosse/page_01.htm] .
Numerous cultivars have been raised in Europe since the 18th century, although most are now probably extinct owing to Dutch elm disease:
*Albo-dentata, Amplifolia, Biltii, Concavaefolia, Cucullata, Dijkwel, Erecta, Folia Alba-punctata, Hoersholmiensis, Holmstruph, Hunnybunii, Koopmannii, Laciniata, Lanuginosa, Latifolia, Microphylla Purpurea, Microphylla Rubra, Pendula, Picturata, Propendens, Purpurascens, Reverti, Rueppellii, Schuurhoek, Silvery Gem, Sowerbyi, Tortuosa, Umbraculifera, Umbraculifera Gracilis, Variegata (Variegated Smooth-leafed Elm), Virgata
The tree's natural range generously overlaps that of
Wych Elm"Ulmus glabra" to the north, and readily hybridizes with it to produce the so-called 'Dutch Elm' " Ulmus x hollandica", while in Spainit has also naturally hybridized with the Siberian Elm"U. pumila" introduced in the 16th century.
Ulmus × hollandica", " Ulmus × viminalis".
The tree has featured strongly in artificial hybridization experiments in Europe and to a lesser extent in the
USA. Most of the European research was based at Wageningenin the Netherlandsuntil 1992, whence a number of hybrid cultivars have been commercially released since 1960. The earlier trees were raised in response to the initial Dutch elm diseasepandemic that afflicted Europe after the First World War, and were to prove vulnerable to the much more virulent strain of the disease that arrived in the late 1960s. However, further research eventually produced several trees immune to disease that were released after 1989 Heybroek, H. (1993). The Dutch elm breeding program. In Sticklen, M. & Sherald, J. (Eds). "Dutch Elm Disease Research. Cellular and Molecular Approaches". Springer-Verlag, New York.] .
*Alba, Angustifolia, Arno, Aurea,
Belgica (Belgian Elm), Cinerea, Clusius, Columella, Commelin, Dampieri, Dauvessei, Daveyi (Davey Elm), Den Haag, Dumont, Eleganto-Variegata, Fiorente, Fjerrestad, Frontier, Fulva, Gaujardii, Groeneveld, Haarlemensis, Hillieri, Homestead, Lobel, Major (Dutch Elm), Macrophylla Aurea, Marginata, Microphylla, Modiolina, Muscaviensis, Nanguen (LUTECE), Pioneer, Plantyn, Plinio , Pulverulenta, Recerta, San Zanobi, Scampstoniensis, Serpentina, Smithii (Downton Elm), Superba, Tricolor, Urban, Vegeta (Huntingdon Elm), Vegeta (Chichester Elm), Virens (Kidbrook Elm), Viscosa, Warnoux (VADA), Wredei (Golden Elm), Ypreau.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden[http://www.bbg.org/cgi/bgbase/search.cgi] , New York, acc. nos. 350001, X02487 (as "U. carpinifolia").
Dawes Arboretum[http://www.dawesarb.org/collectionsgardens/plant-search.asp] , Newark, Ohio. 3 trees, listed as "U. carpinifolia", no acc. details available.
Brighton & HoveCity Council, NCCPGelm collection holders.
Royal Botanic Garden, Wakehurst Place, as "U. carpinifolia" Gled., acc. nos. 1975-6201, 1977-6682, collected by Melville.
*Eggleston Hall Gardens, [http://egglestonhallgardens.com]
*Firecrest Tree & Shrub Nursery, [http://www.firecrest.org.uk]
*Trees & Hedges, [http://treesandhedges.co.uk]
*Established Tree Planters Pty. Ltd., Wandin, Victoria, Australia. [http://establishedtrees.com.au] , as "U. carpinifolia".
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